GROFF_CHAR(7)                                                    GROFF_CHAR(7)

       groff_char - groff glyph names

       This  manual  page lists the standard groff glyph names and the default
       input mapping, latin-1.  The glyphs in this document will look  differ-
       ent depending on which output device was chosen (with option -T for the
       man(1) program or the roff formatter).  Glyphs not  available  for  the
       device  that  is  being  used to print or view this manual page will be
       marked with `(N/A)'; the device currently used is `latin1'.

       In the actual version, groff provides only 8-bit characters for  direct
       input and named entities for further glyphs.  On ASCII platforms, input
       character codes in the range 0 to 127  (decimal)  represent  the  usual
       7-bit ASCII characters, while codes between 127 and 255 are interpreted
       as the corresponding characters in the Latin-1 (ISO-8859-1) code set by
       default.   This mapping is contained in the file latin1.tmac and can be
       changed by loading a different input encoding.  Note that some  of  the
       input  characters are reserved by groff, either for internal use or for
       special input purposes.  On EBCDIC platforms, only code page cp1047  is
       supported  (which  contains  the  same characters as Latin-1; the input
       encoding file is called cp1047.tmac).  Again, some input characters are
       reserved  for internal and special purposes.  It is rather straightfor-
       ward (for the experienced user) to set up other  8-bit  encodings  like
       Latin-2;  since  groff  will  use Unicode in the next major version, no
       additional encodings are provided.

       All roff systems provide the concept of named glyphs.   In  traditional
       roff  systems,  only names of length 2 were used, while groff also pro-
       vides support for longer names.  It is  strongly  suggested  that  only
       named  glyphs are used for all character representations outside of the
       printable 7-bit ASCII range.

       Some of the predefined groff escape sequences (with names of  length 1)
       also  produce  single characters; these exist for historical reasons or
       are printable versions of syntactical characters.  They  include  `\\',
       `\', `\`', `\-', `\.', and `\e'; see groff(7).

       In  groff, all of these different types of characters and glyphs can be
       tested positively with the `.if c' conditional.

       In this section, the glyphs in groff are  specified  in  tabular  form.
       The meaning of the columns is as follows.

       Output shows  how the glyph is printed for the current device; although
              this can have quite a  different  shape  on  other  devices,  it
              always represents the same glyph.

       Input name
              specifies how the glyph is input either directly by a key on the
              keyboard, or by a groff escape sequence.

       Input code
              applies to glyphs which can be input with  a  single  character,
              and  gives the ISO Latin-1 decimal code of that input character.
              Note that this code is equivalent  to  the  lowest  256  Unicode
              characters, including 7-bit ASCII in the range 0 to 127.

       PostScript name
              gives the usual PostScript name of the glyph.

       Unicode decomposed
              is the glyph name used in composite glyph names.

   7-bit Character Codes 32-126
       These  are  the  basic  glyphs having 7-bit ASCII code values assigned.
       They are identical to the printable characters of the  character  stan-
       dards  ISO-8859-1  (Latin-1)  and  Unicode (range C0 Controls and Basic
       Latin).  The glyph names used in composite glyph names are  `u0020'  up
       to `u007E'.

       Note  that input characters in the range 0-31 and character 127 are not
       printable characters.  Most of them are invalid  input  characters  for
       groff anyway, and the valid ones have special meaning.  For EBCDIC, the
       printable characters are in the range 66-255.

       48-57  Decimal digits 0 to 9 (print as themselves).

       65-90  Upper case letters A-Z (print as themselves).

       97-122 Lower case letters a-z (print as themselves).

       Most of the remaining characters not in the just described ranges print
       as themselves; the only exceptions are the following characters:

       `      the  ISO  Latin-1  `Grave  Accent' (code 96) prints as `, a left
              single quotation mark; the original character  can  be  obtained
              with `\`'.

       '      the ISO Latin-1 `Apostrophe' (code 39) prints as ', a right sin-
              gle quotation mark; the original character can be obtained  with

       -      the  ISO  Latin-1  `Hyphen,  Minus  Sign'  (code 45) prints as a
              hyphen; a minus sign can be obtained with `\-'.

