OPENSSL(1)                          OpenSSL                         OPENSSL(1)



NAME
       openssl - OpenSSL command line tool

LIBRARY
       libcrypto, -lcrypto

SYNOPSIS
       openssl command [ command_opts ] [ command_args ]

       openssl list [ standard-commands | digest-commands | cipher-commands |
       cipher-algorithms | digest-algorithms | public-key-algorithms]

       openssl no-XXX [ arbitrary options ]

DESCRIPTION
       OpenSSL is a cryptography toolkit implementing the Secure Sockets Layer
       (SSL v2/v3) and Transport Layer Security (TLS v1) network protocols and
       related cryptography standards required by them.

       The openssl program is a command line tool for using the various
       cryptography functions of OpenSSL's crypto library from the shell.  It
       can be used for

        o  Creation and management of private keys, public keys and parameters
        o  Public key cryptographic operations
        o  Creation of X.509 certificates, CSRs and CRLs
        o  Calculation of Message Digests
        o  Encryption and Decryption with Ciphers
        o  SSL/TLS Client and Server Tests
        o  Handling of S/MIME signed or encrypted mail
        o  Time Stamp requests, generation and verification

COMMAND SUMMARY
       The openssl program provides a rich variety of commands (command in the
       SYNOPSIS above), each of which often has a wealth of options and
       arguments (command_opts and command_args in the SYNOPSIS).

       Detailed documentation and use cases for most standard subcommands are
       available (e.g., x509(1) or openssl-x509(1)).

       Many commands use an external configuration file for some or all of
       their arguments and have a -config option to specify that file.  The
       environment variable OPENSSL_CONF can be used to specify the location
       of the file.  If the environment variable is not specified, then the
       file is named openssl.cnf in the default certificate storage area,
       whose value depends on the configuration flags specified when the
       OpenSSL was built.

       The list parameters standard-commands, digest-commands, and cipher-
       commands output a list (one entry per line) of the names of all
       standard commands, message digest commands, or cipher commands,
       respectively, that are available in the present openssl utility.

       The list parameters cipher-algorithms and digest-algorithms list all
       cipher and message digest names, one entry per line. Aliases are listed
       as:

        from => to

       The list parameter public-key-algorithms lists all supported public key
       algorithms.

       The command no-XXX tests whether a command of the specified name is
       available.  If no command named XXX exists, it returns 0 (success) and
       prints no-XXX; otherwise it returns 1 and prints XXX.  In both cases,
       the output goes to stdout and nothing is printed to stderr.  Additional
       command line arguments are always ignored.  Since for each cipher there
       is a command of the same name, this provides an easy way for shell
       scripts to test for the availability of ciphers in the openssl program.
       (no-XXX is not able to detect pseudo-commands such as quit, list, or
       no-XXX itself.)

   Standard Commands
       asn1parse
           Parse an ASN.1 sequence.

       ca  Certificate Authority (CA) Management.

       ciphers
           Cipher Suite Description Determination.

       cms CMS (Cryptographic Message Syntax) utility.

       crl Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Management.

       crl2pkcs7
           CRL to PKCS#7 Conversion.

       dgst
           Message Digest Calculation.

       dh  Diffie-Hellman Parameter Management.  Obsoleted by dhparam(1).

       dhparam
           Generation and Management of Diffie-Hellman Parameters. Superseded
           by genpkey(1) and pkeyparam(1).

       dsa DSA Data Management.

       dsaparam
           DSA Parameter Generation and Management. Superseded by genpkey(1)
           and pkeyparam(1).

       ec  EC (Elliptic curve) key processing.

       ecparam
           EC parameter manipulation and generation.

       enc Encoding with Ciphers.

       engine
           Engine (loadable module) information and manipulation.

       errstr
           Error Number to Error String Conversion.

       gendh
           Generation of Diffie-Hellman Parameters.  Obsoleted by dhparam(1).

       gendsa
           Generation of DSA Private Key from Parameters. Superseded by
           genpkey(1) and pkey(1).

       genpkey
           Generation of Private Key or Parameters.

       genrsa
           Generation of RSA Private Key. Superseded by genpkey(1).

       nseq
           Create or examine a Netscape certificate sequence.

       ocsp
           Online Certificate Status Protocol utility.

       passwd
           Generation of hashed passwords.

       pkcs12
           PKCS#12 Data Management.

