UVM(9)                       NetBSD Kernel Manual                       UVM(9)

     uvm - virtual memory system external interface

     #include <sys/param.h>
     #include <uvm/uvm.h>

     The UVM virtual memory system manages access to the computer's memory re-
     sources.  User processes and the kernel access these resources through
     UVM's external interface.  UVM's external interface includes functions

     -   initialise UVM sub-systems
     -   manage virtual address spaces
     -   resolve page faults
     -   memory map files and devices
     -   perform uio-based I/O to virtual memory
     -   allocate and free kernel virtual memory
     -   allocate and free physical memory

     In addition to exporting these services, UVM has two kernel-level pro-
     cesses: pagedaemon and swapper.   The pagedaemon process sleeps until
     physical memory becomes scarce.  When that happens, pagedaemon is awoken.
     It scans physical memory, paging out and freeing memory that has not been
     recently used.  The swapper process swaps in runnable processes that are
     currently swapped out, if there is room.

     There are also several miscellaneous functions.


     uvm_init_limits(struct proc *p);



     uvm_init() sets up the UVM system at system boot time, after the copy-
     right has been printed.  It initialises global state, the page, map, ker-
     nel virtual memory state, machine-dependent physical map, kernel memory
     allocator, pager and anonymous memory sub-systems, and then enables pag-
     ing of kernel objects.

     uvm_init_limits() initialises process limits for the named process.  This
     is for use by the system startup for process zero, before any other pro-
     cesses are created.

     uvm_setpagesize() initialises the uvmexp members pagesize (if not already
     done by machine-dependent code), pageshift and pagemask.  It should be
     called by machine-dependent code early in the pmap_init() call (see

     uvm_swap_init() initialises the swap sub-system.

     uvm_map(struct vm_map *map, vaddr_t *startp, vsize_t size,
             struct uvm_object *uobj, voff_t uoffset, uvm_flag_t flags);

     uvm_map_pageable(struct vm_map *map, vaddr_t start, vaddr_t end,
             boolean_t new_pageable, int lockflags);

     uvm_map_checkprot(struct vm_map *map, vaddr_t start, vaddr_t end,
             vm_prot_t protection);

     uvm_map_protect(struct vm_map *map, vaddr_t start, vaddr_t end,
             vm_prot_t new_prot, boolean_t set_max);

     uvm_deallocate(struct vm_map *map, vaddr_t start, vsize_t size);

     struct vmspace *
     uvmspace_alloc(vaddr_t min, vaddr_t max, int pageable);

     uvmspace_exec(struct proc *p, vaddr_t start, vaddr_t end);

     struct vmspace *
     uvmspace_fork(struct vmspace *vm);

     uvmspace_free(struct vmspace *vm1);

     uvmspace_share(struct proc *p1, struct proc *p2);

     uvmspace_unshare(struct proc *p);

     uvm_map() establishes a valid mapping in map map, which must be unlocked.
     The new mapping has size size, which must be in PAGE_SIZE units.  The
     uobj and uoffset arguments can have four meanings.  When uobj is NULL and
     uoffset is UVM_UNKNOWN_OFFSET, uvm_map() does not use the machine-depen-
     dent PMAP_PREFER function.  If uoffset is any other value, it is used as
     the hint to PMAP_PREFER.  When uobj is not NULL and uoffset is
     UVM_UNKNOWN_OFFSET, uvm_map() finds the offset based upon the virtual ad-
     dress, passed as startp.  If uoffset is any other value, we are doing a
     normal mapping at this offset.  The start address of the map will be re-
     turned in startp.

     flags passed to uvm_map() are typically created using the
     UVM_MAPFLAG(vm_prot_t prot, vm_prot_t maxprot, vm_inherit_t inh, int
     advice, int flags) macro, which uses the following values.  The prot and
     maxprot can take are:

     #define UVM_PROT_MASK   0x07    /* protection mask */
     #define UVM_PROT_NONE   0x00    /* protection none */
     #define UVM_PROT_ALL    0x07    /* everything */
     #define UVM_PROT_READ   0x01    /* read */
     #define UVM_PROT_WRITE  0x02    /* write */
     #define UVM_PROT_EXEC   0x04    /* exec */
     #define UVM_PROT_R      0x01    /* read */
     #define UVM_PROT_W      0x02    /* write */
     #define UVM_PROT_RW     0x03    /* read-write */
     #define UVM_PROT_X      0x04    /* exec */
     #define UVM_PROT_RX     0x05    /* read-exec */
     #define UVM_PROT_WX     0x06    /* write-exec */
     #define UVM_PROT_RWX    0x07    /* read-write-exec */

