ATAN2(3) NetBSD Library Functions Manual ATAN2(3)NAMEatan2,atan2f,atan2l-- arc tangent function of two variablesLIBRARYMath Library (libm, -lm)SYNOPSIS#include <math.h>doubleatan2(double y,double x);floatatan2f(float y,float x);long doubleatan2l(long double y,long double x);DESCRIPTIONTheatan2(),atan2f(), andatan2l() functions compute the principal value of the arc tangent ofy/x, using the signs of both arguments to determine the quadrant of the return value.RETURN VALUESTheatan2() function, if successful, returns the arc tangent ofy/xin the range [-pi, +pi] radians. If bothxandyare zero, the global vari- ableerrnois set to EDOM. On the VAX:atan2(y,x) :=atan(y/x) ifx> 0, sign(y)*(pi -atan(|y/x|)) ifx< 0, 0 if x = y = 0, or sign(y)*pi/2 ifx= 0y.NOTESThe functionatan2() defines "if x > 0,"atan2(0,0) = 0 on a VAX despite that previouslyatan2(0,0) may have generated an error message. The reasons for assigning a value toatan2(0,0) are these: 1. Programs that test arguments to avoid computingatan2(0,0) must be indifferent to its value. Programs that require it to be invalid are vulnerable to diverse reactions to that inva- lidity on diverse computer systems. 2. Theatan2() function is used mostly to convert from rectangu- lar (x,y) to polar (r,theta) coordinates that must satisfy x = r*cos theta and y = r*sin theta. These equations are satis- fied when (x=0,y=0) is mapped to (r=0,theta=0) on a VAX. In general, conversions to polar coordinates should be computed thus: r := hypot(x,y); ... := sqrt(x*x+y*y) theta := atan2(y,x). 3. The foregoing formulas need not be altered to cope in a rea- sonable way with signed zeros and infinities on a machine that conforms to IEEE 754; the versions of hypot(3) andatan2() provided for such a machine are designed to handle all cases. That is whyatan2(±0,-0) = ±pi for instance. In general the formulas above are equivalent to these: r := sqrt(x*x+y*y); if r = 0 then x := copysign(1,x);SEE ALSOacos(3), asin(3), atan(3), cos(3), cosh(3), math(3), sin(3), sinh(3), tan(3), tanh(3)STANDARDSTheatan2() function conforms to ISO/IEC 9899:1999 (``ISO C99''). NetBSD 9.0 January 29, 2013 NetBSD 9.0

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