       ~      the ISO Latin-1 `Tilde' (code 126) is  reduced  in  size  to  be
              usable  as  a  diacritic;  a  larger  glyph can be obtained with

       ^      the ISO Latin-1 `Circumflex Accent' (code 94) is reduced in size
              to be usable as a diacritic; a larger glyph can be obtained with

       Output  Input  Input  PostScript    Unicode     Notes
               name   code   name          decomposed

       !       !      33     exclam        u0021
       "       "      34     quotedbl      u0022
       #       #      35     numbersign    u0023
       $       $      36     dollar        u0024
       %       %      37     percent       u0025
       &       &      38     ampersand     u0026
       '       '      39     quoteright    u0027
       (       (      40     parenleft     u0028
       )       )      41     parenright    u0029
       *       *      42     asterisk      u002A
       +       +      43     plus          u002B
       ,       ,      44     comma         u002C
       -       -      45     hyphen        u2010
       .       .      46     period        u002E
       /       /      47     slash         u002F
       :       :      58     colon         u003A
       ;       ;      59     semicolon     u003B
       <       <      60     less          u003C
       =       =      61     equal         u003D
       >       >      62     greater       u003E
       ?       ?      63     question      u003F
       @       @      64     at            u0040
       [       [      91     bracketleft   u005B
       \       \      92     backslash     u005C
       ]       ]      93     bracketright  u005D
       ^       ^      94     circumflex    u005E       circumflex accent
       _       _      95     underscore    u005F
       `       `      96     quoteleft     u0060
       {       {      123    braceleft     u007B
       |       |      124    bar           u007C
       }       }      125    braceright    u007D
       ~       ~      126    tilde         u007E       tilde accent

   8-bit Character Codes 160 to 255
       They are interpreted as printable characters according to  the  Latin-1
       (iso-8859-1) code set, being identical to the Unicode range C1 Controls
       and Latin-1 Supplement.

       Input characters in range 128-159 (on non-EBCDIC hosts) are not  print-
       able characters.

       160    the  ISO  Latin-1 no-break space is mapped to `\~', the stretch-
              able space character.

       173    the soft hyphen control character.  groff never uses this  char-
              acter  for  output  (thus it is omitted in the table below); the
              input character 173 is mapped onto `\%'.

       The remaining ranges (161-172, 174-255) are printable  characters  that
       print  as themselves.  Although they can be specified directly with the
       keyboard on systems with a Latin-1 code page, it is better to use their
       glyph names; see next section.

       Output  Input  Input  PostScript      Unicode     Notes
               name   code   name            decomposed

                    161    exclamdown      u00A1       inverted exclamation
                    162    cent            u00A2
                    163    sterling        u00A3
                    164    currency        u00A4
                    165    yen             u00A5
                    166    brokenbar       u00A6
                    167    section         u00A7
                    168    dieresis        u00A8
                    169    copyright       u00A9
                    170    ordfeminine     u00AA
       <       <      171    guillemotleft   u00AB
                    172    logicalnot      u00AC
                    174    registered      u00AE
                    175    macron          u00AF
                    176    degree          u00B0
                    177    plusminus       u00B1
                    178    twosuperior     u00B2
                    179    threesuperior   u00B3
                    180    acute           u00B4       acute accent
                    181    mu              u00B5       micro sign
                    182    paragraph       u00B6
                    183    periodcentered  u00B7
                    184    cedilla         u00B8
                    185    onesuperior     u00B9
                    186    ordmasculine    u00BA
       >       >      187    guillemotright  u00BB
                    188    onequarter      u00BC
                    189    onehalf         u00BD
                    190    threequarters   u00BE
                    191    questiondown    u00BF
                    192    Agrave          u0041_0300
                    193    Aacute          u0041_0301
                    194    Acircumflex     u0041_0302
                    195    Atilde          u0041_0303
                    196    Adieresis       u0041_0308
                    197    Aring           u0041_030A
                    198    AE              u00C6
                    199    Ccedilla        u0043_0327
                    200    Egrave          u0045_0300
                    201    Eacute          u0045_0301
                    202    Ecircumflex     u0045_0302
                    203    Edieresis       u0045_0308
                    204    Igrave          u0049_0300
                    205    Iacute          u0049_0301
                    206    Icircumflex     u0049_0302
                    207    Idieresis       u0049_0308
                    208    Eth             u00D0
                    209    Ntilde          u004E_0303
                    210    Ograve          u004F_0300
                    211    Oacute          u004F_0301
                    212    Ocircumflex     u004F_0302
                    213    Otilde          u004F_0303
                    214    Odieresis       u004F_0308
                    215    multiply        u00D7
                    216    Oslash          u00D8
                    217    Ugrave          u0055_0300
                    218    Uacute          u0055_0301
                    219    Ucircumflex     u0055_0302
                    220    Udieresis       u0055_0308
                    221    Yacute          u0059_0301
                    222    Thorn           u00DE
                    223    germandbls      u00DF
                    224    agrave          u0061_0300
                    225    aacute          u0061_0301
                    226    acircumflex     u0061_0302
                    227    atilde          u0061_0303
                    228    adieresis       u0061_0308
                    229    aring           u0061_030A
                    230    ae              u00E6
                    231    ccedilla        u0063_0327
                    232    egrave          u0065_0300
                    233    eacute          u0065_0301
                    234    ecircumflex     u0065_0302
                    235    edieresis       u0065_0308
                    236    igrave          u0069_0300
                    237    iacute          u0069_0301
                    238    icircumflex     u0069_0302
                    239    idieresis       u0069_0308
                    240    eth             u00F0
                    241    ntilde          u006E_0303
                    242    ograve          u006F_0300
                    243    oacute          u006F_0301
                    244    ocircumflex     u006F_0302
                    245    otilde          u006F_0303
                    246    odieresis       u006F_0308
                    247    divide          u00F7
                    248    oslash          u00F8
                    249    ugrave          u0075_0300
                    250    uacute          u0075_0301
                    251    ucircumflex     u0075_0302
                    252    udieresis       u0075_0308
                    253    yacute          u0079_0301
                    254    thorn           u00FE
                    255    ydieresis       u0079_0308

