RESTORE(8)              NetBSD System Manager's Manual              RESTORE(8)

     restore, rrestore -- restore files or file systems from backups made with

     restore -i [-cdhmuvyN] [-b bsize] [-D algorithm] [-f file] [-M mfile]
             [-s fileno]
     restore -R [-cduvyN] [-b bsize] [-D algorithm] [-f file] [-M mfile]
             [-s fileno]
     restore -r [-cduvyN] [-b bsize] [-D algorithm] [-f file] [-M mfile]
             [-s fileno]
     restore -t [-cdhuvy] [-b bsize] [-f file] [-s fileno] [file ...]
     restore -x [-cdhmuvyN] [-b bsize] [-D algorithm] [-f file] [-M mfile]
             [-s fileno] [file ...]

     (The 4.3BSD option syntax is implemented for backward compatibility, but
     is not documented here.)

     The restore command performs the inverse function of dump(8).  A full
     backup of a file system may be restored and subsequent incremental back-
     ups layered on top of it.  Single files and directory subtrees may be
     restored from full or partial backups.  restore works across a network;
     to do this see the -f flag described below.  Other arguments to the com-
     mand are file or directory names specifying the files that are to be
     restored.  Unless the -h flag is specified (see below), the appearance of
     a directory name refers to the files and (recursively) subdirectories of
     that directory.

     If any file arguments are given with the -x flag, or specified in the
     command shell with the -i flag, the permissions of the root directory
     will not be applied to the current directory, unless one of those file
     arguments explicitly represents the root inode (e.g.: a literal `.').
     This is a change from the traditional behaviour, which used to be to
     always prompt the user.

     Exactly one of the following flags is required:

     -i      This mode allows interactive restoration of files from a dump.
             After reading in the directory information from the dump, restore
             provides a shell like interface that allows the user to move
             around the directory tree selecting files to be extracted.  The
             available commands are given below; for those commands that
             require an argument, the default is the current directory.

             add [arg]   The current directory or specified argument is added
                         to the list of files to be extracted.  If a directory
                         is specified, then it and all its descendants are
                         added to the extraction list (unless the -h flag is
                         specified on the command line).  Files that are on
                         the extraction list are prepended with a ``*'' when
                         they are listed by ls.

             cd arg      Change the current working directory to the specified

             delete [arg]
                         The current directory or specified argument is
                         deleted from the list of files to be extracted.  If a
                         directory is specified, then it and all its descen-
                         dants are deleted from the extraction list (unless
                         the -h flag is specified on the command line).  The
                         most expedient way to extract most of the files from
                         a directory is to add the directory to the extraction
                         list and then delete those files that are not needed.

             extract     All the files that are on the extraction list are
                         extracted from the dump.  restore will ask which vol-
                         ume the user wishes to mount.  The fastest way to
                         extract a few files is to start with the last volume,
                         and work towards the first volume.

             help, ?     List a summary of the available commands.

             ls [arg]    List the current or specified directory.  Entries
                         that are directories are appended with a ``/''.
                         Entries that have been marked for extraction are
                         prepended with a ``*''.  If the verbose flag is set
                         the inode number of each entry is also listed.

             pwd         Print the full pathname of the current working direc-

             quit, xit   Restore immediately exits, even if the extraction
                         list is not empty.

             setmodes    All the directories that have been added to the
                         extraction list have their owner, modes, and times
                         set; nothing is extracted from the dump.  This is
                         useful for cleaning up after a restore has been pre-
                         maturely aborted.

             verbose     The sense of the -v flag is toggled.  When set, the
                         verbose flag causes the ls command to list the inode
                         numbers of all entries.  It also causes restore to
                         print out information about each file as it is

             what        List dump header information.

             Debug       Enable debugging.

     -R      restore requests a particular tape of a multi volume set on which
             to restart a full restore (see the -r flag below).  This is use-
             ful if the restore has been interrupted.

     -r      Restore (rebuild a file system).  The target file system should
             be made pristine with newfs(8), mounted and the user cd(1)'d into
             the pristine file system before starting the restoration of the
             initial level 0 backup.  If the level 0 restores successfully,
             the -r flag may be used to restore any necessary incremental
             backups on top of the level 0.  The -r flag precludes an interac-
             tive file extraction and can be detrimental to one's health if
             not used carefully (not to mention the disk).  An example:

                   newfs /dev/rsd0g
                   mount /dev/sd0g /mnt
                   cd /mnt

                   restore rf /dev/rst0

             Note that restore leaves a file restoresymtable in the root
             directory to pass information between incremental restore passes.
             This file should be removed when the last incremental has been

             restore, in conjunction with newfs(8) and dump(8), may be used to
             modify file system parameters such as size or block size.

     -t      The names of the specified files are listed if they occur on the
             backup.  If no file argument is given, then the root directory is
             listed, which results in the entire content of the backup being
             listed, unless the -h flag has been specified.  Note that the -t
             flag replaces the function of the old dumpdir program.

     -x      The named files are read from the given media.  If a named file
             matches a directory whose contents are on the backup and the -h
             flag is not specified, the directory is recursively extracted.
             The owner, modification time, and mode are restored (if possi-
             ble).  If no file argument is given, then the root directory is
             extracted, which results in the entire content of the backup
             being extracted, unless the -h flag has been specified.

     The following additional options may be specified:

     -b bsize
             The number of kilobytes per dump record.  If the -b option is not
             specified, restore tries to determine the block size dynamically.