       pkcs7
           PKCS#7 Data Management.

       pkcs8
           PKCS#8 format private key conversion tool.

       pkey
           Public and private key management.

       pkeyparam
           Public key algorithm parameter management.

       pkeyutl
           Public key algorithm cryptographic operation utility.

       prime
           Compute prime numbers.

       rand
           Generate pseudo-random bytes.

       rehash
           Create symbolic links to certificate and CRL files named by the
           hash values.

       req PKCS#10 X.509 Certificate Signing Request (CSR) Management.

       rsa RSA key management.

       rsautl
           RSA utility for signing, verification, encryption, and decryption.
           Superseded by  pkeyutl(1).

       s_client
           This implements a generic SSL/TLS client which can establish a
           transparent connection to a remote server speaking SSL/TLS. It's
           intended for testing purposes only and provides only rudimentary
           interface functionality but internally uses mostly all
           functionality of the OpenSSL ssl library.

       s_server
           This implements a generic SSL/TLS server which accepts connections
           from remote clients speaking SSL/TLS. It's intended for testing
           purposes only and provides only rudimentary interface functionality
           but internally uses mostly all functionality of the OpenSSL ssl
           library.  It provides both an own command line oriented protocol
           for testing SSL functions and a simple HTTP response facility to
           emulate an SSL/TLS-aware webserver.

       s_time
           SSL Connection Timer.

       sess_id
           SSL Session Data Management.

       smime
           S/MIME mail processing.

       speed
           Algorithm Speed Measurement.

       spkac
           SPKAC printing and generating utility.

       srp Maintain SRP password file.

       storeutl
           Utility to list and display certificates, keys, CRLs, etc.

       ts  Time Stamping Authority tool (client/server).

       verify
           X.509 Certificate Verification.

       version
           OpenSSL Version Information.

       x509
           X.509 Certificate Data Management.

   Message Digest Commands
       blake2b512
           BLAKE2b-512 Digest

       blake2s256
           BLAKE2s-256 Digest

       md2 MD2 Digest

       md4 MD4 Digest

       md5 MD5 Digest

       mdc2
           MDC2 Digest

       rmd160
           RMD-160 Digest

       sha1
           SHA-1 Digest

       sha224
           SHA-2 224 Digest

       sha256
           SHA-2 256 Digest

       sha384
           SHA-2 384 Digest

       sha512
           SHA-2 512 Digest

       sha3-224
           SHA-3 224 Digest

       sha3-256
           SHA-3 256 Digest

       sha3-384
           SHA-3 384 Digest

       sha3-512
           SHA-3 512 Digest

       shake128
           SHA-3 SHAKE128 Digest

       shake256
           SHA-3 SHAKE256 Digest

       sm3 SM3 Digest

   Encoding and Cipher Commands
       The following aliases provide convenient access to the most used
       encodings and ciphers.

       Depending on how OpenSSL was configured and built, not all ciphers
       listed here may be present. See enc(1) for more information and command
       usage.

       aes128, aes-128-cbc, aes-128-cfb, aes-128-ctr, aes-128-ecb, aes-128-ofb
           AES-128 Cipher

       aes192, aes-192-cbc, aes-192-cfb, aes-192-ctr, aes-192-ecb, aes-192-ofb
           AES-192 Cipher

       aes256, aes-256-cbc, aes-256-cfb, aes-256-ctr, aes-256-ecb, aes-256-ofb
           AES-256 Cipher

       aria128, aria-128-cbc, aria-128-cfb, aria-128-ctr, aria-128-ecb,
       aria-128-ofb
           Aria-128 Cipher

       aria192, aria-192-cbc, aria-192-cfb, aria-192-ctr, aria-192-ecb,
       aria-192-ofb
           Aria-192 Cipher

       aria256, aria-256-cbc, aria-256-cfb, aria-256-ctr, aria-256-ecb,
       aria-256-ofb
           Aria-256 Cipher

       base64
           Base64 Encoding

       bf, bf-cbc, bf-cfb, bf-ecb, bf-ofb
           Blowfish Cipher

       camellia128, camellia-128-cbc, camellia-128-cfb, camellia-128-ctr,
       camellia-128-ecb, camellia-128-ofb
           Camellia-128 Cipher

       camellia192, camellia-192-cbc, camellia-192-cfb, camellia-192-ctr,
       camellia-192-ecb, camellia-192-ofb
           Camellia-192 Cipher