   Named Glyphs
       Glyph names can be embedded into the  document  text  by  using  escape
       sequences.   groff(7) describes how these escape sequences look.  Glyph
       names can consist of quite  arbitrary  characters  from  the  ASCII  or
       Latin-1  code  set,  not only alphanumeric characters.  Here some exam-

       \c     A glyph having the name c, which consists of a single  character
              (length 1).

       \(ch   A glyph having the 2-character name ch.

              A  glyph having the name char_name (having length 1, 2, 3, ...).

       \[base_glyph composite_1 composite_2 ...]
              A composite glyph; see below for a more detailed description.

       In groff, each 8-bit input character can also referred to by  the  con-
       struct  `\[charn]' where n is the decimal code of the character, a num-
       ber between 0 and 255 without leading zeros  (those  entities  are  not
       glyph  names).   They  are  normally mapped onto glyphs using the .trin
       request.  Another special convention is the  handling  of  glyphs  with
       names  directly  derived  from  a Unicode code point; this is discussed
       below.  Moreover, new glyph names can be created by the .char  request;
       see groff(7).

       In the following, a plus sign in the `Notes' column indicates that this
       particular glyph name appears in the PS version of the  original  troff
       documentation, CSTR 54.

       Output  Input  PostScript   Unicode          Notes
               name   name         decomposed

              \[-D]  Eth          u00D0            uppercase eth
              \[Sd]  eth          u00F0            lowercase eth
              \[TP]  Thorn        u00DE            uppercase thorn
              \[Tp]  thorn        u00FE            lowercase thorn
              \[ss]  germandbls   u00DF            German sharp s

       Ligatures and Other Latin Glyphs

       ff      \[ff]  ff           u0066_0066       ff ligature +
       fi      \[fi]  fi           u0066_0069       fi ligature +
       fl      \[fl]  fl           u0066_006C       fl ligature +
       ffi     \[Fi]  ffi          u0066_0066_0069  ffi ligature +
       ffl     \[Fl]  ffl          u0066_0066_006C  ffl ligature +
       L       \[/L]  Lslash       u0141            (Polish)
       l       \[/l]  lslash       u0142            (Polish)
              \[/O]  Oslash       u00D8            (Scandinavic)
              \[/o]  oslash       u00F8            (Scandinavic)
              \[AE]  AE           u00C6
              \[ae]  ae           u00E6
       OE      \[OE]  OE           u0152
       oe      \[oe]  oe           u0153
       IJ      \[IJ]  IJ           u0132            (Dutch)
       ij      \[ij]  ij           u0133            (Dutch)
       i       \[.i]  dotlessi     u0131            (Turkish)
       (N/A)   \[.j]  dotlessj     ---              j without a dot

