STAT(2)                   NetBSD System Calls Manual                   STAT(2)


NAME
stat, lstat, fstat -- get file status
LIBRARY
Standard C Library (libc, -lc)
SYNOPSIS
#include <sys/stat.h> int stat(const char *path, struct stat *sb); int lstat(const char *path, struct stat *sb); int fstat(int fd, struct stat *sb);
DESCRIPTION
The stat() function obtains information about the file pointed to by path. Read, write or execute permission of the named file is not required, but all directories listed in the path name leading to the file must be searchable. lstat() is like stat() except in the case where the named file is a sym- bolic link, in which case lstat() returns information about the link, while stat() returns information about the file the link references. The fstat() function obtains the same information about an open file known by the file descriptor fd. The sb argument is a pointer to a stat structure as defined by <sys/stat.h> (shown below) and into which information is placed concern- ing the file. struct stat { dev_t st_dev; /* device containing the file */ ino_t st_ino; /* file's serial number */ mode_t st_mode; /* file's mode (protection and type) */ nlink_t st_nlink; /* number of hard links to the file */ uid_t st_uid; /* user-id of owner */ gid_t st_gid; /* group-id of owner */ dev_t st_rdev; /* device type, for device special file */ #if defined(_NETBSD_SOURCE) struct timespec st_atimespec; /* time of last access */ struct timespec st_mtimespec; /* time of last data modification */ struct timespec st_ctimespec; /* time of last file status change */ #else time_t st_atime; /* time of last access */ long st_atimensec; /* nsec of last access */ time_t st_mtime; /* time of last data modification */ long st_mtimensec; /* nsec of last data modification */ time_t st_ctime; /* time of last file status change */ long st_ctimensec; /* nsec of last file status change */ #endif off_t st_size; /* file size, in bytes */ blkcnt_t st_blocks; /* blocks allocated for file */ blksize_t st_blksize; /* optimal file sys I/O ops blocksize */ uint32_t st_flags; /* user defined flags for file */ uint32_t st_gen; /* file generation number */ #if defined(_NETBSD_SOURCE) struct timespec st_birthtimespec; /* time of inode creation */ #else time_t st_birthtime; /* time of inode creation */ long st_birthtimensec; /* nsec of inode creation */ #endif }; The time-related fields of struct stat are as follows: st_atime Time when file data was last accessed. Changed by the mknod(2), utimes(2) and read(2) system calls. st_mtime Time when file data was last modified. Changed by the mknod(2), utimes(2) and write(2) system calls. st_ctime Time when file status was last changed (file metadata modification). Changed by the chflags(2), chmod(2), chown(2), link(2), mknod(2), rename(2), unlink(2), utimes(2) and write(2) system calls. st_birthtime Time when the inode was created. If _NETBSD_SOURCE is defined, the time-related fields are defined as: #if defined(_NETBSD_SOURCE) #define st_atime st_atimespec.tv_sec #define st_atimensec st_atimespec.tv_nsec #define st_mtime st_mtimespec.tv_sec #define st_mtimensec st_mtimespec.tv_nsec #define st_ctime st_ctimespec.tv_sec #define st_ctimensec st_ctimespec.tv_nsec #define st_birthtime st_birthtimespec.tv_sec #define st_birthtimensec st_birthtimespec.tv_nsec #endif The size-related fields of the struct stat are as follows: st_size The size of the file in bytes. A directory will be a mul- tiple of the size of the dirent(5) structure. Some filesystems (notably ZFS) return the number of enties in the directory instead of the size in bytes. st_blksize The optimal I/O block size for the file. st_blocks The actual number of blocks allocated for the file in 512-byte units. As short symbolic links are stored in the inode, this number may be zero. The status information word st_mode has the following bits: #define S_IFMT 0170000 /* type of file */ #define S_IFIFO 0010000 /* named pipe (fifo) */ #define S_IFCHR 0020000 /* character special */ #define S_IFDIR 0040000 /* directory */ #define S_IFBLK 0060000 /* block special */ #define S_IFREG 0100000 /* regular */ #define S_IFLNK 0120000 /* symbolic link */ #define S_IFSOCK 0140000 /* socket */ #define S_IFWHT 0160000 /* whiteout */ #define S_ISUID 0004000 /* set user id on execution */ #define S_ISGID 0002000 /* set group id on execution */ #define S_ISVTX 0001000 /* save swapped text even after use */ #define S_IRUSR 0000400 /* read permission, owner */ #define S_IWUSR 0000200 /* write permission, owner */ #define S_IXUSR 0000100 /* execute/search permission, owner */ #define S_IRGRP 0000040 /* read permission, group */ #define S_IWGRP 0000020 /* write permission, group */ #define S_IXGRP 0000010 /* execute/search permission, group */ #define S_IROTH 0000004 /* read permission, other */ #define S_IWOTH 0000002 /* write permission, other */ #define S_IXOTH 0000001 /* execute/search permission, other */ For a list of access modes, see <sys/stat.h>, access(2) and chmod(2). The status information word st_flags has the following bits: #define UF_NODUMP 0x00000001 /* do not dump file */ #define UF_IMMUTABLE 0x00000002 /* file may not be changed */ #define UF_APPEND 0x00000004 /* writes to file may only append */ #define UF_OPAQUE 0x00000008 /* directory is opaque wrt. union */ #define SF_ARCHIVED 0x00010000 /* file is archived */ #define SF_IMMUTABLE 0x00020000 /* file may not be changed */ #define SF_APPEND 0x00040000 /* writes to file may only append */ For a description of the flags, see chflags(2).
RETURN VALUES
Upon successful completion a value of 0 is returned. Otherwise, a value of -1 is returned and errno is set to indicate the error.
COMPATIBILITY
Previous versions of the system used different types for the st_dev, st_uid, st_gid, st_rdev, st_size, st_blksize and st_blocks fields.
ERRORS
stat() and lstat() will fail if: [ENOTDIR] A component of the path prefix is not a directory. [ENAMETOOLONG] A component of a pathname exceeded {NAME_MAX} charac- ters, or an entire path name exceeded {PATH_MAX} char- acters. [ENOENT] The named file does not exist. [EACCES] Search permission is denied for a component of the path prefix. [ELOOP] Too many symbolic links were encountered in translat- ing the pathname. [EFAULT] sb or name points to an invalid address. [ENXIO] The named file is a character special or block special file, and the device associated with this special file does not exist. [EIO] An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the file system. [EBADF] A badly formed v-node was encountered. This can hap- pen if a file system information node is incorrect. fstat() will fail if: [EBADF] fd is not a valid open file descriptor. [EFAULT] sb points to an invalid address. [EIO] An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the file system.
SEE ALSO
chflags(2), chmod(2), chown(2), utimes(2), dir(5), symlink(7)
STANDARDS
The stat() and fstat() functions conform to ISO/IEC 9945-1:1990 (``POSIX.1'').
HISTORY
A lstat() function call appeared in 4.2BSD.
BUGS
Applying fstat() to a socket (and thus to a pipe) returns a zero'd buffer, except for the blocksize field, and a unique device and file serial number. NetBSD 5.0 June 9, 2007 NetBSD 5.0

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