TMUX(1)                 NetBSD General Commands Manual                 TMUX(1)

     tmux -- terminal multiplexer

     tmux [-2lCquvV] [-c shell-command] [-f file] [-L socket-name]
          [-S socket-path] [command [flags]]

     tmux is a terminal multiplexer: it enables a number of terminals to be
     created, accessed, and controlled from a single screen.  tmux may be
     detached from a screen and continue running in the background, then later

     When tmux is started it creates a new session with a single window and
     displays it on screen.  A status line at the bottom of the screen shows
     information on the current session and is used to enter interactive com-

     A session is a single collection of pseudo terminals under the management
     of tmux.  Each session has one or more windows linked to it.  A window
     occupies the entire screen and may be split into rectangular panes, each
     of which is a separate pseudo terminal (the pty(7) manual page documents
     the technical details of pseudo terminals).  Any number of tmux instances
     may connect to the same session, and any number of windows may be present
     in the same session.  Once all sessions are killed, tmux exits.

     Each session is persistent and will survive accidental disconnection
     (such as ssh(1) connection timeout) or intentional detaching (with the
     `C-b d' key strokes).  tmux may be reattached using:

           $ tmux attach

     In tmux, a session is displayed on screen by a client and all sessions
     are managed by a single server.  The server and each client are separate
     processes which communicate through a socket in /tmp.

     The options are as follows:

     -2            Force tmux to assume the terminal supports 256 colours.

     -C            Start in control mode (see the CONTROL MODE section).
                   Given twice (-CC) disables echo.

     -c shell-command
                   Execute shell-command using the default shell.  If neces-
                   sary, the tmux server will be started to retrieve the
                   default-shell option.  This option is for compatibility
                   with sh(1) when tmux is used as a login shell.

     -f file       Specify an alternative configuration file.  By default,
                   tmux loads the system configuration file from
                   @SYSCONFDIR@/tmux.conf, if present, then looks for a user
                   configuration file at ~/.tmux.conf.

                   The configuration file is a set of tmux commands which are
                   executed in sequence when the server is first started.
                   tmux loads configuration files once when the server process
                   has started.  The source-file command may be used to load a
                   file later.

                   tmux shows any error messages from commands in configura-
                   tion files in the first session created, and continues to
                   process the rest of the configuration file.

     -L socket-name
                   tmux stores the server socket in a directory under
                   TMUX_TMPDIR, TMPDIR if it is unset, or /tmp if both are
                   unset.  The default socket is named default.  This option
                   allows a different socket name to be specified, allowing
                   several independent tmux servers to be run.  Unlike -S a
                   full path is not necessary: the sockets are all created in
                   the same directory.

                   If the socket is accidentally removed, the SIGUSR1 signal
                   may be sent to the tmux server process to recreate it.

     -l            Behave as a login shell.  This flag currently has no effect
                   and is for compatibility with other shells when using tmux
                   as a login shell.

     -q            Set the quiet server option to prevent the server sending
                   various informational messages.

     -S socket-path
                   Specify a full alternative path to the server socket.  If
                   -S is specified, the default socket directory is not used
                   and any -L flag is ignored.

     -u            tmux attempts to guess if the terminal is likely to support
                   UTF-8 by checking the first of the LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE and
                   LANG environment variables to be set for the string
                   "UTF-8".  This is not always correct: the -u flag explic-
                   itly informs tmux that UTF-8 is supported.

                   If the server is started from a client passed -u or where
                   UTF-8 is detected, the utf8 and status-utf8 options are
                   enabled in the global window and session options respec-

     -v            Request verbose logging.  This option may be specified mul-
                   tiple times for increasing verbosity.  Log messages will be
                   saved into tmux-client-PID.log and tmux-server-PID.log
                   files in the current directory, where PID is the PID of the
                   server or client process.

     -V            Report the tmux version.

     command [flags]
                   This specifies one of a set of commands used to control
                   tmux, as described in the following sections.  If no com-
                   mands are specified, the new-session command is assumed.

     tmux may be controlled from an attached client by using a key combination
     of a prefix key, `C-b' (Ctrl-b) by default, followed by a command key.

