DNSSEC-SIGNZONE(8)                   BIND9                  DNSSEC-SIGNZONE(8)

       dnssec-signzone - DNSSEC zone signing tool

       dnssec-signzone [-a] [-c class] [-d directory] [-e end-time]
                       [-f output-file] [-g] [-h] [-k key] [-l domain]
                       [-i interval] [-I input-format] [-j jitter]
                       [-N soa-serial-format] [-o origin] [-O output-format]
                       [-p] [-r randomdev] [-s start-time] [-t] [-v level]
                       [-z] {zonefile} [key...]

       dnssec-signzone signs a zone. It generates NSEC and RRSIG records and
       produces a signed version of the zone. The security status of
       delegations from the signed zone (that is, whether the child zones are
       secure or not) is determined by the presence or absence of a keyset
       file for each child zone.

           Verify all generated signatures.

       -c class
           Specifies the DNS class of the zone.

       -k key
           Treat specified key as a key signing key ignoring any key flags.
           This option may be specified multiple times.

       -l domain
           Generate a DLV set in addition to the key (DNSKEY) and DS sets. The
           domain is appended to the name of the records.

       -d directory
           Look for keyset files in directory as the directory

           Generate DS records for child zones from keyset files. Existing DS
           records will be removed.

       -s start-time
           Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records become
           valid. This can be either an absolute or relative time. An absolute
           start time is indicated by a number in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation;
           20000530144500 denotes 14:45:00 UTC on May 30th, 2000. A relative
           start time is indicated by +N, which is N seconds from the current
           time. If no start-time is specified, the current time minus 1 hour
           (to allow for clock skew) is used.

       -e end-time
           Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records expire.
           As with start-time, an absolute time is indicated in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS
           notation. A time relative to the start time is indicated with +N,
           which is N seconds from the start time. A time relative to the
           current time is indicated with now+N. If no end-time is specified,
           30 days from the start time is used as a default.

       -f output-file
           The name of the output file containing the signed zone. The default
           is to append .signed to the input filename.

           Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to

       -i interval
           When a previously-signed zone is passed as input, records may be
           resigned. The interval option specifies the cycle interval as an
           offset from the current time (in seconds). If a RRSIG record
           expires after the cycle interval, it is retained. Otherwise, it is
           considered to be expiring soon, and it will be replaced.

           The default cycle interval is one quarter of the difference between
           the signature end and start times. So if neither end-time or
           start-time are specified, dnssec-signzone generates signatures that
           are valid for 30 days, with a cycle interval of 7.5 days.
           Therefore, if any existing RRSIG records are due to expire in less
           than 7.5 days, they would be replaced.

       -I input-format
           The format of the input zone file. Possible formats are "text"
           (default) and "raw". This option is primarily intended to be used
           for dynamic signed zones so that the dumped zone file in a non-text
           format containing updates can be signed directly. The use of this
           option does not make much sense for non-dynamic zones.

       -j jitter
           When signing a zone with a fixed signature lifetime, all RRSIG
           records issued at the time of signing expires simultaneously. If
           the zone is incrementally signed, i.e. a previously-signed zone is
           passed as input to the signer, all expired signatures have to be
           regenerated at about the same time. The jitter option specifies a
           jitter window that will be used to randomize the signature expire
           time, thus spreading incremental signature regeneration over time.

           Signature lifetime jitter also to some extent benefits validators
           and servers by spreading out cache expiration, i.e. if large
           numbers of RRSIGs don't expire at the same time from all caches
           there will be less congestion than if all validators need to
           refetch at mostly the same time.

       -n ncpus
           Specifies the number of threads to use. By default, one thread is
           started for each detected CPU.

       -N soa-serial-format
           The SOA serial number format of the signed zone. Possible formats
           are "keep" (default), "increment" and "unixtime".

                   Do not modify the SOA serial number.

                   Increment the SOA serial number using RFC 1982 arithmetics.

                   Set the SOA serial number to the number of seconds since

       -o origin
           The zone origin. If not specified, the name of the zone file is
           assumed to be the origin.

       -O output-format
           The format of the output file containing the signed zone. Possible
           formats are "text" (default) and "raw".

           Use pseudo-random data when signing the zone. This is faster, but
           less secure, than using real random data. This option may be useful
           when signing large zones or when the entropy source is limited.

       -r randomdev
           Specifies the source of randomness. If the operating system does
           not provide a /dev/random or equivalent device, the default source
           of randomness is keyboard input.  randomdev specifies the name of a
           character device or file containing random data to be used instead
           of the default. The special value keyboard indicates that keyboard
           input should be used.

           Print statistics at completion.

       -v level
           Sets the debugging level.

           Ignore KSK flag on key when determining what to sign.

           The file containing the zone to be signed.

           Specify which keys should be used to sign the zone. If no keys are
           specified, then the zone will be examined for DNSKEY records at the
           zone apex. If these are found and there are matching private keys,
           in the current directory, then these will be used for signing.

       The following command signs the example.com zone with the DSA key
       generated by dnssec-keygen (Kexample.com.+003+17247). The zone's keys
       must be in the master file (db.example.com). This invocation looks for
       keyset files, in the current directory, so that DS records can be
       generated from them (-g).

           % dnssec-signzone -g -o example.com db.example.com \

       In the above example, dnssec-signzone creates the file
       db.example.com.signed. This file should be referenced in a zone
       statement in a named.conf file.

       This example re-signs a previously signed zone with default parameters.
       The private keys are assumed to be in the current directory.

           % cp db.example.com.signed db.example.com
           % dnssec-signzone -o example.com db.example.com

       dnssec-keygen(8), BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual, RFC 2535.

       Internet Systems Consortium

       Copyright (C) 2004-2007 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
       Copyright (C) 2000-2003 Internet Software Consortium.

BIND9                            June 30, 2000              DNSSEC-SIGNZONE(8)

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