WAIT(2)                   NetBSD System Calls Manual                   WAIT(2)


NAME
wait, waitid, waitpid, wait6, wait4, wait3 -- wait for process termina- tion
LIBRARY
Standard C Library (libc, -lc)
SYNOPSIS
#include <sys/wait.h> pid_t wait(int *status); pid_t waitpid(pid_t wpid, int *status, int options); int waitid(idtype_t idtype, id_t id, siginfo_t *info, int options); #include <sys/resource.h> pid_t wait3(int *status, int options, struct rusage *rusage); pid_t wait4(pid_t wpid, int *status, int options, struct rusage *rusage); pid_t wait6(idtype_t idtype, id_t id, int *status, int options, struct wrusage *wrusage, siginfo_t *infop);
DESCRIPTION
The wait() function suspends execution of its calling process until status information is available for a terminated child process, or a sig- nal is received. On return from a successful wait() call, the status area contains termination information about the process that exited as defined below. The wait4() and wait6() call provides a more general interface for pro- grams that need to wait for certain child processes, that need resource utilization statistics accumulated by child processes, or that require options. The other wait functions are implemented using wait4(). or wait6(). The wait6() function is the most general function in this family and its distinct features are: All of the desired process statuses to be waited on must be explicitly specified in options. The wait(), waitpid(), wait3(), and wait4() func- tions all implicitly wait for exited and trapped processes, but the waitid() and wait6() functions require the corresponding WEXITED and WTRAPPED flags to be explicitly specified. This allows waiting for pro- cesses which have experienced other status changes without having to also handle the exit status from terminated processes. The wait6() function accepts a wrusage argument which points to a struc- ture defined as: struct wrusage { struct rusage wru_self; struct rusage wru_children; }; This allows the calling process to collect resource usage statistics from both its own child process as well as from its grand children. When no resource usage statistics are needed this pointer can be NULL. The last argument infop must be either NULL or a pointer to a siginfo_t structure. If non-NULL, the structure is filled with the same data as for a SIGCHLD signal delivered when the process changed state. The set of child processes to be queried is specified by the arguments idtype and id. The separate idtype and id arguments support many other types of identifiers in addition to process IDs and process group IDs. If idtype is P_PID, waitid() and wait6() wait for the child process with a process ID equal to (pid_t)id. If idtype is P_PGID, waitid() and wait6() wait for the child process with a process group ID equal to (pid_t)id. If idtype is P_ALL, waitid() and wait6() wait for any child process and the id is ignored. If idtype is P_PID or P_PGID and the id is zero, waitid() and wait6() wait for any child process in the same process group as the caller. Non-standard identifier types supported by this implementation of waitid() and wait6() are: P_UID Wait for processes whose effective user ID is equal to (uid_t) id. P_GID Wait for processes whose effective group ID is equal to (gid_t) id. P_SID Wait for processes whose session ID is equal to id. If the child process started its own session, its session ID will be the same as its process ID. Otherwise the session ID of a child process will match the caller's session ID. For the waitpid() and wait4() functions, the single wpid argument speci- fies the set of child processes for which to wait. The following sym- bolic constants are defined in <sys/wait.h> #define WAIT_ANY (-1) /* any process */ #define WAIT_MYPGRP 0 /* any process in my process group */ If wpid is WAIT_ANY, the call waits for any child process. If wpid is WAIT_MYPGRP, the call waits for any child process in the process group of the caller. If wpid is greater than zero, the call waits for the process with process ID wpid. If wpid is less than -1, the call waits for any process whose process group ID equals the absolute value of wpid. The status argument is defined below. The options argument contains the bitwise OR of any of the following options. WALLSIG If this option is specified, the call will wait for all chil- dren regardless of what exit signal they post. WALTSIG If this option is specified, the call will wait only for pro- cesses that are configured to post a signal other than SIGCHLD when they exit. If WALTSIG is not specified, the call will wait only for processes that are configured to post SIGCHLD. WCONTINUED Report the status of selected processes that have continued from a job control stop by receiving a SIGCONT signal. WEXITED Report the status of selected processes which have termi- nated. This flag is implicitly set for the functions wait(), waitpid(), wait3(), and wait4(). For the waitid() and wait6() functions, the flag has to be explicitly included in options if status reports from termi- nated processes are expected. WNOHANG Do not block when there are no processes wishing to report status. WNOWAIT Keep the process whose status is returned in a waitable state. The process may be waited for again after this call completes. WNOZOMBIE Exclude zombie processes from the child selection criteria. WSTOPPED An alias for WUNTRACED. WTRAPPED Report the status of selected processes which are being traced via ptrace(2) and have trapped or reached a break- point. This flag is implicitly set for the functions wait(), waitpid(), wait3(), and wait4(). For the waitid() and wait6() functions, the flag has to be explicitly included in options if status reports from trapped processes are expected. WUNTRACED Report the status of selected processes which are stopped due to a SIGTTIN, SIGTTOU, SIGTSTP, or SIGSTOP signal. __WALL This is an alias for WALLSIG. It is provided for compatibil- ity with the Linux clone(2) API . __WCLONE This is an alias for WALTSIG. It is provided for compatibil- ity with the Linux clone(2) API. For the waitid() and wait6() functions, at