     The default command key bindings are:

           C-b         Send the prefix key (C-b) through to the application.
           C-o         Rotate the panes in the current window forwards.
           C-z         Suspend the tmux client.
           !           Break the current pane out of the window.
           "           Split the current pane into two, top and bottom.
           #           List all paste buffers.
           $           Rename the current session.
           %           Split the current pane into two, left and right.
           &           Kill the current window.
           '           Prompt for a window index to select.
           ,           Rename the current window.
           -           Delete the most recently copied buffer of text.
           .           Prompt for an index to move the current window.
           0 to 9      Select windows 0 to 9.
           :           Enter the tmux command prompt.
           ;           Move to the previously active pane.
           =           Choose which buffer to paste interactively from a list.
           ?           List all key bindings.
           D           Choose a client to detach.
           [           Enter copy mode to copy text or view the history.
           ]           Paste the most recently copied buffer of text.
           c           Create a new window.
           d           Detach the current client.
           f           Prompt to search for text in open windows.
           i           Display some information about the current window.
           l           Move to the previously selected window.
           n           Change to the next window.
           o           Select the next pane in the current window.
           p           Change to the previous window.
           q           Briefly display pane indexes.
           r           Force redraw of the attached client.
           s           Select a new session for the attached client interac-
           L           Switch the attached client back to the last session.
           t           Show the time.
           w           Choose the current window interactively.
           x           Kill the current pane.
           {           Swap the current pane with the previous pane.
           }           Swap the current pane with the next pane.
           ~           Show previous messages from tmux, if any.
           Page Up     Enter copy mode and scroll one page up.
           Up, Down
           Left, Right
                       Change to the pane above, below, to the left, or to the
                       right of the current pane.
           M-1 to M-5  Arrange panes in one of the five preset layouts: even-
                       horizontal, even-vertical, main-horizontal, main-verti-
                       cal, or tiled.
           M-n         Move to the next window with a bell or activity marker.
           M-o         Rotate the panes in the current window backwards.
           M-p         Move to the previous window with a bell or activity
           C-Up, C-Down
           C-Left, C-Right
                       Resize the current pane in steps of one cell.
           M-Up, M-Down
           M-Left, M-Right
                       Resize the current pane in steps of five cells.

     Key bindings may be changed with the bind-key and unbind-key commands.

     This section contains a list of the commands supported by tmux.  Most
     commands accept the optional -t argument with one of target-client,
     target-session target-window, or target-pane.  These specify the client,
     session, window or pane which a command should affect.  target-client is
     the name of the pty(7) file to which the client is connected, for example
     either of /dev/ttyp1 or ttyp1 for the client attached to /dev/ttyp1.  If
     no client is specified, the current client is chosen, if possible, or an
     error is reported.  Clients may be listed with the list-clients command.

     target-session is the session id prefixed with a $, the name of a session
     (as listed by the list-sessions command), or the name of a client with
     the same syntax as target-client, in which case the session attached to
     the client is used.  When looking for the session name, tmux initially
     searches for an exact match; if none is found, the session names are
     checked for any for which target-session is a prefix or for which it
     matches as an fnmatch(3) pattern.  If a single match is found, it is used
     as the target session; multiple matches produce an error.  If a session
     is omitted, the current session is used if available; if no current ses-
     sion is available, the most recently used is chosen.

     target-window specifies a window in the form session:window.  session
     follows the same rules as for target-session, and window is looked for in
     order: as a window index, for example mysession:1; as a window ID, such
     as @1; as an exact window name, such as mysession:mywindow; then as an
     fnmatch(3) pattern or the start of a window name, such as myses-
     sion:mywin* or mysession:mywin.  An empty window name specifies the next
     unused index if appropriate (for example the new-window and link-window
     commands) otherwise the current window in session is chosen.  The special
     character `!' uses the last (previously current) window, `^' selects the
     highest numbered window, `$' selects the lowest numbered window, and `+'
     and `-' select the next window or the previous window by number.  When
     the argument does not contain a colon, tmux first attempts to parse it as
     window; if that fails, an attempt is made to match a session.

     target-pane takes a similar form to target-window but with the optional
     addition of a period followed by a pane index, for example: myses-
     sion:mywindow.1.  If the pane index is omitted, the currently active pane
     in the specified window is used.  If neither a colon nor period appears,
     tmux first attempts to use the argument as a pane index; if that fails,
     it is looked up as for target-window.  A `+' or `-' indicate the next or
     previous pane index, respectively.  One of the strings top, bottom, left,
     right, top-left, top-right, bottom-left or bottom-right may be used
     instead of a pane index.