     The values that inh can take are:

     #define UVM_INH_MASK    0x30    /* inherit mask */
     #define UVM_INH_SHARE   0x00    /* "share" */
     #define UVM_INH_COPY    0x10    /* "copy" */
     #define UVM_INH_NONE    0x20    /* "none" */
     #define UVM_INH_DONATE  0x30    /* "donate" << not used */

     The values that advice can take are:

     #define UVM_ADV_NORMAL     0x0  /* 'normal' */
     #define UVM_ADV_RANDOM     0x1  /* 'random' */
     #define UVM_ADV_SEQUENTIAL 0x2  /* 'sequential' */
     #define UVM_ADV_MASK       0x7  /* mask */

     The values that flags can take are:

     #define UVM_FLAG_FIXED   0x010000 /* find space */
     #define UVM_FLAG_OVERLAY 0x020000 /* establish overlay */
     #define UVM_FLAG_NOMERGE 0x040000 /* don't merge map entries */
     #define UVM_FLAG_COPYONW 0x080000 /* set copy_on_write flag */
     #define UVM_FLAG_AMAPPAD 0x100000 /* for bss: pad amap to reduce malloc() */
     #define UVM_FLAG_TRYLOCK 0x200000 /* fail if we can not lock map */

     The UVM_MAPFLAG macro arguments can be combined with an or operator.
     There are several special purpose macros for checking protection combina-
     tions, e.g. the UVM_PROT_WX macro.  There are also some additional macros
     to extract bits from the flags.  The UVM_PROTECTION, UVM_INHERIT,
     UVM_MAXPROTECTION and UVM_ADVICE macros return the protection, inheri-
     tance, maximum protection and advice, respectively.  uvm_map() returns a
     standard UVM return value.

     uvm_map_pageable() changes the pageability of the pages in the range from
     start to end in map map to new_pageable.  uvm_map_pageable() returns a
     standard UVM return value.

     uvm_map_checkprot() checks the protection of the range from start to end
     in map map against protection.  This returns either TRUE or FALSE.

     uvm_map_protect() changes the protection start to end in map map to
     new_prot, also setting the maximum protection to the region to new_prot
     if set_max is non-zero.  This function returns a standard UVM return val-

     uvm_deallocate() deallocates kernel memory in map map from address start
     to start + size.

     uvmspace_alloc() allocates and returns a new address space, with ranges
     from min to max, setting the pageability of the address space to

     uvmspace_exec() either reuses the address space of process p if there are
     no other references to it, or creates a new one with uvmspace_alloc().
     The range of valid addresses in the address space is reset to start
     through end.

     uvmspace_fork() creates and returns a new address space based upon the
     vm1 address space, typically used when allocating an address space for a
     child process.

     uvmspace_free() lowers the reference count on the address space vm, free-
     ing the data structures if there are no other references.

     uvmspace_share() causes process p2 to share the address space of p1.

     uvmspace_unshare() ensures that process p has its own, unshared address
     space, by creating a new one if necessary by calling uvmspace_fork().

     uvm_fault(struct vm_map *orig_map, vaddr_t vaddr, vm_fault_t fault_type,
             vm_prot_t access_type);

     uvm_fault() is the main entry point for faults.  It takes orig_map as the
     map the fault originated in, a vaddr offset into the map the fault oc-
     curred, fault_type describing the type of fault, and access_type describ-
     ing the type of access requested.  uvm_fault() returns a standard UVM re-
     turn value.

     struct uvm_object *
     uvn_attach(void *arg, vm_prot_t accessprot);

     uvm_vnp_setsize(struct vnode *vp, voff_t newsize);

     void *
     ubc_alloc(struct uvm_object *uobj, voff_t offset, vsize_t *lenp,
             int flags);

     ubc_release(void *va, int flags);

     uvn_attach() attaches a UVM object to vnode arg, creating the object if
     necessary.  The object is returned.

     uvm_vnp_setsize() sets the size of vnode vp to newsize.  Caller must hold
     a reference to the vnode.  If the vnode shrinks, pages no longer used are

     ubc_alloc() creates a kernel mappings of uobj starting at offset offset.
     the desired length of the mapping is pointed to by lenp, but the actual
     mapping may be smaller than this.  lenp is updated to contain the actual
     length mapped.  The flags must be one of

