TROFF(1)                                                              TROFF(1)

       troff - the troff processor of the groff text formatting system

       troff [ -abcivzCERU ] [ -dcs ] [ -ffam ] [ -Fdir ] [ -Idir ] [ -mname ]
             [ -Mdir ] [ -nnum ] [ -olist ] [ -rcn ] [ -Tname ] [ -wname ]
             [ -Wname ] [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its

       This manual page describes the GNU version of troff.  It is part of the
       groff  document  formatting system.  It is functionally compatible with
       UNIX troff, but has many extensions,  see  groff_diff(7).   Usually  it
       should  be  invoked using the groff(1) command which will also run pre-
       processors and postprocessors in the appropriate  order  and  with  the
       appropriate options.

       -a        Generate an ASCII approximation of the typeset output.

       -b        Print  a  backtrace with each warning or error message.  This
                 backtrace should help track down the cause of the error.  The
                 line  numbers  given  in the backtrace may not always be cor-
                 rect, for troff's idea of line numbers gets confused by as or
                 am requests.

       -c        Disable color output (always disabled in compatibility mode).

       -C        Enable compatibility mode.

       -dname=s  Define c or name to be a string s; c must  be  a  one  letter

       -E        Inhibit  all error messages of troff.  Note that this doesn't
                 affect messages output to standard error  by  macro  packages
                 using the tm or tm1 requests.

       -ffam     Use fam as the default font family.

       -Fdir     Search  in  directory (or directory path) dir for subdirecto-
                 ries devname (name is the name of the device) and  there  for
                 the  DESC  file  and  font  files.  dir is scanned before all
                 other font directories.

       -i        Read the standard input after all the named input files  have
                 been processed.

       -Idir     This  option may be used to specify a directory to search for
                 files (both those on the command  line  and  those  named  in
                 .psbb  requests).   The  current directory is always searched
                 first.  This option may be  specified  more  than  once;  the
                 directories  will  be  searched  in  the order specified.  No
                 directory search is performed for files  specified  using  an
                 absolute path.

       -mname    Read in the file name.tmac.  If it isn't found, try
                 instead.  It will be first searched for in directories  given
                 with the -M command line option, then in directories given in
                 the GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable, then in the current
                 directory  (only  if  in  unsafe  mode),  the home directory,
                 /usr/share/tmac, /usr/share/tmac, and /usr/share/tmac.

       -Mdir     Search directory (or directory path)  dir  for  macro  files.
                 This is scanned before all other macro directories.

       -nnum     Number the first page num.

       -olist    Output only pages in list, which is a comma-separated list of
                 page ranges; n means print page n, m-n means print every page
                 between  m and n, -n means print every page up to n, n- means
                 print every page from n.  troff will exit after printing  the
                 last page in the list.

       -rname=n  Set number register c or name to n; c must be a one character
                 name; n can be any troff numeric expression.

       -R        Don't load troffrc and troffrc-end.

       -Tname    Prepare output for device name, rather than the  default  ps;
                 see groff(1) for a more detailed description.

       -U        Unsafe  mode.  This will enable the following requests: open,
                 opena, pso, sy, and pi.  For security reasons,  these  poten-
                 tially  dangerous  requests  are disabled otherwise.  It will
                 also add the current directory to the macro search path.

       -v        Print the version number.

       -wname    Enable warning name.  Available warnings are described in the
                 section WARNINGS below.  For example, to enable all warnings,
                 use -w all.  Multiple -w options are allowed.

       -Wname    Inhibit warning name.  Multiple -W options are allowed.

       -z        Suppress formatted output.

       The warnings that can be given by troff are divided into the  following
       categories.   The  name  associated with each warning is used by the -w
       and -W options; the number is used by the  warn  request,  and  by  the
       .warn register; it is always a power of 2 to allow bitwise composition.

       tab(@), center, box; c c c | c c c r rI lB | r rI  lB.   Bit@Code@Warn-
       ing@Bit@Code@Warning   _   0@1@char@10@1024@reg  1@2@number@11@2048@tab
       2@4@break@12@4096@right-brace                 3@8@delim@13@8192@missing
       4@16@el@14@16384@input                       5@32@scale@15@32768@escape
       6@64@range@16@65536@space                   7@128@syntax@17@131072@font
       8@256@di@18@262144@ig 9@512@mac@19@524288@color

       break           4   In  fill  mode,  lines which could not be broken so
                           that their length was less than  the  line  length.
                           This is enabled by default.