       Accented Characters

              \['A]  Aacute       u0041_0301
       (N/A)   \['C]  Cacute       u0043_0301
              \['E]  Eacute       u0045_0301
              \['I]  Iacute       u0049_0301
              \['O]  Oacute       u004F_0301
              \['U]  Uacute       u0055_0301
              \['Y]  Yacute       u0059_0301
              \['a]  aacute       u0061_0301
       (N/A)   \['c]  cacute       u0063_0301
              \['e]  eacute       u0065_0301
              \['i]  iacute       u0069_0301
              \['o]  oacute       u006F_0301
              \['u]  uacute       u0075_0301
              \['y]  yacute       u0079_0301
              \[:A]  Adieresis    u0041_0308       A with umlaut
              \[:E]  Edieresis    u0045_0308
              \[:I]  Idieresis    u0049_0308
              \[:O]  Odieresis    u004F_0308
              \[:U]  Udieresis    u0055_0308
       (N/A)   \[:Y]  Ydieresis    u0059_0308
              \[:a]  adieresis    u0061_0308
              \[:e]  edieresis    u0065_0308
              \[:i]  idieresis    u0069_0308
              \[:o]  odieresis    u006F_0308
              \[:u]  udieresis    u0075_0308
              \[:y]  ydieresis    u0079_0308
              \[^A]  Acircumflex  u0041_0302
              \[^E]  Ecircumflex  u0045_0302
              \[^I]  Icircumflex  u0049_0302
              \[^O]  Ocircumflex  u004F_0302
              \[^U]  Ucircumflex  u0055_0302
              \[^a]  acircumflex  u0061_0302
              \[^e]  ecircumflex  u0065_0302
              \[^i]  icircumflex  u0069_0302
              \[^o]  ocircumflex  u006F_0302
              \[^u]  ucircumflex  u0075_0302
              \[`A]  Agrave       u0041_0300
              \[`E]  Egrave       u0045_0300
              \[`I]  Igrave       u0049_0300
              \[`O]  Ograve       u004F_0300
              \[`U]  Ugrave       u0055_0300
              \[`a]  agrave       u0061_0300
              \[`e]  egrave       u0065_0300
              \[`i]  igrave       u0069_0300
              \[`o]  ograve       u006F_0300
              \[`u]  ugrave       u0075_0300
              \[~A]  Atilde       u0041_0303
              \[~N]  Ntilde       u004E_0303
              \[~O]  Otilde       u004F_0303
              \[~a]  atilde       u0061_0303
              \[~n]  ntilde       u006E_0303
              \[~o]  otilde       u006F_0303
       (N/A)   \[vS]  Scaron       u0053_030C
       (N/A)   \[vs]  scaron       u0073_030C
       (N/A)   \[vZ]  Zcaron       u005A_030C
       (N/A)   \[vz]  zcaron       u007A_030C
              \[,C]  Ccedilla     u0043_0327
              \[,c]  ccedilla     u0063_0327
              \[oA]  Aring        u0041_030A
              \[oa]  aring        u0061_030A


       The composite request is used to map most of the accents to non-spacing
       glyph names; the values given in parentheses are the original (spacing)

       Output  Input  PostScript       Unicode        Notes
               name   name             decomposed

       "       \[a"]  hungarumlaut     u030B (u02DD)  (Hungarian)
              \[a-]  macron           u0304 (u00AF)
              \[a.]  dotaccent        u0307 (u02D9)
       ^       \[a^]  circumflex       u0302 (u005E)
              \[aa]  acute            u0301 (u00B4)  +
       `       \[ga]  grave            u0300 (u0060)  +
       `       \[ab]  breve            u0306 (u02D8)
              \[ac]  cedilla          u0327 (u00B8)
              \[ad]  dieresis         u0308 (u00A8)  umlaut
       v       \[ah]  caron            u030C (u02C7)  hcek
              \[ao]  ring             u030A (u02DA)  circle
       ~       \[a~]  tilde            u0303 (u007E)
              \[ho]  ogonek           u0328 (u02DB)  hook
       ^       \[ha]  asciicircum      u005E          (spacing)
       ~       \[ti]  asciitilde       u007E          (spacing)


       ,,      \[Bq]  quotedblbase     u201E          low double comma quote
       ,       \[bq]  quotesinglbase   u201A          low single comma quote
       "       \[lq]  quotedblleft     u201C
       "       \[rq]  quotedblright    u201D
       `       \[oq]  quoteleft        u2018          single open quote
       '       \[cq]  quoteright       u2019          single closing quote
       '       \[aq]  quotesingle      u0027          apostrophe quote (ASCII
       "       \[dq]  quotedbl         u0022          double quote (ASCII 34)
       <       \[Fo]  guillemotleft    u00AB
       >       \[Fc]  guillemotright   u00BB
       <       \[fo]  guilsinglleft    u2039
       >       \[fc]  guilsinglright   u203A


              \[r!]  exclamdown       u00A1
              \[r?]  questiondown     u00BF
       --      \[em]  emdash           u2014          +
       -       \[en]  endash           u2013
       -       \[hy]  hyphen           u2010          +


       The extensible bracket pieces are font-invariant glyphs.  In  classical
       troff  only  one  glyph  was  available  to vertically extend brackets,
       braces, and parentheses: `bv'.  We map it rather arbitrarily to  u23AA.