     #define UBC_READ        0x01    /* mapping will be accessed for read */
     #define UBC_WRITE       0x02    /* mapping will be accessed for write */

     Currently, uobj must actually be a vnode object.  Once the mapping is
     created, it must be accessed only by methods that can handle faults, such
     as uiomove() or kcopy().  Page faults on the mapping will result in the
     vnode's VOP_GETPAGES() method being called to resolve the fault.

     ubc_release() frees the mapping at va for reuse.  The mapping may be
     cached to speed future accesses to the same region of the object.  The
     flags are currently unused.

     uvm_io(struct vm_map *map, struct uio *uio);

     uvm_io() performs the I/O described in uio on the memory described in

     uvm_km_alloc(struct vm_map *map, vsize_t size);

     uvm_km_zalloc(struct vm_map *map, vsize_t size);

     uvm_km_alloc1(struct vm_map *map, vsize_t size, boolean_t zeroit);

     uvm_km_kmemalloc(struct vm_map *map, struct uvm_object *obj,
             vsize_t size, int flags);

     uvm_km_valloc(struct vm_map *map, vsize_t size);

     uvm_km_valloc_wait(struct vm_map *map, vsize_t size);

     struct vm_map *
     uvm_km_suballoc(struct vm_map *map, vaddr_t *min, vaddr_t *max,
             vsize_t size, boolean_t pageable, boolean_t fixed,
             struct vm_map *submap);

     uvm_km_free(struct vm_map *map, vaddr_t addr, vsize_t size);

     uvm_km_free_wakeup(struct vm_map *map, vaddr_t addr, vsize_t size);

     uvm_km_alloc() and uvm_km_zalloc() allocate size bytes of wired kernel
     memory in map map.  In addition to allocation, uvm_km_zalloc() zeros the
     memory.  Both of these functions are defined as macros in terms of
     uvm_km_alloc1(), and should almost always be used in preference to

     uvm_km_alloc1() allocates and returns size bytes of wired memory in the
     kernel map, zeroing the memory if the zeroit argument is non-zero.

     uvm_km_kmemalloc() allocates and returns size bytes of wired kernel memo-
     ry into obj.  The flags can be any of:

     #define UVM_KMF_NOWAIT  0x1                     /* matches M_NOWAIT */
     #define UVM_KMF_VALLOC  0x2                     /* allocate VA only */
     #define UVM_KMF_TRYLOCK UVM_FLAG_TRYLOCK        /* try locking only */

     UVM_KMF_NOWAIT causes uvm_km_kmemalloc() to return immediately if no mem-
     ory is available.  UVM_KMF_VALLOC causes no pages to be allocated, only a
     virtual address.  UVM_KMF_TRYLOCK causes uvm_km_kmemalloc() to use
     simple_lock_try() when locking maps.

     uvm_km_valloc() and uvm_km_valloc_wait() return a newly allocated zero-
     filled address in the kernel map of size size.  uvm_km_valloc_wait() will
     also wait for kernel memory to become available, if there is a memory

     uvm_km_free() and uvm_km_free_wakeup() free size bytes of memory in the
     kernel map, starting at address addr.  uvm_km_free_wakeup() calls
     wakeup() on the map before unlocking the map.

     uvm_km_suballoc() allocates submap from map, creating a new map if submap
     is NULL.  The addresses of the submap can be specified exactly by setting
     the fixed argument to non-zero, which causes the min argument specify the
     beginning of the address in the submap.  If fixed is zero, any address of
     size size will be allocated from map and the start and end addresses re-
     turned in min and max.  If pageable is non-zero, entries in the map may
     be paged out.

     struct vm_page *
     uvm_pagealloc(struct uvm_object *uobj, voff_t off, struct vm_anon *anon,
             int flags);

     uvm_pagerealloc(struct vm_page *pg, struct uvm_object *newobj,
             voff_t newoff);

     uvm_pagefree(struct vm_page *pg);

     uvm_pglistalloc(psize_t size, paddr_t low, paddr_t high,
             paddr_t alignment, paddr_t boundary, struct pglist *rlist,
             int nsegs, int waitok);

     uvm_pglistfree(struct pglist *list);

     uvm_page_physload(vaddr_t start, vaddr_t end, vaddr_t avail_start,
             vaddr_t avail_end, int free_list);

     uvm_pagealloc() allocates a page of memory at virtual address off in ei-
     ther the object uobj or the anonymous memory anon, which must be locked
     by the caller.  Only one of uobj and anon can be non NULL.  Returns NULL
     when no page can be found.  The flags can be any of

