CRYPT(3)                NetBSD Library Functions Manual               CRYPT(3)

     crypt, setkey, encrypt, des_setkey, des_cipher -- password encryption

     Crypt Library (libcrypt, -lcrypt)

     #include <unistd.h>

     char *
     crypt(const char *key, const char *setting);

     encrypt(char *block, int flag);

     des_setkey(const char *key);

     des_cipher(const char *in, char *out, long salt, int count);

     #include <stdlib.h>

     setkey(const char *key);

     The crypt() function performs password encryption.  The encryption scheme
     used by crypt() is dependent upon the contents of the NUL-terminated
     string setting.  If it begins with a string character (`$') and a number
     then a different algorithm is used depending on the number.  At the
     moment a `$1' chooses MD5 hashing and a `$2' chooses Blowfish hashing;
     see below for more information.  If setting begins with the ``_'' charac-
     ter, DES encryption with a user specified number of perturbations is
     selected.  If setting begins with any other character, DES encryption
     with a fixed number of perturbations is selected.

   DES encryption
     The DES encryption scheme is derived from the NBS Data Encryption Stan-
     dard.  Additional code has been added to deter key search attempts and to
     use stronger hashing algorithms.  In the DES case, the second argument to
     crypt() is a character array, 9 bytes in length, consisting of an under-
     score (``_'') followed by 4 bytes of iteration count and 4 bytes of salt.
     Both the iteration count and the salt are encoded with 6 bits per charac-
     ter, least significant bits first.  The values 0 to 63 are encoded by the
     characters ``./0-9A-Za-z'', respectively.

     The salt is used to induce disorder in to the DES algorithm in one of
     16777216 possible ways (specifically, if bit i of the salt is set then
     bits i and i+24 are swapped in the DES ``E'' box output).  The key is
     divided into groups of 8 characters (a short final group is null-padded)
     and the low-order 7 bits of each character (56 bits per group) are used
     to form the DES key as follows: the first group of 56 bits becomes the
     initial DES key.  For each additional group, the XOR of the group bits
     and the encryption of the DES key with itself becomes the next DES key.
     Then the final DES key is used to perform count cumulative encryptions of
     a 64-bit constant.  The value returned is a NUL-terminated string, 20
     bytes in length, consisting of the setting followed by the encoded 64-bit

     For compatibility with historical versions of crypt(), the setting may
     consist of 2 bytes of salt, encoded as above, in which case an iteration
     count of 25 is used, fewer perturbations of DES are available, at most 8
     characters of key are used, and the returned value is a NUL-terminated
     string 13 bytes in length.

     The functions encrypt(), setkey(), des_setkey() and des_cipher() allow
     limited access to the DES algorithm itself.  The key argument to setkey()
     is a 64 character array of binary values (numeric 0 or 1).  A 56-bit key
     is derived from this array by dividing the array into groups of 8 and
     ignoring the last bit in each group.

     The encrypt() argument block is also a 64 character array of binary val-
     ues.  If the value of flag is 0, the argument block is encrypted, other-
     wise it is decrypted.  The encryption or decryption is returned in the
     original array block after using the key specified by setkey() to process

     The des_setkey() and des_cipher() functions are faster but less portable
     than setkey() and encrypt().  The argument to des_setkey() is a character
     array of length 8.  The least significant bit in each character is
     ignored and the next 7 bits of each character are concatenated to yield a
     56-bit key.  The function des_cipher() encrypts (or decrypts if count is
     negative) the 64-bits stored in the 8 characters at in using abs(3) of
     count iterations of DES and stores the 64-bit result in the 8 characters
     at out.  The salt specifies perturbations to DES as described above.

   MD5 encryption
     For the MD5 encryption scheme, the version number (in this case ``1''),
     salt and the hashed password are separated by the ``$'' character.  A
     valid password looks like this:


     The entire password string is passed as setting for interpretation.

   Blowfish crypt
     The Blowfish version of crypt() has 128 bits of salt in order to make
     building dictionaries of common passwords space consuming.  The initial
     state of the Blowfish cipher is expanded using the salt and the password
     repeating the process a variable number of rounds, which is encoded in
     the password string.  The maximum password length is 72.  The final Blow-
     fish password entry is created by encrypting the string


     with the Blowfish state 64 times.

     The version number, the logarithm of the number of rounds and the con-
     catenation of salt and hashed password are separated by the `$' charac-
     ter.  An encoded `8' would specify 256 rounds.  A valid Blowfish password
     looks like this:


     The whole Blowfish password string is passed as setting for interpreta-

     The function crypt() returns a pointer to the encrypted value on success.

     The behavior of crypt() on errors isn't well standardized.  Some imple-
     mentations simply can't fail (unless the process dies, in which case they
     obviously can't return), others return NULL or a fixed string.  Most
     implementations don't set errno, but some do.  Version 2 of the Single
     UNIX Specification (``SUSv2'') specifies only returning NULL and setting
     errno as a valid behavior, and defines only one possible error (ENOSYS,
     ``The functionality is not supported on this implementation.'') Unfortu-
     nately, most existing applications aren't prepared to handle NULL returns
     from crypt().  The description below corresponds to this implementation
     of crypt() only.  The behavior may change to match standards, other
     implementations or existing applications.

     crypt() may only fail (and return) when passed an invalid or unsupported
     setting, in which case it returns a pointer to a magic string that is
     shorter than 13 characters and is guaranteed to differ from setting.
     This behavior is safe for older applications which assume that crypt()
     can't fail, when both setting new passwords and authenticating against
     existing password hashes.

     The functions setkey(), encrypt(), des_setkey(), and des_cipher() return
     0 on success and 1 on failure.  Historically, the functions setkey() and
     encrypt() did not return any value.  They have been provided return val-
     ues primarily to distinguish implementations where hardware support is
     provided but not available or where the DES encryption is not available
     due to the usual political silliness.

     login(1), passwd(1), pwhash(1), getpass(3), md5(3), passwd(5),

     Wayne Patterson, Mathematical Cryptology for Computer Scientists and
     Mathematicians, ISBN 0-8476-7438-X, 1987.

     R. Morris and Ken Thompson, "Password Security: A Case History",
     Communications of the ACM, vol. 22, pp. 594-597, Nov. 1979.

     M.E. Hellman, "DES will be Totally Insecure within Ten Years", IEEE
     Spectrum, vol. 16, pp. 32-39, July 1979.

     A rotor-based crypt() function appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX.  The cur-
     rent style crypt() first appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

     Dropping the least significant bit in each character of the argument to
     des_setkey() is ridiculous.

     The crypt() function leaves its result in an internal static object and
     returns a pointer to that object.  Subsequent calls to crypt() will mod-
     ify the same object.

     Before NetBSD 6.0 crypt() returned either NULL or : on error.

NetBSD 7.0                      January 1, 2012                     NetBSD 7.0

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