       Note  that  not all devices contain extensible bracket pieces which can
       be piled up with `\b' due to the restrictions of  the  escape's  piling
       algorithm.   A  general solution to build brackets out of pieces is the
       following macro:

              .\" Make a pile centered vertically 0.5em
              .\" above the baseline.
              .\" The first argument is placed at the top.
              .\" The pile is returned in string `pile'
              .de pile-make
              .  nr pile-wd 0
              .  nr pile-ht 0
              .  ds pile-args
              .  nr pile-# \n[.$]
              .  while \n[pile-#] \{\
              .    nr pile-wd (\n[pile-wd] >? \w'\$[\n[pile-#]]')
              .    nr pile-ht +(\n[rst] - \n[rsb])
              .    as pile-args \v'\n[rsb]u'\"
              .    as pile-args \Z'\$[\n[pile-#]]'\"
              .    as pile-args \v'-\n[rst]u'\"
              .    nr pile-# -1
              .  \}
              .  ds pile \v'(-0.5m + (\n[pile-ht]u / 2u))'\"
              .  as pile \*[pile-args]\"
              .  as pile \v'((\n[pile-ht]u / 2u) + 0.5m)'\"
              .  as pile \h'\n[pile-wd]u'\"

       Another complication is the  fact  that  some  glyphs  which  represent
       bracket  pieces  in  original  troff can be used for other mathematical
       symbols also, for example `lf' and `rf' which provide the `floor' oper-
       ator.   Other  devices  (most  notably for DVI output) don't unify such
       glyphs.  For this reason, the four glyphs `lf', `rf',  `lc',  and  `rc'
       are  not unified with similarly looking bracket pieces.  In groff, only
       glyphs with long names are guaranteed to  pile  up  correctly  for  all
       devices (provided those glyphs exist).

       Output  Input              PostScript      Unicode     Notes
               name               name            decomposed

       [       \[lB]              bracketleft     u005B
       ]       \[rB]              bracketright    u005D
       {       \[lC]              braceleft       u007B
       }       \[rC]              braceright      u007D
       <       \[la]              angleleft       u27E8       left angle
       >       \[ra]              angleright      u27E9       right angle
       |       \[bv]              braceex         u23AA       vertical exten-
                                                              sion *** +
       (N/A)   \[braceex]         braceex         u23AA
       (N/A)   \[bracketlefttp]   bracketlefttp   u23A1
       (N/A)   \[bracketleftbt]   bracketleftbt   u23A3
       (N/A)   \[bracketleftex]   bracketleftex   u23A2
       (N/A)   \[bracketrighttp]  bracketrighttp  u23A4
       (N/A)   \[bracketrightbt]  bracketrightbt  u23A6
       (N/A)   \[bracketrightex]  bracketrightex  u23A5
       ,-      \[lt]              bracelefttp     u23A7       +
       (N/A)   \[bracelefttp]     bracelefttp     u23A7
       {       \[lk]              braceleftmid    u23A8       +
       (N/A)   \[braceleftmid]    braceleftmid    u23A8
       `-      \[lb]              braceleftbt     u23A9       +
       (N/A)   \[braceleftbt]     braceleftbt     u23A9
       (N/A)   \[braceleftex]     braceleftex     u23AA
       -.      \[rt]              bracerighttp    u23AB       +
       (N/A)   \[bracerighttp]    bracerighttp    u23AB
       }       \[rk]              bracerightmid   u23AC       +
       (N/A)   \[bracerightmid]   bracerightmid   u23AC
       -'      \[rb]              bracerightbt    u23AD       +
       (N/A)   \[bracerightbt]    bracerightbt    u23AD
       (N/A)   \[bracerightex]    bracerightex    u23AA
       (N/A)   \[parenlefttp]     parenlefttp     u239B
       (N/A)   \[parenleftbt]     parenleftbt     u239D
       (N/A)   \[parenleftex]     parenleftex     u239C
       (N/A)   \[parenrighttp]    parenrighttp    u239E
       (N/A)   \[parenrightbt]    parenrightbt    u23A0
       (N/A)   \[parenrightex]    parenrightex    u239F