     The special characters `+' and `-' may be followed by an offset, for

           select-window -t:+2

     When dealing with a session that doesn't contain sequential window
     indexes, they will be correctly skipped.

     tmux also gives each pane created in a server an identifier consisting of
     a `%' and a number, starting from zero.  A pane's identifier is unique
     for the life of the tmux server and is passed to the child process of the
     pane in the TMUX_PANE environment variable.  It may be used alone to tar-
     get a pane or the window containing it.

     shell-command arguments are sh(1) commands.  These must be passed as a
     single item, which typically means quoting them, for example:

           new-window 'vi /etc/passwd'

     command [arguments] refers to a tmux command, passed with the command and
     arguments separately, for example:

           bind-key F1 set-window-option force-width 81

     Or if using sh(1):

           $ tmux bind-key F1 set-window-option force-width 81

     Multiple commands may be specified together as part of a command
     sequence.  Each command should be separated by spaces and a semicolon;
     commands are executed sequentially from left to right and lines ending
     with a backslash continue on to the next line, except when escaped by
     another backslash.  A literal semicolon may be included by escaping it
     with a backslash (for example, when specifying a command sequence to

     Example tmux commands include:

           refresh-client -t/dev/ttyp2

           rename-session -tfirst newname

           set-window-option -t:0 monitor-activity on

           new-window ; split-window -d

           bind-key R source-file ~/.tmux.conf \; \
                   display-message "source-file done"

     Or from sh(1):

           $ tmux kill-window -t :1

           $ tmux new-window \; split-window -d

           $ tmux new-session -d 'vi /etc/passwd' \; split-window -d \; attach

     The tmux server manages clients, sessions, windows and panes.  Clients
     are attached to sessions to interact with them, either when they are cre-
     ated with the new-session command, or later with the attach-session com-
     mand.  Each session has one or more windows linked into it.  Windows may
     be linked to multiple sessions and are made up of one or more panes, each
     of which contains a pseudo terminal.  Commands for creating, linking and
     otherwise manipulating windows are covered in the WINDOWS AND PANES sec-

     The following commands are available to manage clients and sessions:

     attach-session [-dr] [-c working-directory] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: attach)
             If run from outside tmux, create a new client in the current ter-
             minal and attach it to target-session.  If used from inside,
             switch the current client.  If -d is specified, any other clients
             attached to the session are detached.  -r signifies the client is
             read-only (only keys bound to the detach-client or switch-client
             commands have any effect)

             If no server is started, attach-session will attempt to start it;
             this will fail unless sessions are created in the configuration

             The target-session rules for attach-session are slightly
             adjusted: if tmux needs to select the most recently used session,
             it will prefer the most recently used unattached session.

             -c will set the session working directory (used for new windows)
             to working-directory.

     detach-client [-P] [-a] [-s target-session] [-t target-client]
                   (alias: detach)
             Detach the current client if bound to a key, the client specified
             with -t, or all clients currently attached to the session speci-
             fied by -s.  The -a option kills all but the client given with
             -t.  If -P is given, send SIGHUP to the parent process of the
             client, typically causing it to exit.

     has-session [-t target-session]
                   (alias: has)
             Report an error and exit with 1 if the specified session does not
             exist.  If it does exist, exit with 0.

             Kill the tmux server and clients and destroy all sessions.

     kill-session [-a] [-t target-session]
             Destroy the given session, closing any windows linked to it and
             no other sessions, and detaching all clients attached to it.  If
             -a is given, all sessions but the specified one is killed.

     list-clients [-F format] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: lsc)
             List all clients attached to the server.  For the meaning of the
             -F flag, see the FORMATS section.  If target-session is speci-
             fied, list only clients connected to that session.

                   (alias: lscm)
             List the syntax of all commands supported by tmux.

     list-sessions [-F format]
                   (alias: ls)
             List all sessions managed by the server.  For the meaning of the
             -F flag, see the FORMATS section.

     lock-client [-t target-client]
                   (alias: lockc)
             Lock target-client, see the lock-server command.

     lock-session [-t target-session]
                   (alias: locks)
             Lock all clients attached to target-session.

     new-session [-AdDP] [-c start-directory] [-F format] [-n window-name] [-s
             session-name] [-t target-session] [-x width] [-y height]
                   (alias: new)
             Create a new session with name session-name.

