MAKEFS(8)               NetBSD System Manager's Manual               MAKEFS(8)

     makefs -- create a file system image from a directory tree

     makefs [-rxZ] [-B endian] [-b free-blocks] [-d debug-mask]
            [-F mtree-specfile] [-f free-files] [-M minimum-size]
            [-m maximum-size] [-N userdb-dir] [-O offset] [-o fs-options]
            [-S sector-size] [-s image-size] [-t fs-type] image-file directory
            [extra-directory ...]

     The utility makefs creates a file system image into image-file from the
     directory tree directory.  If any optional directory trees are passed in
     the extra-directory arguments, then the directory tree of each argument
     will be merged into the directory first before creating image-file.  No
     special devices or privileges are required to perform this task.

     The options are as follows:

     -B endian
           Set the byte order of the image to endian.  Valid byte orders are
           `4321', `big', or `be' for big endian, and `1234', `little', or
           `le' for little endian.  Some file systems may have a fixed byte
           order; in those cases this argument will be ignored.

     -b free-blocks
           Ensure that a minimum of free-blocks free blocks exist in the
           image.  An optional `%' suffix may be provided to indicate that
           free-blocks indicates a percentage of the calculated image size.

     -d debug-mask
           Enable various levels of debugging, depending upon which bits are
           set in debug-mask.  XXX: document these

     -F mtree-specfile
           Use mtree-specfile as an mtree(8) `specfile' specification.

           If a specfile entry exists in the underlying file system, its per-
           missions and modification time will be used unless specifically
           overridden by the specfile.  An error will be raised if the type of
           entry in the specfile conflicts with that of an existing entry.

           In the opposite case (where a specfile entry does not have an entry
           in the underlying file system) the following occurs: If the spec-
           file entry is marked optional, the specfile entry is ignored.  Oth-
           erwise, the entry will be created in the image, and it is necessary
           to specify at least the following parameters in the specfile: type,
           mode, gname, or gid, and uname or uid, device (in the case of block
           or character devices), and link (in the case of symbolic links).
           If time isn't provided, the current time will be used.  If flags
           isn't provided, the current file flags will be used.  Missing regu-
           lar file entries will be created as zero-length files.

     -f free-files
           Ensure that a minimum of free-files free files (inodes) exist in
           the image.  An optional `%' suffix may be provided to indicate that
           free-files indicates a percentage of the calculated image size.

     -M minimum-size
           Set the minimum size of the file system image to minimum-size.

     -m maximum-size
           Set the maximum size of the file system image to maximum-size.  An
           error will be raised if the target file system needs to be larger
           than this to accommodate the provided directory tree.

     -N userdb-dir
           Use the user database text file master.passwd and group database
           text file group from userdb-dir, rather than using the results from
           the system's getpwnam(3) and getgrnam(3) (and related) library

     -O offset
           Instead of creating the filesystem at the beginning of the file,
           start at offset.  Valid only for ffs and msdos.

     -o fs-options
           Set file system specific options.  fs-options is a comma separated
           list of options.  Valid file system specific options are detailed

     -r    When merging multiple directories replace duplicate files with the
           last found.

     -S sector-size
           Set the file system sector size to sector-size.  Defaults to 512.

     -s image-size
           Set the size of the file system image to image-size.

     -t fs-type
           Create an fs-type file system image.  The following file system
           types are supported:

                 ffs     BSD fast file system (default).

                 cd9660  ISO 9660 file system.

                 chfs    Chip flash file system.

                 msdos   FAT12, FAT16, or FAT32 file system.

                 v7fs    7th Edition(V7) file system.

                 udf     ISO/Ecma UDF file system.

     -x    Exclude file system nodes not explicitly listed in the specfile.

     -Z    Create a sparse file for ffs.  This is useful for virtual machine

     Where sizes are specified, a decimal number of bytes is expected.  Two or
     more numbers may be separated by an ``x'' to indicate a product.  Each
     number may have one of the following optional suffixes:
           b    Block; multiply by 512
           k    Kibi; multiply by 1024 (1 KiB)
           m    Mebi; multiply by 1048576 (1 MiB)
           g    Gibi; multiply by 1073741824 (1 GiB)
           t    Tebi; multiply by 1099511627776 (1 TiB)
           w    Word; multiply by the number of bytes in an integer

   FFS-specific options
     ffs images have ffs-specific optional parameters that may be provided.
     Each of the options consists of a keyword, an equal sign (`='), and a
     value.  The following keywords are supported:

           avgfilesize   Expected average file size.
           avgfpdir      Expected number of files per directory.
           bsize         Block size.
           density       Bytes per inode.
           fsize         Fragment size.
           label         Label name of the image.
           maxbpg        Maximum blocks per file in a cylinder group.
           minfree       Minimum % free.
           optimization  Optimization preference; one of `space' or `time'.
           extent        Maximum extent size.
           maxbpcg       Maximum total number of blocks in a cylinder group.
           version       UFS version.  1 for FFS (default), 2 for UFS2.