     #define UVM_PGA_USERESERVE      0x0001  /* ok to use reserve pages */
     #define UVM_PGA_ZERO            0x0002  /* returned page must be zero'd */

     UVM_PGA_USERESERVE means to allocate a page even if that will result in
     the number of free pages being lower than uvmexp.reserve_pagedaemon (if
     the current thread is the pagedaemon) or uvmexp.reserve_kernel (if the
     current thread is not the pagedaemon).  UVM_PGA_ZERO causes the returned
     page to be filled with zeroes, either by allocating it from a pool of
     pre-zeroed pages or by zeroing it in-line as necessary.

     uvm_pagerealloc() reallocates page pg to a new object newobj, at a new
     offset newoff.

     uvm_pagefree() frees the physical page pg.

     uvm_pglistalloc() allocates a list of pages for size size byte under var-
     ious constraints.  low and high describe the lowest and highest addresses
     acceptable for the list.  If alignment is non-zero, it describes the re-
     quired alignment of the list, in power-of-two notation.  If boundary is
     non-zero, no segment of the list may cross this power-of-two boundary,
     relative to zero.  The nsegs and waitok arguments are currently ignored.

     uvm_pglistfree() frees the list of pages pointed to by list.

     uvm_page_physload() loads physical memory segments into VM space on the
     specified free_list.  It must be called at system boot time to setup
     physical memory management pages.  The arguments describe the start and
     end of the physical addresses of the segment, and the available start and
     end addresses of pages not already in use.



     uvm_swapin(struct proc *p);

     uvm_pageout() is the main loop for the page daemon.

     uvm_scheduler() is the process zero main loop, which is to be called af-
     ter the system has finished starting other processes.  It handles the
     swapping in of runnable, swapped out processes in priority order.

     uvm_swapin() swaps in the named process.

     uvm_loan(struct vm_map *map, vaddr_t start, vsize_t len, void *v,
             int flags);

     uvm_unloan(void *v, int npages, int flags);

     uvm_loan() loans pages in a map out to anons or to the kernel.  map
     should be unlocked , start and len should be multiples of PAGE_SIZE.  Ar-
     gument flags should be one of

     #define UVM_LOAN_TOANON       0x01    /* loan to anons */
     #define UVM_LOAN_TOPAGE       0x02    /* loan to kernel */

     v should be pointer to array of pointers to struct anon or struct
     vm_page, as appropriate. The caller has to allocate memory for the array
     and ensure it's big enough to hold len / PAGE_SIZE pointers.  Returns 0
     for success, or appropriate error number otherwise.

     uvm_unloan() kills loans on pages or anons. The v must point to the array
     of pointers initialized by previous call to uvm_loan().  npages should
     match number of pages allocated for loan, this also matches number of
     items in the array.  Argument flags should be one of

     #define UVM_LOAN_TOANON       0x01    /* loan to anons */
     #define UVM_LOAN_TOPAGE       0x02    /* loan to kernel */

     and should match what was used for previous call to uvm_loan().

     struct uvm_object *
     uao_create(vsize_t size, int flags);

     uao_detach(struct uvm_object *uobj);

     uao_reference(struct uvm_object *uobj);

     uvm_chgkprot(caddr_t addr, size_t len, int rw);

     uvm_kernacc(caddr_t addr, size_t len, int rw);

     uvm_useracc(caddr_t addr, size_t len, int rw);

     uvm_vslock(struct proc *p, caddr_t addr, size_t len, vm_prot_t prot);

     uvm_vsunlock(struct proc *p, caddr_t addr, size_t len);


     uvm_sysctl(int *name, u_int namelen, void *oldp, size_t *oldlenp,
             void *newp, size_t newlen, struct proc *p);

     uvm_fork(struct proc *p1, struct proc *p2, boolean_t shared);

     uvm_grow(struct proc *p, vaddr_t sp);

     uvm_coredump(struct proc *p, struct vnode *vp, struct ucred *cred,
             struct core *chdr);

     uvn_findpages(struct uvm_object *uobj, voff_t offset, int *npagesp,
             struct vm_page **pps, int flags);

     uvm_swap_stats(int cmd, struct swapent *sep, int sec,
             register_t *retval);