       char            1   Non-existent   characters.    This  is  enabled  by

       color      524288   Color related warnings.

       delim           8   Missing or mismatched closing delimiters.

       di            256   Use of di or da without an argument when  there  is
                           no current diversion.

       el             16   Use  of the el request with no matching ie request.

       escape      32768   Unrecognized escape sequences.   When  an  unrecog-
                           nized  escape  sequence  is encountered, the escape
                           character is ignored.

       font       131072   Non-existent fonts.  This is enabled by default.

       ig         262144   Invalid  escapes  in  text  ignored  with  the   ig
                           request.  These are conditions that are errors when
                           they do not occur in ignored text.

       input       16384   Invalid input characters.

       mac           512   Use of undefined strings,  macros  and  diversions.
                           When  an  undefined  string,  macro or diversion is
                           used,  that  string  is  automatically  defined  as
                           empty.  So, in most cases, at most one warning will
                           be given for each name.

       missing      8192   Requests that are missing non-optional arguments.

       number          2   Invalid numeric expressions.  This  is  enabled  by

       range          64   Out of range arguments.

       reg          1024   Use  of  undefined number registers.  When an unde-
                           fined number register is  used,  that  register  is
                           automatically defined to have a value of 0.  So, in
                           most cases, at most one warning will be  given  for
                           use of a particular name.

       right-brace  4096   Use of \} where a number was expected.

       scale          32   Meaningless scaling indicators.

       space       65536   Missing  space  between  a request or macro and its
                           argument.  This warning will be given when an unde-
                           fined  name  longer  than two characters is encoun-
                           tered, and the first two  characters  of  the  name
                           make a defined name.  The request or macro will not
                           be invoked.  When this warning is given,  no  macro
                           is  automatically  defined.   This  is  enabled  by
                           default.  This warning will never occur in compati-
                           bility mode.

       syntax        128   Dubious syntax in numeric expressions.

       tab          2048   Inappropriate  use  of a tab character.  Either use
                           of a tab character where a number was expected,  or
                           use of tab character in an unquoted macro argument.

       There are also names that can be used to refer to groups of warnings:

       all    All warnings except di, mac, and reg.  It is intended that  this
              covers all warnings that are useful with traditional macro pack-

       w      All warnings.

              A colon separated list of directories in  which  to  search  for
              macro files.  troff will scan directories given in the -M option
              before these, and in standard directories (current directory  if
              in     unsafe    mode,    home    directory,    /usr/share/tmac,
              /usr/share/tmac, /usr/share/tmac) after these.

              Default device.

              A colon separated list of directories in which to search for the
              devname  directory.  troff will scan directories given in the -F
              option   before   these,    and    in    standard    directories
              (/usr/share/groff_font,                   /usr/share/groff_font,
              /usr/share/groff_font) after these.

              Initialization file (called before any other macro package).

              Initialization file (called after any other macro package).

              Macro files

              Device description file for device name.

              Font file for font F of device name.

       Note that troffrc and troffrc-end are neither searched in  the  current
       nor  in the home directory by default for security reasons (even if the
       -U  option  is  given).   Use  the  -M  command  line  option  or   the
       GROFF_TMAC_PATH  environment  variable  to add these directories to the
       search path if necessary.

       Copyright (C) 1989, 2001, 2002, 2003 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Docu-
       mentation  License)  version  1.1 or later.  You should have received a
       copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the GNU
       copyleft  site  <>.   This document
       was written by James Clark,  with  modifications  from  Werner  Lemberg
       <> and Bernd Warken <>

       This document is part of groff, the GNU roff distribution.

              The main program of the groff system, a wrapper around troff.

              A  description of the groff language, including a short but com-
              plete reference  of  all  predefined  requests,  registers,  and
              escapes  of  plain groff.  From the command line, this is called

                     man 7 groff

              The differences of the groff language and  the  classical  troff
              language.   Currently,  this  is the most actual document of the
              groff system.

              An overview over groff and other roff systems, including  point-
              ers to further related documentation.

       The  groff  info  file,  cf.  info(1), presents all groff documentation
       within a single document.

Groff Version 1.19.2           September 4, 2005                      TROFF(1)

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