             The new session is attached to the current terminal unless -d is
             given.  window-name and shell-command are the name of and shell
             command to execute in the initial window.  If -d is used, -x and
             -y specify the size of the initial window (80 by 24 if not

             If run from a terminal, any termios(3) special characters are
             saved and used for new windows in the new session.

             The -A flag makes new-session behave like attach-session if
             session-name already exists; in the case, -D behaves like -d to

             If -t is given, the new session is grouped with target-session.
             This means they share the same set of windows - all windows from
             target-session are linked to the new session and any subsequent
             new windows or windows being closed are applied to both sessions.
             The current and previous window and any session options remain
             independent and either session may be killed without affecting
             the other.  Giving -n or shell-command are invalid if -t is used.

             The -P option prints information about the new session after it
             has been created.  By default, it uses the format
             `#{session_name}:' but a different format may be specified with

     refresh-client [-S] [-t target-client]
                   (alias: refresh)
             Refresh the current client if bound to a key, or a single client
             if one is given with -t.  If -S is specified, only update the
             client's status bar.

     rename-session [-t target-session] new-name
                   (alias: rename)
             Rename the session to new-name.

     show-messages [-IJT] [-t target-client]
                   (alias: showmsgs)
             Show client messages or server information.  Any messages dis-
             played on the status line are saved in a per-client message log,
             up to a maximum of the limit set by the message-limit session
             option for the session attached to that client.  With -t, display
             the log for target-client.  -I, -J and -T show debugging informa-
             tion about the running server, jobs and terminals.

     source-file path
                   (alias: source)
             Execute commands from path.

                   (alias: start)
             Start the tmux server, if not already running, without creating
             any sessions.

     suspend-client [-t target-client]
                   (alias: suspendc)
             Suspend a client by sending SIGTSTP (tty stop).

     switch-client [-lnpr] [-c target-client] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: switchc)
             Switch the current session for client target-client to
             target-session.  If -l, -n or -p is used, the client is moved to
             the last, next or previous session respectively.  -r toggles
             whether a client is read-only (see the attach-session command).

     A tmux window may be in one of several modes.  The default permits direct
     access to the terminal attached to the window.  The other is copy mode,
     which permits a section of a window or its history to be copied to a
     paste buffer for later insertion into another window.  This mode is
     entered with the copy-mode command, bound to `[' by default.  It is also
     entered when a command that produces output, such as list-keys, is exe-
     cuted from a key binding.

     The keys available depend on whether emacs or vi mode is selected (see
     the mode-keys option).  The following keys are supported as appropriate
     for the mode:

           Function                     vi              emacs
           Back to indentation          ^               M-m
           Bottom of history            G               M-<
           Clear selection              Escape          C-g
           Copy selection               Enter           M-w
           Cursor down                  j               Down
           Cursor left                  h               Left
           Cursor right                 l               Right
           Cursor to bottom line        L
           Cursor to middle line        M               M-r
           Cursor to top line           H               M-R
           Cursor up                    k               Up
           Delete entire line           d               C-u
           Delete/Copy to end of line   D               C-k
           End of line                  $               C-e
           Go to line                   :               g
           Half page down               C-d             M-Down
           Half page up                 C-u             M-Up
           Jump forward                 f               f
           Jump to forward              t
           Jump backward                F               F
           Jump to backward             T
           Jump again                   ;               ;
           Jump again in reverse        ,               ,
           Next page                    C-f             Page down
           Next space                   W
           Next space, end of word      E
           Next word                    w
           Next word end                e               M-f
           Other end of selection       o
           Paste buffer                 p               C-y
           Previous page                C-b             Page up
           Previous word                b               M-b
           Previous space               B
           Quit mode                    q               Escape
           Rectangle toggle             v               R
           Scroll down                  C-Down or C-e   C-Down
           Scroll up                    C-Up or C-y     C-Up
           Search again                 n               n
           Search again in reverse      N               N
           Search backward              ?               C-r
           Search forward               /               C-s
           Start of line                0               C-a
           Start selection              Space           C-Space
           Top of history               g               M->
           Transpose characters                         C-t

     The next and previous word keys use space and the `-', `_' and `@' char-
     acters as word delimiters by default, but this can be adjusted by setting
     the word-separators session option.  Next word moves to the start of the
     next word, next word end to the end of the next word and previous word to
     the start of the previous word.  The three next and previous space keys
     work similarly but use a space alone as the word separator.