least one of the options WEXITED, WUNTRACED, WSTOPPED, WTRAPPED, or WCONTINUED must be specified. Otherwise there will be no events for the call to report. To avoid hang- ing indefinitely in such a case these functions return -1 with errno set to EINVAL. If rusage is non-NULL, a summary of the resources used by the terminated process and all its children is returned. If wrusage is non-NULL, separate summaries are returned for the resources used by the terminated process and the resources used by all its chil- dren. If infop is non-NULL, a siginfo_t structure is returned with the si_signo field set to SIGCHLD and the si_pid field set to the process ID of the process reporting status. For the exited process, the si_status field of the siginfo_t structure contains the full 32 bit exit status passed to _exit(2); the status argument of other calls only returns 8 lowest bits of the exit status. When the WNOHANG option is specified and no processes wish to report sta- tus, waitid() sets the si_signo and si_pid fields in infop to zero. Checking these fields is the only way to know if a status change was reported. When the WNOHANG option is specified and no processes wish to report sta- tus, wait4() returns a process id of 0. The waitpid() call is identical to wait4() with an rusage value of zero. The older wait3() call is the same as wait4() with a wpid value of -1. The following macros may be used to test the manner of exit of the process. Note that these macros expect the status value itself, not a pointer to the status value. One of the first three macros will evaluate to a non-zero (true) value: WIFEXITED(status) True if the process terminated normally by a call to _exit(2) or exit(3). WIFSIGNALED(status) True if the process terminated due to receipt of a signal. WIFSTOPPED(status) True if the process has not terminated, but has stopped and can be restarted. This macro can be true only if the wait call spec- ified the WUNTRACED option or if the child process is being traced (see ptrace(2)). WIFCONTINUED(status) True if the process has not terminated, but has been continued via the delivery of the SIGCONT signal. This macro can be true only if the wait call specified the WCONTINUED option. Depending on the values of those macros, the following macros produce the remaining status information about the child process: WEXITSTATUS(status) If WIFEXITED(status) is true, evaluates to the low-order 8 bits of the argument passed to _exit(2) or exit(3) by the child. WTERMSIG(status) If WIFSIGNALED(status) is true, evaluates to the number of the signal that caused the termination of the process. WCOREDUMP(status) If WIFSIGNALED(status) is true, evaluates as true if the termina- tion of the process was accompanied by the creation of a core file containing an image of the process when the signal was received. WSTOPSIG(status) If WIFSTOPPED(status) is true, evaluates to the number of the signal that caused the process to stop.
NOTES
See sigaction(2) for a list of termination signals. A status of 0 indi- cates normal termination. If a parent process terminates without waiting for all of its child pro- cesses to terminate, the remaining child processes are assigned the par- ent process 1 ID (the init process ID). If a signal is caught while any of the wait() calls is pending, the call may be interrupted or restarted when the signal-catching routine returns, depending on the options in effect for the signal; see siginterrupt(3).
RETURN VALUES
If wait() returns due to a stopped or terminated child process, the process ID of the child is returned to the calling process. Otherwise, a value of -1 is returned and errno is set to indicate the error. If wait6(), wait4(), wait3() or waitpid() returns due to a stopped or terminated child process, the process ID of the child is returned to the calling process. If there are no children not previously awaited, -1 is returned with errno set to [ECHILD]. Otherwise, if WNOHANG is specified and there are no stopped or exited children, 0 is returned. If an error is detected or a caught signal aborts the call, a value of -1 is returned and errno is set to indicate the error. If waitid() returns because one or more processes have a state change to report, 0 is returned. If an error is detected, a value of -1 is returned and errno is set to indicate the error. If WNOHANG is specified and there are no stopped, continued or exited children, 0 is returned. The si_signo and si_pid fields of infop must be checked against zero to determine if a process reported status.
ERRORS
wait() will fail and return immediately if: [ECHILD] The calling process has no existing unwaited-for child processes; or no status from the terminated child process is available because the calling process has asked the system to discard such status by ignoring the signal SIGCHLD or setting the flag SA_NOCLDWAIT for that signal. [EFAULT] The status or rusage arguments point to an illegal address. (May not be detected before exit of a child process.) [EINTR] The call was interrupted by a caught signal, or the signal did not have the SA_RESTART flag set. In addition, wait6(), wait3(), wait4(), waitid(), and waitpid() will fail and return immediately if: [EINVAL] An invalid value was specified for options.
SEE ALSO
_exit(2), fork(2), ptrace(2), sigaction(2), siginfo(2), exit(3), siginterrupt(3)
STANDARDS
The wait() and waitpid() functions conform to ISO/IEC 9945-1:1990 (``POSIX.1''); the waitid() function conforms to IEEE Std 1003.1-2004 (``POSIX.1''); the wait3() function conforms to X/Open Portability Guide Issue 4 (``XPG4''); wait4() is an extension. The WCOREDUMP() macro and the ability to restart a pending wait() call are extensions to the POSIX interface.
HISTORY
A wait() function call appeared in Version 2 AT&T UNIX. NetBSD 8.0 November 10, 2016 NetBSD 8.0

You can also request any man page by name and (optionally) by section:

Command: 
Section: 
Architecture: 
Collection: 
 

Use the DEFAULT collection to view manual pages for third-party software.


Powered by man-cgi 1.15, Panagiotis Christias
Modified for NetBSD by Kimmo Suominen