OPENSSL(1) OpenSSL OPENSSL(1)
openssl - OpenSSL command line tool
openssl command [ command_opts ] [ command_args ] openssl list [ standard-commands | digest-commands | cipher-commands | cipher-algorithms | digest-algorithms | public-key-algorithms] openssl no-XXX [ arbitrary options ]
OpenSSL is a cryptography toolkit implementing the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL v2/v3) and Transport Layer Security (TLS v1) network protocols and related cryptography standards required by them. The openssl program is a command line tool for using the various cryptography functions of OpenSSL's crypto library from the shell. It can be used for o Creation and management of private keys, public keys and parameters o Public key cryptographic operations o Creation of X.509 certificates, CSRs and CRLs o Calculation of Message Digests o Encryption and Decryption with Ciphers o SSL/TLS Client and Server Tests o Handling of S/MIME signed or encrypted mail o Time Stamp requests, generation and verification
The openssl program provides a rich variety of commands (command in the SYNOPSIS above), each of which often has a wealth of options and arguments (command_opts and command_args in the SYNOPSIS). Detailed documentation and use cases for most standard subcommands are available (e.g., x509(1) or openssl-x509(1)). Many commands use an external configuration file for some or all of their arguments and have a -config option to specify that file. The environment variable OPENSSL_CONF can be used to specify the location of the file. If the environment variable is not specified, then the file is named openssl.cnf in the default certificate storage area, whose value depends on the configuration flags specified when the OpenSSL was built. The list parameters standard-commands, digest-commands, and cipher- commands output a list (one entry per line) of the names of all standard commands, message digest commands, or cipher commands, respectively, that are available in the present openssl utility. The list parameters cipher-algorithms and digest-algorithms list all cipher and message digest names, one entry per line. Aliases are listed as: from => to The list parameter public-key-algorithms lists all supported public key algorithms. The command no-XXX tests whether a command of the specified name is available. If no command named XXX exists, it returns 0 (success) and prints no-XXX; otherwise it returns 1 and prints XXX. In both cases, the output goes to stdout and nothing is printed to stderr. Additional command line arguments are always ignored. Since for each cipher there is a command of the same name, this provides an easy way for shell scripts to test for the availability of ciphers in the openssl program. (no-XXX is not able to detect pseudo-commands such as quit, list, or no-XXX itself.) Standard Commands asn1parse Parse an ASN.1 sequence. ca Certificate Authority (CA) Management. ciphers Cipher Suite Description Determination. cms CMS (Cryptographic Message Syntax) utility. crl Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Management. crl2pkcs7 CRL to PKCS#7 Conversion. dgst Message Digest Calculation. dh Diffie-Hellman Parameter Management. Obsoleted by dhparam(1). dhparam Generation and Management of Diffie-Hellman Parameters. Superseded by genpkey(1) and pkeyparam(1). dsa DSA Data Management. dsaparam DSA Parameter Generation and Management. Superseded by genpkey(1) and pkeyparam(1). ec EC (Elliptic curve) key processing. ecparam EC parameter manipulation and generation. enc Encoding with Ciphers. engine Engine (loadable module) information and manipulation. errstr Error Number to Error String Conversion. gendh Generation of Diffie-Hellman Parameters. Obsoleted by dhparam(1). gendsa Generation of DSA Private Key from Parameters. Superseded by genpkey(1) and pkey(1). genpkey Generation of Private Key or Parameters. genrsa Generation of RSA Private Key. Superseded by genpkey(1). nseq Create or examine a Netscape certificate sequence. ocsp Online Certificate Status Protocol utility. passwd Generation of hashed passwords. pkcs12 PKCS#12 Data Management. pkcs7 PKCS#7 Data Management. pkcs8 PKCS#8 format private key conversion tool. pkey Public and private key management. pkeyparam Public key algorithm parameter management. pkeyutl Public key algorithm cryptographic operation utility. prime Compute prime numbers. rand Generate pseudo-random bytes. rehash Create symbolic links to certificate and CRL files named by the hash values. req PKCS#10 X.509 Certificate Signing Request (CSR) Management. rsa RSA key management. rsautl RSA utility for signing, verification, encryption, and decryption. Superseded by pkeyutl(1). s_client This implements a generic SSL/TLS client which can establish a transparent connection to a remote server speaking SSL/TLS. It's intended for testing purposes only and provides only rudimentary interface functionality but internally uses mostly all functionality of the OpenSSL ssl library. s_server This implements a generic SSL/TLS server which accepts connections from remote clients speaking SSL/TLS. It's intended for testing purposes only and provides only rudimentary interface functionality but internally uses mostly all functionality of the OpenSSL ssl library. It provides both an own command line oriented protocol for testing SSL functions and a simple HTTP response facility to emulate an SSL/TLS-aware