     The jump commands enable quick movement within a line.  For instance,
     typing `f' followed by `/' will move the cursor to the next `/' character
     on the current line.  A `;' will then jump to the next occurrence.

     Commands in copy mode may be prefaced by an optional repeat count.  With
     vi key bindings, a prefix is entered using the number keys; with emacs,
     the Alt (meta) key and a number begins prefix entry.  For example, to
     move the cursor forward by ten words, use `M-1 0 M-f' in emacs mode, and
     `10w' in vi.

     When copying the selection, the repeat count indicates the buffer index
     to replace, if used.

     Mode key bindings are defined in a set of named tables: vi-edit and
     emacs-edit for keys used when line editing at the command prompt;
     vi-choice and emacs-choice for keys used when choosing from lists (such
     as produced by the choose-window command); and vi-copy and emacs-copy
     used in copy mode.  The tables may be viewed with the list-keys command
     and keys modified or removed with bind-key and unbind-key.  One command
     accepts an argument, copy-pipe, which copies the selection and pipes it
     to a command.  For example the following will bind `C-q' to copy the
     selection into /tmp as well as the paste buffer:

           bind-key -temacs-copy C-q copy-pipe "cat >/tmp/out"

     The paste buffer key pastes the first line from the top paste buffer on
     the stack.

     The synopsis for the copy-mode command is:

     copy-mode [-u] [-t target-pane]
             Enter copy mode.  The -u option scrolls one page up.

     Each window displayed by tmux may be split into one or more panes; each
     pane takes up a certain area of the display and is a separate terminal.
     A window may be split into panes using the split-window command.  Windows
     may be split horizontally (with the -h flag) or vertically.  Panes may be
     resized with the resize-pane command (bound to `C-up', `C-down' `C-left'
     and `C-right' by default), the current pane may be changed with the
     select-pane command and the rotate-window and swap-pane commands may be
     used to swap panes without changing their position.  Panes are numbered
     beginning from zero in the order they are created.

     A number of preset layouts are available.  These may be selected with the
     select-layout command or cycled with next-layout (bound to `Space' by
     default); once a layout is chosen, panes within it may be moved and
     resized as normal.

     The following layouts are supported:

             Panes are spread out evenly from left to right across the window.

             Panes are spread evenly from top to bottom.

             A large (main) pane is shown at the top of the window and the
             remaining panes are spread from left to right in the leftover
             space at the bottom.  Use the main-pane-height window option to
             specify the height of the top pane.

             Similar to main-horizontal but the large pane is placed on the
             left and the others spread from top to bottom along the right.
             See the main-pane-width window option.

     tiled   Panes are spread out as evenly as possible over the window in
             both rows and columns.

     In addition, select-layout may be used to apply a previously used layout
     - the list-windows command displays the layout of each window in a form
     suitable for use with select-layout.  For example:

           $ tmux list-windows
           0: ksh [159x48]
               layout: bb62,159x48,0,0{79x48,0,0,79x48,80,0}
           $ tmux select-layout bb62,159x48,0,0{79x48,0,0,79x48,80,0}

     tmux automatically adjusts the size of the layout for the current window
     size.  Note that a layout cannot be applied to a window with more panes
     than that from which the layout was originally defined.

     Commands related to windows and panes are as follows:

     break-pane [-dP] [-F format] [-t target-pane]
                   (alias: breakp)
             Break target-pane off from its containing window to make it the
             only pane in a new window.  If -d is given, the new window does
             not become the current window.  The -P option prints information
             about the new window after it has been created.  By default, it
             uses the format `#{session_name}:#{window_index}' but a different
             format may be specified with -F.

