YACC(1)                 NetBSD General Commands Manual                 YACC(1)


NAME
yacc -- an LALR(1) parser generator
SYNOPSIS
yacc [-BdgilLPrtvVy] [-b file_prefix] [-o output_file] [-p symbol_prefix] filename
DESCRIPTION
yacc reads the grammar specification in the file filename and generates an LALR(1) parser for it. The parsers consist of a set of LALR(1) pars- ing tables and a driver routine written in the C programming language. yacc normally writes the parse tables and the driver routine to the file y.tab.c. The following options are available: -b file_prefix The -b option changes the prefix prepended to the out- put file names to the string denoted by file_prefix. The default prefix is the character y. -B Create a backtracking parser (compile-type configura- tion for yacc). -d The -d option causes the header file y.tab.h to be written. It contains #define's for the token identi- fiers. -g The -g option causes a graphical description of the generated LALR(1) parser to be written to the file y.dot in graphviz format, ready to be processed by dot(1). -i The -i option causes a supplementary header file y.tab.i to be written. It contains extern declarations and supplementary #define's as needed to map the con- ventional yacc yy-prefixed names to whatever the -p option may specify. The code file, e.g., y.tab.c is modified to #include this file as well as the y.tab.h file, enforcing consistent usage of the symbols defined in those files. The supplementary header file makes it simpler to separate compilation of lex- and yacc-files. -l If the -l option is not specified, yacc will insert #line directives in the generated code. The #line directives let the C compiler relate errors in the gen- erated code to the user's original code. If the -l option is specified, yacc will not insert the #line directives. #line directives specified by the user will be retained. -L Enable position processing, e.g., ``%locations'' (com- pile-type configuration for yacc). -o output_file Specify the filename for the parser file. If this option is not given, the output filename is the file prefix concatenated with the file suffix, e.g. y.tab.c. This overrides the -b option. -P The -P options instructs yacc to create a reentrant parser, like ``%pure-parser'' does. -p symbol_prefix The -p option changes the prefix prepended to yacc-gen- erated symbols to the string denoted by symbol_prefix. The default prefix is the string yy. -r The -r option causes yacc to produce separate files for code and tables. The code file is named y.code.c, and the tables file is named y.tab.c. The prefix ``y''. can be overridden using the -b option. -s Suppress ``#define'' statements generated for string literals in a ``%token'' statement, to more closely match original yacc behavior. Normally when yacc sees a line such as ``%token OP_ADD ADD'' it notices that the quoted ``ADD'' is a valid C identifier, and generates a #define not only for OP_ADD, but for ADD as well, e.g., #define OP_ADD 257 #define ADD 258 The original yacc does not generate the second ``#define''. The -s option suppresses this ``#define''. IEEE Std 1003.1 (``POSIX.1'') documents only names and numbers for ``%token'', though the original yacc and bison(1) also accept string literals. -t The -t option changes the preprocessor directives gen- erated by yacc so that debugging statements will be incorporated in the compiled code. -V The -V option prints the version number to the standard output. -v The -v option causes a human-readable description of the generated parser to be written to the file y.output. -y yacc ignores this option, which bison(1) supports for ostensible POSIX compatibility.
EXTENSIONS
yacc provides some extensions for compatibility with bison(1) and other implementations of yacc. The ``%destructor'' and ``%locations'' features are available only if yacc has been configured and compiled to support the back-tracking functionality. The remaining features are always available: %destructor { code } symbol+ Defines code that is invoked when a symbol is automatically discarded during error recovery. This code can be used to reclaim dynamically allocated memory associated with the corresponding semantic value for cases where user actions cannot manage the memory explicitly. On encountering a parse error, the generated parser discards symbols on the stack and input tokens until it reaches a state that will allow pars- ing to continue. This error recovery approach results in a memory leak if the ``YYSTYPE'' value is, or contains, pointers to dynamically allo- cated memory. The bracketed code is invoked whenever the parser discards one of the symbols. Within code, ``$$'' or ``$<tag>$'' designates the semantic value associated with the discarded symbol, and ``@$'' designates its location (see ``%locations'' directive). A per-symbol destructor is defined by listing a grammar symbol in symbol+. A per-type destructor is defined by listing a semantic type tag (e.g., ``<some_tag>'') in symbol+; in this case, the parser will invoke code whenever it discards any grammar symbol that has that seman- tic type tag, unless that symbol has its own per-symbol destructor. Two categories of default destructor are supported that are invoked when discarding any grammar symbol that has no per-symbol and no per-type destructor: The code for ``<*>'' is used for grammar symbols that have an explicitly declared semantic type tag (via ``%type''); the code for ``<>'' is used for grammar symbols that have no declared semantic type tag. %expect number Tell yacc the expected number of shift/reduce con- flicts. That makes it only report the number if it differs. %expect-rr number Tell yacc the expected number of reduce/reduce con- flicts. That makes it only report the number if it differs. This is (unlike bison(1)) allowable in LALR(1) parsers. %locations Tell yacc to enable management of position informa- tion associated with each token, provided by the lexer in the global variable yylloc, similar to management of semantic value information provided in yylval. As for semantic values, locations can be referenced within actions using @$ to refer to the location of the left hand side symbol, and @N (N an integer) to refer to the location of one of the right hand side symbols. Also as for semantic values, when a rule is matched, a default action is used the compute the location represented by @$ as the beginning of the first symbol and the end of the last symbol in the right hand side of the rule. This default computation can be overridden by explicit assignment to @$ in a rule action. The type of yylloc is YYLTYPE, which is defined by default as: typedef struct YYLTYPE { int first_line; int first_column; int last_line; int last_column; } YYLTYPE; YYLTYPE can be redefined by the user (YYLTYPE_IS_DEFINED must be defined, to inhibit the default) in the declarations section of the specifica- tion file. As in bison(1), the macro YYLLOC_DEFAULT is invoked each time a rule is matched to calculate a position for the left hand side of the rule, before the associated action is executed; this macro can be redefined by the user. This directive adds a YYLTYPE parameter to yyerror(). If the ``%pure-parser'' directive is present, a YYLTYPE parameter is added to yylex() calls. %lex-param { argument-declaration } By default, the lexer accepts no parameters, e.g., yylex(). Use this directive to add parameter declara- tions for your customized lexer. %parse-param { argument-declaration } By default, the parser accepts no parameters, e.g., yyparse(). Use this directive to add parameter decla- rations for your customized parser. %pure-parser Most variables (other than yydebug and yynerrs) are allocated on the stack within yyparse(), making the parser reasonably reentrant. %token-table Make the parser's names for tokens available in the yytname array. However, yacc yacc does not predefine ``$end'', ``$error'' or ``$undefined'' in this array.
PORTABILITY
According to Robert Corbett: Berkeley Yacc is an LALR(1) parser generator. Berkeley Yacc has been made as compatible as possible with AT&T Yacc. Berkeley Yacc can accept any input specification that conforms to the AT&T Yacc documentation. Specifications that take advantage of undocumented features of AT&T Yacc will probably be rejected. The rationale in documents some features of AT&T yacc which are no longer required for POSIX compliance. That said, you may be interested in reusing grammar files with some other implementation which is not strictly compatible with AT&T yacc. For instance, there is bison(1). Here are a few differences: yacc accepts an equals mark preceding the left curly brace of an action (as in the origi- nal grammar file ftp.y): | STAT CRLF = { statcmd(); } yacc and bison(1) emit code in different order, and in particular bison(1) makes forward reference to common functions such as yylex(), yyparse() and yyerror() without providing prototypes. bison(1) support for ``%expect'' is broken in more than one release. For best results using bison(1), delete that directive. bison(1) no equivalent for some of 's command-line options, relying on directives embedded in the grammar file. bison(1) -y option does not affect bison's lack of support for features of AT&T yacc which were deemed obsolescent. yacc accepts multiple parameters with ``%lex-param'' and ``%parse-param'' in two forms {type1 name1} {type2 name2} ... {type1 name1, type2 name2 ...} bison(1) accepts the latter (though undocumented), but depending on the release may generate bad code. Like bison(1), yacc will add parameters specified via ``%parse-param'' to yyparse(), yyerror() and (if configured for back-tracking) to the destructor declared using ``%destructor''. bison(1) puts the additional parameters first for yyparse() and yyerror() but last for destructors. yacc matches this behavior.
ENVIRONMENT
The following environment variable is referenced by yacc: TMPDIR If the environment variable TMPDIR is set, the string denoted by TMPDIR will be used as the name of the directory where the tempo- rary files are created.
TABLES
The names of the tables generated by this version of yacc are ``yylhs'', ``yylen'', ``yydefred'', ``yydgoto'', ``yysindex'', ``yyrindex'', ``yygindex'', ``yytable'', and ``yycheck''. Two additional tables, ``yyname'' and ``yyrule'', are created if YYDEBUG is defined and non- zero.
FILES
y.code.c y.tab.c y.tab.h y.output /tmp/yacc.aXXXXXX /tmp/yacc.tXXXXXX /tmp/yacc.uXXXXXX
DIAGNOSTICS
If there are rules that are never reduced, the number of such rules is written to the standard error. If there are any LALR(1) conflicts, the number of conflicts is also written to the standard error.
STANDARDS
The yacc utility conforms to IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2''). NetBSD 9.0 October 5, 2014 NetBSD 9.0

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