webserver. s_time SSL Connection Timer. sess_id SSL Session Data Management. smime S/MIME mail processing. speed Algorithm Speed Measurement. spkac SPKAC printing and generating utility. srp Maintain SRP password file. storeutl Utility to list and display certificates, keys, CRLs, etc. ts Time Stamping Authority tool (client/server). verify X.509 Certificate Verification. version OpenSSL Version Information. x509 X.509 Certificate Data Management. Message Digest Commands blake2b512 BLAKE2b-512 Digest blake2s256 BLAKE2s-256 Digest md2 MD2 Digest md4 MD4 Digest md5 MD5 Digest mdc2 MDC2 Digest rmd160 RMD-160 Digest sha1 SHA-1 Digest sha224 SHA-2 224 Digest sha256 SHA-2 256 Digest sha384 SHA-2 384 Digest sha512 SHA-2 512 Digest sha3-224 SHA-3 224 Digest sha3-256 SHA-3 256 Digest sha3-384 SHA-3 384 Digest sha3-512 SHA-3 512 Digest shake128 SHA-3 SHAKE128 Digest shake256 SHA-3 SHAKE256 Digest sm3 SM3 Digest Encoding and Cipher Commands The following aliases provide convenient access to the most used encodings and ciphers. Depending on how OpenSSL was configured and built, not all ciphers listed here may be present. See enc(1) for more information and command usage. aes128, aes-128-cbc, aes-128-cfb, aes-128-ctr, aes-128-ecb, aes-128-ofb AES-128 Cipher aes192, aes-192-cbc, aes-192-cfb, aes-192-ctr, aes-192-ecb, aes-192-ofb AES-192 Cipher aes256, aes-256-cbc, aes-256-cfb, aes-256-ctr, aes-256-ecb, aes-256-ofb AES-256 Cipher aria128, aria-128-cbc, aria-128-cfb, aria-128-ctr, aria-128-ecb, aria-128-ofb Aria-128 Cipher aria192, aria-192-cbc, aria-192-cfb, aria-192-ctr, aria-192-ecb, aria-192-ofb Aria-192 Cipher aria256, aria-256-cbc, aria-256-cfb, aria-256-ctr, aria-256-ecb, aria-256-ofb Aria-256 Cipher base64 Base64 Encoding bf, bf-cbc, bf-cfb, bf-ecb, bf-ofb Blowfish Cipher camellia128, camellia-128-cbc, camellia-128-cfb, camellia-128-ctr, camellia-128-ecb, camellia-128-ofb Camellia-128 Cipher camellia192, camellia-192-cbc, camellia-192-cfb, camellia-192-ctr, camellia-192-ecb, camellia-192-ofb Camellia-192 Cipher camellia256, camellia-256-cbc, camellia-256-cfb, camellia-256-ctr, camellia-256-ecb, camellia-256-ofb Camellia-256 Cipher cast, cast-cbc CAST Cipher cast5-cbc, cast5-cfb, cast5-ecb, cast5-ofb CAST5 Cipher chacha20 Chacha20 Cipher des, des-cbc, des-cfb, des-ecb, des-ede, des-ede-cbc, des-ede-cfb, des- ede-ofb, des-ofb DES Cipher des3, desx, des-ede3, des-ede3-cbc, des-ede3-cfb, des-ede3-ofb Triple-DES Cipher idea, idea-cbc, idea-cfb, idea-ecb, idea-ofb IDEA Cipher rc2, rc2-cbc, rc2-cfb, rc2-ecb, rc2-ofb RC2 Cipher rc4 RC4 Cipher rc5, rc5-cbc, rc5-cfb, rc5-ecb, rc5-ofb RC5 Cipher seed, seed-cbc, seed-cfb, seed-ecb, seed-ofb SEED Cipher sm4, sm4-cbc, sm4-cfb, sm4-ctr, sm4-ecb, sm4-ofb SM4 Cipher
Details of which options are available depend on the specific command. This section describes some common options with common behavior. Common Options -help Provides a terse summary of all options. Pass Phrase Options Several commands accept password arguments, typically using -passin and -passout for input and output passwords respectively. These allow the password to be obtained from a variety of sources. Both of these options take a single argument whose format is described below. If no password argument is given and a password is required then the user is prompted to enter one: this will typically be read from the current terminal with echoing turned off. Note that character encoding may be relevant, please see passphrase-encoding(7). pass:password The actual password is password. Since the password is visible to utilities (like 'ps' under Unix) this form should only be used where security is not important. env:var Obtain the password from the environment variable var. Since the environment of other processes is visible on certain platforms (e.g. ps under certain Unix OSes) this option should be used with caution. file:pathname The first line of pathname is the password. If the same pathname argument is supplied to -passin and -passout arguments then the first line will be used for the input password and the next line for the output password. pathname need not refer to a regular file: it could for example refer to a device or named pipe. fd:number Read the password from the file descriptor number. This can be used to send the data via a pipe for example. stdin Read the password from standard input.
asn1parse(1), ca(1), ciphers(1), cms(1), config(5), crl(1), crl2pkcs7(1), dgst(1), dhparam(1), dsa(1), dsaparam(1), ec(1), ecparam(1), enc(1), engine(1), errstr(1), gendsa(1), genpkey(1), genrsa(1), nseq(1), ocsp(1), passwd(1), pkcs12(1), pkcs7(1), pkcs8(1), pkey(1), pkeyparam(1), pkeyutl(1), prime(1), rand(1), rehash(1), req(1), rsa(1), rsautl(1), s_client(1), s_server(1), s_time(1), sess_id(1), smime(1), speed(1), spkac(1), srp(1), storeutl(1), ts(1), verify(1), version(1), x509(1), crypto(7), ssl(7), x509v3_config(5)
The list-XXX-algorithms pseudo-commands were added in OpenSSL 1.0.0; For notes on the availability of other commands, see their individual manual pages.
Copyright 2000-2018 The OpenSSL Project Authors. All Rights Reserved. Licensed under the OpenSSL license (the "License"). You may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You can obtain a copy in the file LICENSE in the source distribution or at <https://www.openssl.org/source/license.html>. 1.1.1c 2018-12-08 OPENSSL(1)
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