       <-      \[<-]              arrowleft       u2190       +
       ->      \[->]              arrowright      u2192       +
       <->     \[<>]              arrowboth       u2194       (horizontal)
       v       \[da]              arrowdown       u2193       +
       ^       \[ua]              arrowup         u2191       +
       (N/A)   \[va]              arrowupdn       u2195
       <=      \[lA]              arrowdblleft    u21D0
       =>      \[rA]              arrowdblright   u21D2
       <=>     \[hA]              arrowdblboth    u21D4       (horizontal)
       v       \[dA]              arrowdbldown    u21D3
       ^       \[uA]              arrowdblup      u21D1
       (N/A)   \[vA]              uni21D5         u21D5       vertical double-
                                                              headed double
       -       \[an]              arrowhorizex    u23AF       horizontal arrow


       The  font-invariant  glyphs `br', `ul', and `rn' form corners; they can
       be used to build boxes.  Note that both the PostScript and the Unicode-
       derived names of these three glyphs are just rough approximations.

       `rn'  also serves in classical troff as the horizontal extension of the
       square root sign.

       `ru' is a font-invariant glyph, namely a rule of length 0.5m.

       Output  Input        PostScript      Unicode     Notes
               name         name            decomposed

       |       \[ba]        bar             u007C
       |       \[br]        SF110000        u2502       box rule +
       _       \[ul]        underscore      u005F       +
              \[rn]        overline        u203E       use `\[radicalex]' for
                                                        continuation of square
                                                        root +
       _       \[ru]        ---             ---         baseline rule +
              \[bb]        brokenbar       u00A6
       /       \[sl]        slash           u002F       +
       \       \[rs]        backslash       u005C       reverse solidus

       Text markers

       O       \[ci]        circle          u25CB       +
              \[bu]        bullet          u2022       +
       =       \[dd]        daggerdbl       u2021       double dagger sign +
       -       \[dg]        dagger          u2020       +
       <>      \[lz]        lozenge         u25CA
       []      \[sq]        uni25A1         u25A1       white square +
              \[ps]        paragraph       u00B6
              \[sc]        section         u00A7       +
       <=      \[lh]        uni261C         u261C       hand pointing left +
       =>      \[rh]        a14             u261E       hand pointing right +
       @       \[at]        at              u0040
       #       \[sh]        numbersign      u0023
       _|      \[CR]        carriagereturn  u21B5
       (N/A)   \[OK]        a19             u2713       check mark, tick

       Legal Symbols

              \[co]        copyright       u00A9       +
              \[rg]        registered      u00AE       +
       tm      \[tm]        trademark       u2122
       (N/A)   \[bs]        ---             ---         AT&T Bell Labs logo
                                                        (not used in groff) +

       Currency symbols

       $       \[Do]        dollar          u0024
              \[ct]        cent            u00A2       +
       EUR     \[eu]        ---             u20AC       official Euro symbol
       EUR     \[Eu]        Euro            u20AC       font-specific Euro
                                                        glyph variant
              \[Ye]        yen             u00A5
              \[Po]        sterling        u00A3       British currency sign
              \[Cs]        currency        u00A4       Scandinavian currency
       f       \[Fn]        florin          u0192       Dutch currency sign


              \[de]        degree          u00B0       +
       %o      \[%0]        perthousand     u2030       per thousand, per
                                                        mille sign
       '       \[fm]        minute          u2032       footmark, prime +
       ''      \[sd]        second          u2033
              \[mc]        mu              u00B5       micro sign
              \[Of]        ordfeminine     u00AA
              \[Om]        ordmasculine    u00BA

       Logical Symbols

       ^       \[AN]        logicaland      u2227
       v       \[OR]        logicalor       u2228
              \[no]        logicalnot      u00AC       +
              \[tno]       logicalnot      u00AC       text variant of `no'
       3       \[te]        existential     u2203       there exists, existen-
                                                        tial quantifier
       V       \[fa]        universal       u2200       for all, universal
       -)      \[st]        suchthat        u220B
       ..     \[3d]        therefore       u2234
       ..     \[tf]        therefore       u2234
       |       \[or]        bar             u007C       bitwise OR operator
                                                        (as used in C) +

