RELEASE(7)          NetBSD Miscellaneous Information Manual         RELEASE(7)

     release -- layout of NetBSD releases and snapshots

     This document describes the layout of NetBSD releases and snapshots.
     This layout should be consistent between FTP servers and CD-ROMs, except
     possibly the path that leads to the release hierarchy.

     In this document, the following special words have these definitions:

     <machine>       The platform for which the release was built, correspond-
                     ing to the hw.machine sysctl variable, e.g., i386 or

     <machine_arch>  The architecture for which a particular installation set
                     was built, corresponding to the hw.machine_arch sysctl
                     variable, e.g., i386 or m68k.

     <rel>           The release version number.

     All README files are descriptions of the various files in directories
     that have ``non-standard'' contents.  There may also be a README file at
     the top-level, describing who built the snapshot and under what circum-
     stances (e.g., whether it's an official NetBSD snapshot, or not).

     All MD5 files are MD5 digests for the various files in that directory, in
     the format produced by the command: cksum -a MD5 <file>.

     All SHA512 files are SHA512 digests for the various files in that direc-
     tory, in the format produced by the command: cksum -a SHA512 <file>.

     The SHA512 digest is safer, but MD5 checksums are provided so that a
     wider range of operating systems can check the integrity of the release

     Files that end in .tgz are gzipped tar archives.  This is used in lieu of
     .tar.gz because the software used to download the sets may incorrectly
     auto-unpack files ending in .gz and to accommodate systems which only
     support 3 character extensions to file names.

     All tar archives are relative to the target's / directory, and do not
     include the leading ``/''.

     The root of the release hierarchy may be the root directory of a CD-ROM,
     but in all other cases it should be .../NetBSD-<rel>/.

     The root of the release hierarchy should contain the following files and

     images/    Image files intended for use in installing NetBSD.  There are
                different types of images for different platforms, and some-
                times multiple different image types for a single platform.

                Images in this directory, unlike images in the
                .../NetBSD-<rel>/<machine>/installation/ directories, contain
                file systems that have an internal layout that corresponds to
                a complete release for a given machine type.  If built with
                ``iso-image-source'', then it will also contain a ``source''
                directory.  These images are usually bootable.



                NetBSD-<rel>-<machine>.iso  CD-ROM images in ISO 9660 format,
                                            usually created with ``./
                                            ... iso-image ...'' after a
                                            ``./ -x ... release ...''
                                            in src or created with
                                            ``./ ... iso-image-source
                                            ...'' after a ``./ -x ...
                                            release sourcesets ...'' in src.

                                            Bootable installation images
                                            intended to be written to any
                                            drive which appears as an sd(4)
                                            type, such as USB flash disks.
                                            These images are created with
                                            ``./ ... install-image''
                                            in src.

     shared/    Files shared by two or more machine types.

                                Files which may be shared by all systems of
                                the same <machine_arch> will be located in
                                .../NetBSD-<rel>/shared/<machine_arch>/ with
                                symbolic links pointing to these files from
                                the <machine> subdirectory.

                ALL/            Files which are completely machine-independent
                                will be located in
                                .../NetBSD-<rel>/shared/ALL/ with symbolic
                                links pointing to these files from the
                                <machine> subdirectory.

     source/    Source code of the operating system should be put into
                .../NetBSD-<rel>/source/ using the following layout:

                sets/  Sources for the various system sets.



                       gnusrc.tgz    Contains sources for all GPLed and possi-
                                     bly other programs that contains restric-
                                     tions in their licensing that prevent
                                     others from using these programs in
                                     closed-source environments.

                       sharesrc.tgz  Contains machine-independent data files
                                     that can be shared across architec-

                       src.tgz       The operating system's userland source
                                     code, including all programs, tools,
                                     libraries, etc.

                       syssrc.tgz    Kernel sources for all architectures plus
                                     sources of the tools needed to build ker-
                                     nels (like config(1)).

                       xsrc.tgz      Source code of the X Window System used
                                     on all NetBSD architectures.  Includes X
                                     clients and servers.