     The uao_create(), uao_detach() and uao_reference() functions operate on
     anonymous memory objects, such as those used to support System V shared
     memory.  uao_create() returns an object of size size with flags:

     #define UAO_FLAG_KERNOBJ        0x1     /* create kernel object */
     #define UAO_FLAG_KERNSWAP       0x2     /* enable kernel swap */

     which can only be used once each at system boot time.  uao_reference()
     creates an additional reference to the named anonymous memory object.
     uao_detach() removes a reference from the named anonymous memory object,
     destroying it if removing the last reference.

     uvm_chgkprot() changes the protection of kernel memory from addr to addr
     + len to the value of rw.  This is primarily useful for debuggers, for
     setting breakpoints.  This function is only available with options KGDB.

     uvm_kernacc() and uvm_useracc() check the access at address addr to addr
     + len for rw access, in the kernel address space, and the current pro-
     cess' address space respectively.

     uvm_vslock() and uvm_vsunlock() control the wiring and unwiring of pages
     for process p from addr to addr + len.  These functions are normally used
     to wire memory for I/O.

     uvm_meter() calculates the load average and wakes up the swapper if nec-

     uvm_sysctl() provides support for the CTL_VM domain of the sysctl(3) hi-
     erarchy.  uvm_sysctl() handles the VM_LOADAVG, VM_METER and VM_UVMEXP
     calls, which return the current load averages, calculates current VM to-
     tals, and returns the uvmexp structure respectively.  The load averages
     are access from userland using the getloadavg(3) function.  The uvmexp
     structure has all global state of the UVM system, and has the following

     /* vm_page constants */
     int pagesize;   /* size of a page (PAGE_SIZE): must be power of 2 */
     int pagemask;   /* page mask */
     int pageshift;  /* page shift */

     /* vm_page counters */
     int npages;     /* number of pages we manage */
     int free;       /* number of free pages */
     int active;     /* number of active pages */
     int inactive;   /* number of pages that we free'd but may want back */
     int paging;     /* number of pages in the process of being paged out */
     int wired;      /* number of wired pages */
     int reserve_pagedaemon; /* number of pages reserved for pagedaemon */
     int reserve_kernel; /* number of pages reserved for kernel */

     /* pageout params */
     int freemin;    /* min number of free pages */
     int freetarg;   /* target number of free pages */
     int inactarg;   /* target number of inactive pages */
     int wiredmax;   /* max number of wired pages */

     /* swap */
     int nswapdev;   /* number of configured swap devices in system */
     int swpages;    /* number of PAGE_SIZE'ed swap pages */
     int swpginuse;  /* number of swap pages in use */
     int nswget;     /* number of times fault calls uvm_swap_get() */
     int nanon;      /* number total of anon's in system */
     int nfreeanon;  /* number of free anon's */

     /* stat counters */
     int faults;             /* page fault count */
     int traps;              /* trap count */
     int intrs;              /* interrupt count */
     int swtch;              /* context switch count */
     int softs;              /* software interrupt count */
     int syscalls;           /* system calls */
     int pageins;            /* pagein operation count */
                             /* pageouts are in pdpageouts below */
     int swapins;            /* swapins */
     int swapouts;           /* swapouts */
     int pgswapin;           /* pages swapped in */
     int pgswapout;          /* pages swapped out */
     int forks;              /* forks */
     int forks_ppwait;       /* forks where parent waits */
     int forks_sharevm;      /* forks where vmspace is shared */

     /* fault subcounters */
     int fltnoram;   /* number of times fault was out of ram */
     int fltnoanon;  /* number of times fault was out of anons */
     int fltpgwait;  /* number of times fault had to wait on a page */
     int fltpgrele;  /* number of times fault found a released page */
     int fltrelck;   /* number of times fault relock called */
     int fltrelckok; /* number of times fault relock is a success */
     int fltanget;   /* number of times fault gets anon page */
     int fltanretry; /* number of times fault retrys an anon get */
     int fltamcopy;  /* number of times fault clears "needs copy" */
     int fltnamap;   /* number of times fault maps a neighbor anon page */
     int fltnomap;   /* number of times fault maps a neighbor obj page */
     int fltlget;    /* number of times fault does a locked pgo_get */
     int fltget;     /* number of times fault does an unlocked get */
     int flt_anon;   /* number of times fault anon (case 1a) */
     int flt_acow;   /* number of times fault anon cow (case 1b) */
     int flt_obj;    /* number of times fault is on object page (2a) */
     int flt_prcopy; /* number of times fault promotes with copy (2b) */
     int flt_przero; /* number of times fault promotes with zerofill (2b) */