       Mathematical Symbols

              \[12]        onehalf         u00BD       +
              \[14]        onequarter      u00BC       +
              \[34]        threequarters   u00BE       +
       1/8     \[18]        oneeighth       u215B
       3/8     \[38]        threeeighths    u215C
       5/8     \[58]        fiveeighths     u215D
       7/8     \[78]        seveneighths    u215E
              \[S1]        onesuperior     u00B9
              \[S2]        twosuperior     u00B2
              \[S3]        threesuperior   u00B3
       +       \[pl]        plus            u002B       plus sign in special
                                                        font +
       -       \[mi]        minus           u2212       minus sign in special
                                                        font +
       -+      \[-+]        uni2213         u2213
              \[+-]        plusminus       u00B1       +
              \[t+-]       plusminus       u00B1       text variant of `+-'
              \[pc]        periodcentered  u00B7
              \[md]        dotmath         u22C5       multiplication dot
              \[mu]        multiply        u00D7       +
              \[tmu]       multiply        u00D7       text variant of `mu'
              \[c*]        circlemultiply  u2297       multiply sign in a
       +       \[c+]        circleplus      u2295       plus sign in a circle
              \[di]        divide          u00F7       division sign +
              \[tdi]       divide          u00F7       text variant of `di'
       /       \[f/]        fraction        u2044       bar for fractions
       *       \[**]        asteriskmath    u2217       +
       <=      \[<=]        lessequal       u2264       +
       >=      \[>=]        greaterequal    u2265       +
       <<      \[<<]        uni226A         u226A       much less
       >>      \[>>]        uni226B         u226B       much greater
       =       \[eq]        equal           u003D       equals sign in special
                                                        font +
       !=      \[!=]        notequal        u003D_0338  +
       ==      \[==]        equivalence     u2261       +
       !==     \[ne]        uni2262         u2261_0338
       =~      \[=~]        congruent       u2245       approx. equal
       -~      \[|=]        uni2243         u2243       asymptot. equal to +
       ~       \[ap]        similar         u223C       +
       ~~      \[~~]        approxequal     u2248       almost equal to
       ~=      \[~=]        approxequal     u2248
       oc      \[pt]        proportional    u221D       +
       {}      \[es]        emptyset        u2205       +
       E       \[mo]        element         u2208       +
       E       \[nm]        notelement      u2208_0338
       (=      \[sb]        propersubset    u2282       +
       (N/A)   \[nb]        notsubset       u2282_0338
       =)      \[sp]        propersuperset  u2283       +
       (N/A)   \[nc]        uni2285         u2283_0338  not superset
       (_      \[ib]        reflexsubset    u2286       +
       _)      \[ip]        reflexsuperset  u2287       +
       (^)     \[ca]        intersection    u2229       intersection, cap +
       U       \[cu]        union           u222A       union, cup +
       /       \[/_]        angle           u2220
       |       \[pp]        perpendicular   u22A5
       ,       \[is]        integral        u222B       +
       (N/A)   \[integral]  integral        u222B       ***
       (N/A)   \[sum]       summation       u2211       ***
       (N/A)   \[product]   product         u220F       ***
       (N/A)   \[coproduct] uni2210         u2210       ***
       V       \[gr]        gradient        u2207       +
       \/      \[sr]        radical         u221A       square root +
       (N/A)   \[sqrt]      radical         u221A       ***
       (N/A)   \[radicalex] radicalex       ---         continuation of square
       (N/A)   \[sqrtex]    radicalex       ---         ***
       |~      \[lc]        uni2308         u2308       left ceiling +
       ~|      \[rc]        uni2309         u2309       right ceiling +
       |_      \[lf]        uni230A         u230A       left floor +
       _|      \[rf]        uni230B         u230B       right floor +
       oo      \[if]        infinity        u221E       +
       N       \[Ah]        aleph           u2135
       I       \[Im]        Ifraktur        u2111       Gothic I, imaginary
       R       \[Re]        Rfraktur        u211C       Gothic R, real
       p       \[wp]        weierstrass     u2118       Weierstrass p
       a       \[pd]        partialdiff     u2202       partial differentia-
                                                        tion sign +
       (N/A)   \[-h]        uni210F         u210F       Planck constant over
                                                        two pi
       (N/A)   \[hbar]      uni210F         u210F

       Greek characters

       These glyphs are intended for technical use, not for real  Greek;  nor-
       mally, the uppercase letters have upright shape, and the lowercase ones
       are slanted.  There is a problem with the mapping of letter phi to Uni-
       code.   Prior  to  Unicode  version 3.0, the difference between U+03C6,
       GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI, and U+03D5, GREEK PHI SYMBOL, was  not  clearly
       described; only the glyph shapes in the Unicode book could be used as a
       reference.  Starting with Unicode 3.0, the reference glyphs  have  been
       exchanged  and described verbally also: In mathematical context, U+03D5
       is the stroked variant and U+03C5 the curly glyph.  Unfortunately, most
       font vendors didn't update their fonts to this (incompatible) change in
       Unicode.  At the time of this writing (February 2003), it is not  clear
       yet  whether  the  Adobe  Glyph  Names `phi' and `phi1' also change its
       meaning if used for mathematics, thus compatibility problems are likely
       to happen - being conservative, groff currently assumes that `phi' in a
       PostScript symbol font is the stroked version.