     -c      Normally, restore will try to determine dynamically whether the
             dump was made from an old (pre-4.4) or new format file system.
             The -c flag disables this check, and only allows reading a dump
             in the old format.

     -D algorithm
             Computes the digest of each regular files using the algorithm and
             output to standard output.  The algorithm is one of md5, rmd160,
             or sha1.  This option doesn't imply -N.

     -d      Enable debugging.

     -f file
             Read the backup from file; file may be a special device file like
             /dev/rst0 (a tape drive), /dev/rsd1c (a disk drive), an ordinary
             file, or `-' (the standard input).  If the name of the file is of
             the form ``host:file'', or ``user@host:file'', restore reads from
             the named file on the remote host using rmt(8).  If the name of
             the file is `-', restore reads from standard input.  Thus,
             dump(8) and restore can be used in a pipeline to dump and restore
             a file system with the command

                   dump 0f - /usr | (cd /mnt; restore xf -)

     -h      Extract the actual directory, rather than the files that it ref-
             erences.  This prevents hierarchical restoration of complete sub-
             trees from the dump.

     -M mfile
             Do not set the file flags on restore.  Instead, append an
             mtree(8) specification to mfile, which can be used to restore
             file flags with a command such as

                   sort mfile | mtree -e -i -u

     -m      Extract by inode numbers rather than by file name.  This is use-
             ful if only a few files are being extracted, and one wants to
             avoid regenerating the complete pathname to the file.

     -N      Do not perform actual writing to disk.

     -s fileno
             Read from the specified fileno on a multi-file tape.  File num-
             bering starts at 1.

     -u      The -u (unlink) flag removes files before extracting them.  This
             is useful when an executable file is in use.  Ignored if -t or -N
             flag is given.

     -v      Normally restore does its work silently.  The -v (verbose) flag
             causes it to type the name of each file it treats preceded by its
             file type.

     -y      Do not ask the user whether to abort the restore in the event of
             an error.  Always try to skip over the bad block(s) and continue.

     The historic alternate name rrestore was once required when restoring
     from a remote host.  This functionality is now built into restore itself.

     If the following environment variable exists it will be used by restore:
     TMPDIR  The directory given in TMPDIR will be used instead of /tmp to
             store temporary files.  Refer to environ(7) for more information.

     /dev/nrst0         default tape unit to use.  Taken from _PATH_DEFTAPE in
     /dev/rst*          raw SCSI tape interface
     /tmp/rstdir*       file containing directories on the tape.
     /tmp/rstmode*      owner, mode, and time stamps for directories.
     ./restoresymtable  information passed between incremental restores.

     Complains if it gets a read error.  If -y has been specified, or the user
     responds `y', restore will attempt to continue the restore.

     If a backup was made using more than one tape volume, restore will notify
     the user when it is time to mount the next volume.  If the -x or -i flag
     has been specified, restore will also ask which volume the user wishes to
     mount.  The fastest way to extract a few files is to start with the last
     volume, and work towards the first volume.

     There are numerous consistency checks that can be listed by restore.
     Most checks are self-explanatory or can ``never happen''.  Common errors
     are given below.

     Converting to new file system format.
             A dump tape created from the old file system has been loaded.  It
             is automatically converted to the new file system format.

     <filename>: not found on tape
             The specified file name was listed in the tape directory, but was
             not found on the tape.  This is caused by tape read errors while
             looking for the file, and from using a dump tape created on an
             active file system.

     expected next file <inumber>, got <inumber>
             A file that was not listed in the directory showed up.  This can
             occur when using a dump created on an active file system.

     Incremental dump too low
             When doing incremental restore, a dump that was written before
             the previous incremental dump, or that has too low an incremental
             level has been loaded.

     Incremental dump too high
             When doing incremental restore, a dump that does not begin its
             coverage where the previous incremental dump left off, or that
             has too high an incremental level has been loaded.

     Tape read error while restoring <filename>
     Tape read error while skipping over inode <inumber>
     Tape read error while trying to resynchronize
             A tape (or other media) read error has occurred.  If a file name
             is specified, then its contents are probably partially wrong.  If
             an inode is being skipped or the tape is trying to resynchronize,
             then no extracted files have been corrupted, though files may not
             be found on the tape.

     resync restore, skipped <num> blocks
             After a dump read error, restore may have to resynchronize
             itself.  This message lists the number of blocks that were
             skipped over.

     rcmd(1), rcmd(3), environ(7), dump(8), mount(8), newfs(8), rmt(8)

     The restore command appeared in 4.2BSD.

     restore can get confused when doing incremental restores from dumps that
     were made on active file systems.

     A level zero dump must be done after a full restore.  Because restore
     runs in user mode, it has no control over inode allocation; thus a full
     dump must be done to get a new set of directories reflecting the new
     inode numbering, even though the content of the files is unchanged.

     The temporary files /tmp/rstdir* and /tmp/rstmode* are generated with a
     unique name based on the date of the dump and the process ID (see
     mktemp(3)), except for when -r or -R is used.  Because -R allows you to
     restart a -r operation that may have been interrupted, the temporary
     files should be the same across different processes.  In all other cases,
     the files are unique because it is possible to have two different dumps
     started at the same time, and separate operations shouldn't conflict with
     each other.

NetBSD 9.0                       July 15, 2018                      NetBSD 9.0

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