                The binary releases in .../NetBSD-<rel>/<machine>/ fit the
                following layout:

                INSTALL.txt    Installation notes, including complete descrip-
                               tions of files contained within the release

                INSTALL.more   pretty version, suited for viewing with more(1)

                INSTALL.html   HTML version

           PostScript version

                binary/        system binaries

                               sets/    installation sets



                                        base.tgz     The base binary distribu-
                                                     tion.  This set contains
                                                     the base NetBSD utilities
                                                     that are necessary for
                                                     the system to run and be
                                                     minimally functional.
                                                     This set excludes all
                                                     things listed in the sets
                                                     described below.

                                        comp.tgz     The compiler tools dis-
                                                     tribution.  This set con-
                                                     tains the C and C++ com-
                                                     pilers, assembler,
                                                     linker, other toolchain
                                                     components, and their
                                                     manual pages.  It also
                                                     includes the system
                                                     include files
                                                     (/usr/include) and the
                                                     static system libraries.

                                        etc.tgz      This set contains the
                                                     system configuration
                                                     files that reside in /etc
                                                     and in several other
                                                     places throughout the
                                                     file system hierarchy.

                                        games.tgz    This set includes the
                                                     games and their manual

                                                     This set includes a ker-
                                                     nel built from the
                                                     GENERIC kernel configura-
                                                     tion file.  This is meant
                                                     as an example only; dif-
                                                     ferent platforms may have
                                                     differently named ker-

                                        man.tgz      This set includes all of
                                                     the manual pages for the
                                                     binaries and other soft-
                                                     ware contained in the
                                                     base set which are not
                                                     included in the other

                                        misc.tgz     This set includes miscel-
                                                     laneous non-essential
                                                     files, including dictio-
                                                     naries, the typesettable
                                                     document set, and various
                                                     other documentation and
                                                     example configuration

                                        modules.tgz  This set includes all the
                                                     kernel modules.

                                        text.tgz     This set includes the
                                                     NetBSD text processing
                                                     tools, including
                                                     groff(1), all related
                                                     programs, and their man-
                                                     ual pages.

                                        xbase.tgz    This set includes the
                                                     base X11 distribution,
                                                     including manual pages
                                                     and excluding everything
                                                     contained in the other
                                                     X11 sets.

                                        xcomp.tgz    This set includes the X11
                                                     include files and static
                                                     X11 libraries.

                                        xfont.tgz    This set includes the X11

                                        xserver.tgz  This set includes the X
                                                     servers and manual pages
                                                     for a given machine.
                                                     Note: this set may not be
                                                     available on some

                               kernel/  suitably named, gzipped kernels



                                        netbsd-GENERIC.gz  A kernel built from
                                                           the GENERIC kernel
                                                           configuration file.
                                                           This is meant as an
                                                           example only; dif-
                                                           ferent platforms
                                                           may have differ-
                                                           ently named ker-

                installation/  installation helper items

                               cdrom/      CD-ROM images in ISO 9660 format,
                                           created as part of `` ...
                                           release ...'' in src.

                                           Images in this directory are
                                           bootable, and contain one a kernel,
                                           installation tools, and rescue
                                           tools.  They do not contain instal-
                                           lation sets, source sets, or other
                                           components of a complete release.

                                           Note: These images are only present
                                           in the amd64 and i386



                                           boot.iso      VGA console

                                           boot-com.iso  Serial console

                               diskimage/  disk images, on those platforms
                                           that provide them




                               floppy/     floppy images, on those platforms
                                           that provide them





                                           installation kernels for platforms
                                           that can boot them directly




                               miniroot/   miniroot images, on those platforms
                                           that provide them




                               misc/       miscellaneous installation helper
                                           utilities, including boot selec-
                                           tors, floppy writing software,
                                           other software that runs under for-
                                           eign operating systems, etc.




                               netboot/    network boot programs




                               tapeimage/  tape images, on those platforms
                                           that provide them




     cksum(1), dd(1), gzip(1), split(1), tar(1)

     The release manual page first appeared in NetBSD 1.3.

NetBSD 8.1                     November 3, 2014                     NetBSD 8.1

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©1994 Man-cgi 1.15, Panagiotis Christias
©1996-2019 Modified for NetBSD by Kimmo Suominen