     capture-pane [-aepPq] [-b buffer-index] [-E end-line] [-S start-line] [-t
                   (alias: capturep)
             Capture the contents of a pane.  If -p is given, the output goes
             to stdout, otherwise to the buffer specified with -b or a new
             buffer if omitted.  If -a is given, the alternate screen is used,
             and the history is not accessible.  If no alternate screen
             exists, an error will be returned unless -q is given.  If -e is
             given, the output includes escape sequences for text and back-
             ground attributes.  -C also escapes non-printable characters as
             octal \xxx.  -J joins wrapped lines and preserves trailing spaces
             at each line's end.  -P captures only any output that the pane
             has received that is the beginning of an as-yet incomplete escape

             -S and -E specify the starting and ending line numbers, zero is
             the first line of the visible pane and negative numbers are lines
             in the history.  The default is to capture only the visible con-
             tents of the pane.

     choose-client [-F format] [-t target-window] [template]
             Put a window into client choice mode, allowing a client to be
             selected interactively from a list.  After a client is chosen,
             `%%' is replaced by the client pty(7) path in template and the
             result executed as a command.  If template is not given, "detach-
             client -t '%%'" is used.  For the meaning of the -F flag, see the
             FORMATS section.  This command works only if at least one client
             is attached.

     choose-list [-l items] [-t target-window] [template]
             Put a window into list choice mode, allowing items to be
             selected.  items can be a comma-separated list to display more
             than one item.  If an item has spaces, that entry must be quoted.
             After an item is chosen, `%%' is replaced by the chosen item in
             the template and the result is executed as a command.  If
             template is not given, "run-shell '%%'" is used.  items also
             accepts format specifiers.  For the meaning of this see the
             FORMATS section.  This command works only if at least one client
             is attached.

     choose-session [-F format] [-t target-window] [template]
             Put a window into session choice mode, where a session may be
             selected interactively from a list.  When one is chosen, `%%' is
             replaced by the session name in template and the result executed
             as a command.  If template is not given, "switch-client -t '%%'"
             is used.  For the meaning of the -F flag, see the FORMATS sec-
             tion.  This command works only if at least one client is

     choose-tree [-suw] [-b session-template] [-c window-template] [-S format]
             [-W format] [-t target-window]
             Put a window into tree choice mode, where either sessions or win-
             dows may be selected interactively from a list.  By default, win-
             dows belonging to a session are indented to show their relation-
             ship to a session.

             Note that the choose-window and choose-session commands are wrap-
             pers around choose-tree.

             If -s is given, will show sessions.  If -w is given, will show

             By default, the tree is collapsed and sessions must be expanded
             to windows with the right arrow key.  The -u option will start
             with all sessions expanded instead.

             If -b is given, will override the default session command.  Note
             that `%%' can be used and will be replaced with the session name.
             The default option if not specified is "switch-client -t '%%'".
             If -c is given, will override the default window command.  Like
             -b, `%%' can be used and will be replaced with the session name
             and window index.  When a window is chosen from the list, the
             session command is run before the window command.

             If -S is given will display the specified format instead of the
             default session format.  If -W is given will display the speci-
             fied format instead of the default window format.  For the mean-
             ing of the -s and -w options, see the FORMATS section.

             This command works only if at least one client is attached.

     choose-window [-F format] [-t target-window] [template]
             Put a window into window choice mode, where a window may be cho-
             sen interactively from a list.  After a window is selected, `%%'
             is replaced by the session name and window index in template and
             the result executed as a command.  If template is not given,
             "select-window -t '%%'" is used.  For the meaning of the -F flag,
             see the FORMATS section.  This command works only if at least one
             client is attached.

     display-panes [-t target-client]
                   (alias: displayp)
             Display a visible indicator of each pane shown by target-client.
             See the display-panes-time, display-panes-colour, and
             display-panes-active-colour session options.  While the indicator
             is on screen, a pane may be selected with the `0' to `9' keys.

     find-window [-CNT] [-F format] [-t target-window] match-string
                   (alias: findw)
             Search for the fnmatch(3) pattern match-string in window names,
             titles, and visible content (but not history).  The flags control
             matching behavior: -C matches only visible window contents, -N
             matches only the window name and -T matches only the window
             title.  The default is -CNT.  If only one window is matched,
             it'll be automatically selected, otherwise a choice list is
             shown.  For the meaning of the -F flag, see the FORMATS section.
             This command works only if at least one client is attached.

     join-pane [-bdhv] [-l size | -p percentage] [-s src-pane] [-t dst-pane]
                   (alias: joinp)
             Like split-window, but instead of splitting dst-pane and creating
             a new pane, split it and move src-pane into the space.  This can
             be used to reverse break-pane.  The -b option causes src-pane to
             be joined to left of or above dst-pane.