   CD9660-specific options
     cd9660 images have ISO9660-specific optional parameters that may be pro-
     vided.  The arguments consist of a keyword and, optionally, an equal sign
     (`='), and a value.  The following keywords are supported:

           allow-deep-trees      Allow the directory structure to exceed the
                                 maximum specified in the spec.
           allow-max-name        Allow 37 instead of 33 characters for file-
                                 names by omitting the version id.
           allow-multidot        Allow multiple dots in a filename.
           applicationid         Application ID of the image.
           archimedes            Use the `ARCHIMEDES' extension to encode RISC
                                 OS metadata.
           chrp-boot             Write an MBR partition table to the image to
                                 allow older CHRP hardware to boot.
           boot-load-segment     Set load segment for the boot image.
           bootimage             Filename of a boot image in the format
                                 ``sysid;filename'', where ``sysid'' is one of
                                 `i386', `mac68k', `macppc', or `powerpc'.
           generic-bootimage     Load a generic boot image into the first 32K
                                 of the cd9660 image.
           hard-disk-boot        Boot image is a hard disk image.
           keep-bad-images       Don't throw away images whose write was
                                 aborted due to an error.  For debugging pur-
           label                 Label name of the image.
           no-boot               Boot image is not bootable.
           no-emul-boot          Boot image is a ``no emulation'' ElTorito
           no-trailing-padding   Do not pad the image (apparently Linux needs
                                 the padding).
           preparer              Preparer ID of the image.
           publisher             Publisher ID of the image.
           rockridge             Use RockRidge extensions (for longer file-
                                 names, etc.).
           volumeid              Volume set identifier of the image.

   CHFS-specific options
     chfs images have chfs-specific optional parameters that may be provided.
     Each of the options consists of a keyword, an equal sign (`='), and a
     value.  The following keywords are supported:

           pagesize      Pagesize.
           erasesize     Erase block size of the media.
           mediatype     Type of the media.  NOR: 0 or NAND: 1.

   msdos-specific options
     See newfs_msdos(8) for fs specific options.

   V7FS-specific options
     The following keywords are supported:

           pdp           PDP endian.
           progress      Display a progress meter for the file system con-
                         struction and file population.

   UDF-specific options
     udf images have udf-specific optional parameters that may be provided.
     Each of the options consists of a keyword, an equal sign (`='), and a
     value.  The following keywords are supported:

     disctype      This can have the following values:
                   cdrom, dvdrom, bdrom   create a read-only fs
                   dvdram, bdre, disk     create a rewritable fs without spar-
                                          ing for defective sectors
                   cdr, dvdr, bdr         create a rewritable fs on once
                                          recordable media using a VAT
                   cdrw, dvdrw            create a rewritable fs with sparing
                                          for defective sectors
                   When an optical media is selected here, the sectorsize and
                   the default disc size is assumed unless given explicitly.
                   For rom images the disc size is the minimum needed.
     loglabel      Set the logical volume label of the disc to the specified
     discid        Set the physical volume label of the disc to the specified
                   argument.  Prepend the physical volume label with a volume-
                   set label separated with a ':' if wanted.  For strict con-
                   formance and interchange, don't set the volumeset label
                   manually unless it has an unique hex number in the first 8
                   character positions.
     minver        Set the minimum UDF version to be used.  Choose UDF version
                   numbers from 0x102, 0x150, 0x200, and 0x201.  Versions
                   0x250 and 0x260 are currently not supported in makefs.

     strsuftoll(3), installboot(8), mtree(8), newfs(8)

     The makefs utility appeared in NetBSD 1.6.

     Luke Mewburn <> (original program),
     Daniel Watt,
     Walter Deignan,
     Ryan Gabrys,
     Alan Perez-Rathke,
     Ram Vedam (cd9660 support),
     UCHIYAMA Yasushi (v7fs support),
     Tamas Toth (chfs support).
     Christos Zoulas (msdos support).
     Reinoud Zandijk (udf support).

NetBSD 7.1.2                    August 6, 2013                    NetBSD 7.1.2

You can also request any man page by name and (optionally) by section:


Use the DEFAULT collection to view manual pages for third-party software.

©1994 Man-cgi 1.15, Panagiotis Christias
©1996-2019 Modified for NetBSD by Kimmo Suominen