TZSET(3)                NetBSD Library Functions Manual               TZSET(3)

NAME
     tzset, tzalloc, tzgetname, tzgetgmtoff, tzfree -- initialize time conver-
     sion information

LIBRARY
     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

SYNOPSIS
     #include <time.h>

     timezone_t
     tzalloc(const char *zone);

     void
     tzfree(timezone_t restrict tz);

     const char *
     tzgetname(timezone_t restrict tz, int isdst);

     long
     tzgetgmtoff(timezone_t restrict tz, int isdst);

     void
     tzset(void);

DESCRIPTION
     The tzalloc() function takes as an argument a timezone name and returns a
     timezone_t object suitable to be used in the ctime_rz(), localtime_rz(),
     and mktime_z() functions.

     If tz is not a valid time zone description, or if the object cannot be
     allocated, tzalloc() returns a NULL pointer and sets errno.

     A NULL pointer may be passed to tzalloc() instead of a timezone name, to
     refer to the current system timezone.  An empty timezone string indicates
     Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

     Note that instead of setting the environment variable TZ, and globally
     changing the behavior of the calling program, one can use multiple time-
     zones at the same time by using separate timezone_t objects allocated by
     tzalloc() and calling the ``z'' variants of the functions.  The tzfree()
     function deallocates tz, which was previously allocated by tzalloc().
     This invalidates any tm_zone pointers that tz was used to set.  The func-
     tion tzgetname() returns the name for the given tz.  If isdst is 0, the
     call is equivalent to tzname[0].  If isdst is set to 1 the call is equiv-
     alent to tzname[1].  Finally, the tzgetgmtoff() function acts like
     tzgetname() only it returns the offset in seconds from GMT for the time-
     zone.  If there is no match, then -1 is returned and errno is set to
     ESRCH.  The tzset() function acts like tzalloc(getenv("TZ")), except it
     saves any resulting time zone object into internal storage that is
     accessed by localtime(), localtime_r(), and mktime().  The anonymous
     shared time zone object is freed by the next call to tzset().  If the
     implied call to tzalloc() fails, tzset() falls back on Universal Time
     (UT).  If TZ is NULL, the best available approximation to local wall
     clock time, as specified by the tzfile(5) format file /etc/localtime is
     used by localtime(3).  If TZ appears in the environment but its value is
     the empty string, UT is used, with the abbreviation ``UTC'' and without
     leap second correction; please see ctime(3).  If TZ is nonnull and
     nonempty:

     -   if the value begins with a colon, it is used as a pathname of a file
         from which to read the time conversion information;

     -   if the value does not begin with a colon, it is first used as the
         pathname of a file from which to read the time conversion informa-
         tion, and, if that file cannot be read, is used directly as a speci-
         fication of the time conversion information.

     When TZ is used as a pathname, if it begins with a slash, it is used as
     an absolute pathname; otherwise, it is used as a pathname relative to
     /usr/share/zoneinfo.  The file must be in the format specified in
     tzfile(5).

     When TZ is used directly as a specification of the time conversion infor-
     mation, it must have the following syntax (spaces inserted for clarity):

           stdoffset[dst[offset][,rule]]

     where:
     std and dst  Three or more bytes that are the designation for the stan-
                  dard (std) or the alternative (dst such as daylight saving
                  time) time zone.  Only std is required; if dst is missing,
                  then daylight saving time does not apply in this locale.
                  Upper- and lowercase letters are explicitly allowed.  Any
                  characters except a leading colon (:), digits, comma (,),
                  minus (-), plus (+), and NUL bytes are allowed.  Alterna-
                  tively, a designation can be surrounded by angle brackets <
                  and >; in this case, the designation can contain any charac-
                  ters other than > and NUL.
     offset       Indicates the value one must add to the local time to arrive
                  at Coordinated Universal Time.  The offset has the form:

                        hh[:mm[:ss]]

                  The minutes (mm) and seconds (ss) are optional.  The hour
                  (hh) is required and may be a single digit.  The offset fol-
                  lowing std is required.  If no offset follows dst, daylight
                  saving time is assumed to be one hour ahead of standard
                  time.  One or more digits may be used; the value is always
                  interpreted as a decimal number.  The hour must be between
                  zero and 24, and the minutes (and seconds)  if present
                  between zero and 59.  If preceded by a ``-'' the time zone
                  shall be east of the Prime Meridian; otherwise it shall be
                  west (which may be indicated by an optional preceding
                  ``+'').
     rule         Indicates when to change to and back from daylight saving
                  time.  The rule has the form:

                        date/time,date/time

                  where the first date describes when the change from standard
                  to daylight saving time occurs and the second date describes
                  when the change back happens.  Each time field describes
                  when, in current local time, the change to the other time is
                  made.  As an extension to POSIX, daylight saving is assumed
                  to be in effect all year if it begins January 1 at 00:00 and
                  ends December 31 at 24:00 plus the difference between day-
                  light saving and standard time, leaving no room for standard
                  time in the calendar.  The format of date is one of the fol-
                  lowing:
                  Jn              The Julian day n (1 <= n <= 365).  Leap days
                                  are not counted; that is, in all years
                                  including leap years  February 28 is day 59
                                  and March 1 is day 60.  It is impossible to
                                  explicitly refer to the occasional February
                                  29.
                  n               The zero-based Julian day (0 <= n <= 365).
                                  Leap days are counted, and it is possible to
                                  refer to February 29.
                  Mm.n.d          The d'th day (0 <= d <= 6) of week n of
                                  month m of the year (1 <= n <= 5, 1 <= m
                                  <= 12, where week 5 means ``the last d
                                  day in month m'' which may occur in either
                                  the fourth or the fifth week).  Week 1 is
                                  the first week in which the d'th day occurs.
                                  Day zero is Sunday.
                  The time has the same format as offset except that POSIX
                  does not allow a leading sign ``-'' or ``+'' is allowed.  As
                  an extension to POSIX, the hours part of time can range from
                  -167 through 167; this allows for unusual rules such as
                  ``the Saturday before the first Sunday of March''.  The
                  default, if time is not given, is 02:00:00.

     Here are some examples of TZ values that directly specify the time zone
     rules; they use some of the extensions to POSIX.

     EST5          stands for US Eastern Standard Time (EST), 5 hours behind
                   UT, without daylight saving.

     FJT-12FJST,M11.1.0,M1.3.4/75

     <+12>-12<+13>,M11.1.0,M1.2.1/147
                   stands for Fiji time, 12 hours ahead of UT, springing for-
                   ward on November's first Sunday at 02:00, and falling back
                   on January's second Monday at 147:00 (i.e., 03:00 on the
                   first Sunday on or after January 14).  The abbreviations
                   for standard and daylight saving time are "+12" and "+13".

     IST-2IDT,M3.4.4/26,M10.5.0
                   stands for Israel Standard Time (IST) and Israel Daylight
                   Time (IDT), 2 hours ahead of UT, springing forward on
                   March's fourth Thursday at 26:00 (i.e., 02:00 on the first
                   Friday on or after March 23), and falling back on October's
                   last Sunday at 02:00.

     <-04>4<-03>,J1/0,J365/25
                   stands for permanent daylight saving time, 3 hours behind
                   UT with abbreviation "-03".  There is a dummy fall-back
                   transition on December 31 at 25:00 daylight saving time
                   (i.e., 24:00 standard time, equivalent to January 1 at
                   00:00 standard time), and a simultaneous spring-forward
                   transition on January 1 at 00:00 standard time, so daylight
                   saving time is in effect all year and the initial <-04> is
                   a placeholder.

     <-03>3<-02>,M3.5.0/-2,M10.5.0/-1
                   stands for time in western Greenland, 3 hours behind UT,
                   where clocks follow the EU rules of springing forward on
                   March's last Sunday at 01:00 UT (-02:00 local time, i.e.,
                   22:00 the previous day) and falling back on October's last
                   Sunday at 01:00 UT (-01:00 local time, i.e., 23:00 the pre-
                   vious day).  The abbreviations for standard and daylight
                   saving time are "-03" and "-02".

     If no rule is present in TZ, the rules specified by the tzfile(5) format
     file posixrules in /usr/share/zoneinfo are used, with the standard and
     daylight saving time offsets from UT replaced by those specified by the
     offset values in TZ.

     For compatibility with System V Release 3.1, a semicolon (;) may be used
     to separate the rule from the rest of the specification.

FILES
     /etc/localtime                  local time zone file
     /usr/share/zoneinfo             time zone information directory


     /usr/share/zoneinfo/posixrules  used with POSIX-style TZ's
     /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT         for UTC leap seconds

     If /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT is absent, UTC leap seconds are loaded from
     /usr/share/zoneinfo/posixrules.

SEE ALSO
     ctime(3), getenv(3), strftime(3), time(3), tzfile(5)

STANDARDS
     The tzset() function conforms to IEEE Std 1003.1-1988 (``POSIX.1'').

NetBSD 8.0                        May 5, 2018                       NetBSD 8.0

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