       camellia256, camellia-256-cbc, camellia-256-cfb, camellia-256-ctr,
       camellia-256-ecb, camellia-256-ofb
           Camellia-256 Cipher

       cast, cast-cbc
           CAST Cipher

       cast5-cbc, cast5-cfb, cast5-ecb, cast5-ofb
           CAST5 Cipher

       chacha20
           Chacha20 Cipher

       des, des-cbc, des-cfb, des-ecb, des-ede, des-ede-cbc, des-ede-cfb, des-
       ede-ofb, des-ofb
           DES Cipher

       des3, desx, des-ede3, des-ede3-cbc, des-ede3-cfb, des-ede3-ofb
           Triple-DES Cipher

       idea, idea-cbc, idea-cfb, idea-ecb, idea-ofb
           IDEA Cipher

       rc2, rc2-cbc, rc2-cfb, rc2-ecb, rc2-ofb
           RC2 Cipher

       rc4 RC4 Cipher

       rc5, rc5-cbc, rc5-cfb, rc5-ecb, rc5-ofb
           RC5 Cipher

       seed, seed-cbc, seed-cfb, seed-ecb, seed-ofb
           SEED Cipher

       sm4, sm4-cbc, sm4-cfb, sm4-ctr, sm4-ecb, sm4-ofb
           SM4 Cipher

OPTIONS
       Details of which options are available depend on the specific command.
       This section describes some common options with common behavior.

   Common Options
       -help
           Provides a terse summary of all options.

   Pass Phrase Options
       Several commands accept password arguments, typically using -passin and
       -passout for input and output passwords respectively. These allow the
       password to be obtained from a variety of sources. Both of these
       options take a single argument whose format is described below. If no
       password argument is given and a password is required then the user is
       prompted to enter one: this will typically be read from the current
       terminal with echoing turned off.

       Note that character encoding may be relevant, please see
       passphrase-encoding(7).

       pass:password
           The actual password is password. Since the password is visible to
           utilities (like 'ps' under Unix) this form should only be used
           where security is not important.

       env:var
           Obtain the password from the environment variable var. Since the
           environment of other processes is visible on certain platforms
           (e.g. ps under certain Unix OSes) this option should be used with
           caution.

       file:pathname
           The first line of pathname is the password. If the same pathname
           argument is supplied to -passin and -passout arguments then the
           first line will be used for the input password and the next line
           for the output password. pathname need not refer to a regular file:
           it could for example refer to a device or named pipe.

       fd:number
           Read the password from the file descriptor number. This can be used
           to send the data via a pipe for example.

       stdin
           Read the password from standard input.

SEE ALSO
       asn1parse(1), ca(1), ciphers(1), cms(1), config(5), crl(1),
       crl2pkcs7(1), dgst(1), dhparam(1), dsa(1), dsaparam(1), ec(1),
       ecparam(1), enc(1), engine(1), errstr(1), gendsa(1), genpkey(1),
       genrsa(1), nseq(1), ocsp(1), passwd(1), pkcs12(1), pkcs7(1), pkcs8(1),
       pkey(1), pkeyparam(1), pkeyutl(1), prime(1), rand(1), rehash(1),
       req(1), rsa(1), rsautl(1), s_client(1), s_server(1), s_time(1),
       sess_id(1), smime(1), speed(1), spkac(1), srp(1), storeutl(1), ts(1),
       verify(1), version(1), x509(1), crypto(7), ssl(7), x509v3_config(5)

HISTORY
       The list-XXX-algorithms pseudo-commands were added in OpenSSL 1.0.0;
       For notes on the availability of other commands, see their individual
       manual pages.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright 2000-2018 The OpenSSL Project Authors. All Rights Reserved.

       Licensed under the OpenSSL license (the "License").  You may not use
       this file except in compliance with the License.  You can obtain a copy
       in the file LICENSE in the source distribution or at
       <https://www.openssl.org/source/license.html>.



1.1.1c                            2018-12-08                        OPENSSL(1)

You can also request any man page by name and (optionally) by section:

Command: 
Section: 
Architecture: 
Collection: 
 

Use the DEFAULT collection to view manual pages for third-party software.


©1994 Man-cgi 1.15, Panagiotis Christias
©1996-2019 Modified for NetBSD by Kimmo Suominen