     /* daemon counters */
     int pdwoke;     /* number of times daemon woke up */
     int pdrevs;     /* number of times daemon rev'd clock hand */
     int pdswout;    /* number of times daemon called for swapout */
     int pdfreed;    /* number of pages daemon freed since boot */
     int pdscans;    /* number of pages daemon scanned since boot */
     int pdanscan;   /* number of anonymous pages scanned by daemon */
     int pdobscan;   /* number of object pages scanned by daemon */
     int pdreact;    /* number of pages daemon reactivated since boot */
     int pdbusy;     /* number of times daemon found a busy page */
     int pdpageouts; /* number of times daemon started a pageout */
     int pdpending;  /* number of times daemon got a pending pageout */
     int pddeact;    /* number of pages daemon deactivates */

     uvm_fork() forks a virtual address space for process' (old) p1 and (new)
     p2.  If the shared argument is non zero, p1 shares its address space with
     p2, otherwise a new address space is created.  This function currently
     has no return value, and thus cannot fail.  In the future, this function
     will be changed to allow it to fail in low memory conditions.

     uvm_grow() increases the stack segment of process p to include sp.

     uvm_coredump() generates a coredump on vnode vp for process p with cre-
     dentials cred and core header description in chdr.

     uvn_findpages() looks up or creates pages in uobj at offset offset, marks
     them busy and returns them in the pps array.  Currently uobj must be a
     vnode object.  The number of pages requested is pointed to by npagesp,
     and this value is updated with the actual number of pages returned.  The
     flags can be

     #define UFP_ALL         0x00    /* return all pages requested */
     #define UFP_NOWAIT      0x01    /* don't sleep */
     #define UFP_NOALLOC     0x02    /* don't allocate new pages */
     #define UFP_NOCACHE     0x04    /* don't return pages which already exist */
     #define UFP_NORDONLY    0x08    /* don't return PG_READONLY pages */

     UFP_ALL is a pseudo-flag meaning all requested pages should be returned.
     UFP_NOWAIT means that we must not sleep.  UFP_NOALLOC causes any pages
     which do not already exist to be skipped.  UFP_NOCACHE causes any pages
     which do already exist to be skipped.  UFP_NORDONLY causes any pages
     which are marked PG_READONLY to be skipped.

     uvm_swap_stats() implements the SWAP_STATS and SWAP_OSTATS operation of
     the swapctl(2) system call.  cmd is the requested command, SWAP_STATS or
     SWAP_OSTATS.  The function will copy no more than sec entries in the ar-
     ray pointed by sep.  On return, retval holds the actual number of entries
     copied in the array.

     uvm_chgkprot() is only available if the kernel has been compiled with op-
     tions KGDB.

     All structure and types whose names begin with ``vm_'' will be renamed to

     swapctl(2), getloadavg(3), kvm(3), sysctl(3), ddb(4), options(4), pmap(9)

     UVM is a new VM system developed at Washington University in St. Louis
     (Missouri).  UVM's roots lie partly in the Mach-based 4.4BSD VM system,
     the FreeBSD VM system, and the SunOS4 VM system.  UVM's basic structure
     is based on the 4.4BSD VM system.  UVM's new anonymous memory system is
     based on the anonymous memory system found in the SunOS4 VM (as described
     in papers published by Sun Microsystems, Inc.).  UVM also includes a num-
     ber of feature new to BSD including page loanout, map entry passing, sim-
     plified copy-on-write, and clustered anonymous memory pageout.  UVM is
     also further documented in a August 1998 dissertation by Charles D. Cra-

     UVM appeared in NetBSD 1.4.

     Charles D. Cranor <chuck@ccrc.wustl.edu> designed and implemented UVM.

     Matthew Green <mrg@eterna.com.au> wrote the swap-space management code
     and handled the logistical issues involved with merging UVM into the
     NetBSD source tree.

     Chuck Silvers <chuq@chuq.com> implemented the aobj pager, thus allowing
     UVM to support System V shared memory and process swapping.  He also de-
     signed and implemented the UBC part of UVM, which uses UVM pages to cache
     vnode data rather than the traditional buffer cache buffers.

NetBSD 1.6                     December 24, 2001                            11

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