       In groff, symbol `\[*f]' always denotes the stroked version of phi, and
       `\[+f]' the curly variant.

       A       \[*A]        Alpha           u0391       +
       B       \[*B]        Beta            u0392       +
       |      \[*G]        Gamma           u0393       +
       /\      \[*D]        Delta           u0394       +
       E       \[*E]        Epsilon         u0395       +
       Z       \[*Z]        Zeta            u0396       +
       H       \[*Y]        Eta             u0397       +
       O       \[*H]        Theta           u0398       +
       I       \[*I]        Iota            u0399       +
       K       \[*K]        Kappa           u039A       +
       /\      \[*L]        Lambda          u039B       +
       M       \[*M]        Mu              u039C       +
       N       \[*N]        Nu              u039D       +
       H       \[*C]        Xi              u039E       +
       O       \[*O]        Omicron         u039F       +
       TT      \[*P]        Pi              u03A0       +
       P       \[*R]        Rho             u03A1       +
       >       \[*S]        Sigma           u03A3       +
       T       \[*T]        Tau             u03A4       +
       Y       \[*U]        Upsilon         u03A5       +
       O       \[*F]        Phi             u03A6       +
       X       \[*X]        Chi             u03A7       +
       Y       \[*Q]        Psi             u03A8       +
       O       \[*W]        Omega           u03A9       +
       a       \[*a]        alpha           u03B1       +
              \[*b]        beta            u03B2       +
       y       \[*g]        gamma           u03B3       +
       d       \[*d]        delta           u03B4       +
       e       \[*e]        epsilon         u03B5       +
       C       \[*z]        zeta            u03B6       +
       n       \[*y]        eta             u03B7       +
       0       \[*h]        theta           u03B8       +
       i       \[*i]        iota            u03B9       +
       k       \[*k]        kappa           u03BA       +
       \       \[*l]        lambda          u03BB       +
              \[*m]        mu              u03BC       +
       v       \[*n]        nu              u03BD       +
       E       \[*c]        xi              u03BE       +
       o       \[*o]        omicron         u03BF       +
       n       \[*p]        pi              u03C0       +
       p       \[*r]        rho             u03C1       +
       s       \[ts]        sigma1          u03C2       terminal sigma +
       o       \[*s]        sigma           u03C3       +
       t       \[*t]        tau             u03C4       +
       u       \[*u]        upsilon         u03C5       +
       o       \[*f]        phi             u03D5       (stroked glyph)+
       x       \[*x]        chi             u03C7       +
       u       \[*q]        psi             u03C8       +
       w       \[*w]        omega           u03C9       +
       0       \[+h]        theta1          u03D1       variant theta
       o       \[+f]        phi1            u03C6       variant phi (curly
       w       \[+p]        omega1          u03D6       variant pi, looking
                                                        like omega
       e       \[+e]        uni03F5         u03F5       variant epsilon

       Card symbols

       (N/A)   \[CL]        club            u2663       black club suit
       (N/A)   \[SP]        spade           u2660       black spade suit
       (N/A)   \[HE]        heart           u2665       black heart suit
       (N/A)   \[u2662]     uni2662         u2662       white heart suit
       (N/A)   \[DI]        diamond         u2666       black diamond suit
       (N/A)   \[u2661]     uni2661         u2661       white diamond suit

       Copyright  1989-2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 Free Software Foundation,

       This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Docu-
       mentation  License)  version  1.1 or later.  You should have received a
       copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the GNU
       copyleft site <>.

       This  document  is  part  of  groff, the GNU roff distribution.  It was
       written by James Clark <> with additions by  Werner  Lem-
       berg <> and Bernd Warken <>.

              the GNU roff formatter.

              a short reference of the groff formatting language.

       An  extension  to the troff character set for Europe, E.G. Keizer, K.J.
       Simonsen, J. Akkerhuis; EUUG Newsletter, Volume 9, No. 2, Summer 1989

       The Unicode Standard <>

Groff Version 1.19.2           September 4, 2005                 GROFF_CHAR(7)

You can also request any man page by name and (optionally) by section:


Use the DEFAULT collection to view manual pages for third-party software.

©1994 Man-cgi 1.15, Panagiotis Christias
©1996-2019 Modified for NetBSD by Kimmo Suominen