     kill-pane [-a] [-t target-pane]
                   (alias: killp)
             Destroy the given pane.  If no panes remain in the containing
             window, it is also destroyed.  The -a option kills all but the
             pane given with -t.

     kill-window [-a] [-t target-window]
                   (alias: killw)
             Kill the current window or the window at target-window, removing
             it from any sessions to which it is linked.  The -a option kills
             all but the window given with -t.

     last-pane [-t target-window]
                   (alias: lastp)
             Select the last (previously selected) pane.

     last-window [-t target-session]
                   (alias: last)
             Select the last (previously selected) window.  If no
             target-session is specified, select the last window of the cur-
             rent session.

     link-window [-dk] [-s src-window] [-t dst-window]
                   (alias: linkw)
             Link the window at src-window to the specified dst-window.  If
             dst-window is specified and no such window exists, the src-window
             is linked there.  If -k is given and dst-window exists, it is
             killed, otherwise an error is generated.  If -d is given, the
             newly linked window is not selected.

     list-panes [-as] [-F format] [-t target]
                   (alias: lsp)
             If -a is given, target is ignored and all panes on the server are
             listed.  If -s is given, target is a session (or the current ses-
             sion).  If neither is given, target is a window (or the current
             window).  For the meaning of the -F flag, see the FORMATS sec-

     list-windows [-a] [-F format] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: lsw)
             If -a is given, list all windows on the server.  Otherwise, list
             windows in the current session or in target-session.  For the
             meaning of the -F flag, see the FORMATS section.

     move-pane [-bdhv] [-l size | -p percentage] [-s src-pane] [-t dst-pane]
                   (alias: movep)
             Like join-pane, but src-pane and dst-pane may belong to the same

     move-window [-rdk] [-s src-window] [-t dst-window]
                   (alias: movew)
             This is similar to link-window, except the window at src-window
             is moved to dst-window.  With -r, all windows in the session are
             renumbered in sequential order, respecting the base-index option.

     new-window [-adkP] [-c start-directory] [-F format] [-n window-name] [-t
             target-window] [shell-command]
                   (alias: neww)
             Create a new window.  With -a, the new window is inserted at the
             next index up from the specified target-window, moving windows up
             if necessary, otherwise target-window is the new window location.

             If -d is given, the session does not make the new window the cur-
             rent window.  target-window represents the window to be created;
             if the target already exists an error is shown, unless the -k
             flag is used, in which case it is destroyed.  shell-command is
             the command to execute.  If shell-command is not specified, the
             value of the default-command option is used.  -c specifies the
             working directory in which the new window is created.

             When the shell command completes, the window closes.  See the
             remain-on-exit option to change this behaviour.

             The TERM environment variable must be set to ``screen'' for all
             programs running inside tmux.  New windows will automatically
             have ``TERM=screen'' added to their environment, but care must be
             taken not to reset this in shell start-up files.

             The -P option prints information about the new window after it
             has been created.  By default, it uses the format
             `#{session_name}:#{window_index}' but a different format may be
             specified with -F.

     next-layout [-t target-window]
                   (alias: nextl)
             Move a window to the next layout and rearrange the panes to fit.

     next-window [-a] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: next)
             Move to the next window in the session.  If -a is used, move to
             the next window with an alert.

     pipe-pane [-o] [-t target-pane] [shell-command]
                   (alias: pipep)
             Pipe any output sent by the program in target-pane to a shell
             command.  A pane may only be piped to one command at a time, any
             existing pipe is closed before shell-command is executed.  The
             shell-command string may contain the special character sequences
             supported by the status-left option.  If no shell-command is
             given, the current pipe (if any) is closed.

             The -o option only opens a new pipe if no previous pipe exists,
             allowing a pipe to be toggled with a single key, for example:

                   bind-key C-p pipe-pane -o 'cat >>~/output.#I-#P'

     previous-layout [-t target-window]
                   (alias: prevl)
             Move to the previous layout in the session.

     previous-window [-a] [-t target-session]
                   (alias: prev)
             Move to the previous window in the session.  With -a, move to the
             previous window with an alert.

     rename-window [-t target-window] new-name
                   (alias: renamew)
             Rename the current window, or the window at target-window if
             specified, to new-name.

     resize-pane [-DLRUZ] [-t target-pane] [-x width] [-y height] [adjustment]
                   (alias: resizep)
             Resize a pane, up, down, left or right by adjustment with -U, -D,
             -L or -R, or to an absolute size with -x or -y.  The adjustment
             is given in lines or cells (the default is 1).

             With -Z, the active pane is toggled between zoomed (occupying the
             whole of the window) and unzoomed (its normal position in the

     respawn-pane [-k] [-t target-pane] [shell-command]
                   (alias: respawnp)
             Reactivate a pane in which the command has exited (see the
             remain-on-exit window option).  If shell-command is not given,
             the command used when the pane was created is executed.  The pane
             must be already inactive, unless -k is given, in which case any
             existing command is killed.

     respawn-window [-k] [-t target-window] [shell-command]
                   (alias: respawnw)
             Reactivate a window in which the command has exited (see the
             remain-on-exit window option).  If shell-command is not given,
             the command used when the window was created is executed.  The
             window must be already inactive, unless -k is given, in which
             case any existing command is killed.

     rotate-window [-DU] [-t target-window]
                   (alias: rotatew)
             Rotate the positions of the panes within a window, either upward
             (numerically lower) with -U or downward (numerically higher).

     select-layout [-np] [-t target-window] [layout-name]
                   (alias: selectl)
             Choose a specific layout for a window.  If layout-name is not
             given, the last preset layout used (if any) is reapplied.  -n and
             -p are equivalent to the next-layout and previous-layout com-

     select-pane [-lDLRU] [-t target-pane]
                   (alias: selectp)
             Make pane target-pane the active pane in window target-window.
             If one of -D, -L, -R, or -U is used, respectively the pane below,
             to the left, to the right, or above the target pane is used.  -l
             is the same as using the last-pane command.

     select-window [-lnpT] [-t target-window]
                   (alias: selectw)
             Select the window at target-window.  -l, -n and -p are equivalent
             to the last-window, next-window and previous-window commands.  If
             -T is given and the selected window is already the current win-
             dow, the command behaves like last-window.

     split-window [-dhvP] [-c start-directory] [-l size | -p percentage] [-t
             target-pane] [shell-command] [-F format]
                   (alias: splitw)
             Create a new pane by splitting target-pane: -h does a horizontal
             split and -v a vertical split; if neither is specified, -v is
             assumed.  The -l and -p options specify the size of the new pane
             in lines (for vertical split) or in cells (for horizontal split),
             or as a percentage, respectively.  All other options have the
             same meaning as for the new-window command.

     swap-pane [-dDU] [-s src-pane] [-t dst-pane]
                   (alias: swapp)
             Swap two panes.  If -U is used and no source pane is specified
             with -s, dst-pane is swapped with the previous pane (before it
             numerically); -D swaps with the next pane (after it numerically).
             -d instructs tmux not to change the active pane.

     swap-window [-d] [-s src-window] [-t dst-window]
                   (alias: swapw)
             This is similar to link-window, except the source and destination
             windows are swapped.  It is an error if no window exists at

     unlink-window [-k] [-t target-window]
                   (alias: unlinkw)
             Unlink target-window.  Unless -k is given, a window may be
             unlinked only if it is linked to multiple sessions - windows may
             not be linked to no sessions; if -k is specified and the window
             is linked to only one session, it is unlinked and destroyed.

     tmux allows a command to be bound to most keys, with or without a prefix
     key.  When specifying keys, most represent themselves (for example `A' to
     `Z').  Ctrl keys may be prefixed with `C-' or `^', and Alt (meta) with
     `M-'.  In addition, the following special key names are accepted: Up,
     Down, Left, Right, BSpace, BTab, DC (Delete), End, Enter, Escape, F1 to
     F20, Home, IC (Insert), NPage/PageDown/PgDn, PPage/PageUp/PgUp, Space,
     and Tab.  Note that to bind the `"' or `'' keys, quotation marks are nec-
     essary, for example:

           bind-key '"' split-window
           bind-key "'" new-window

     Commands related to key bindings are as follows:

     bind-key [-cnr] [-t key-table] key command [arguments]
                   (alias: bind)
             Bind key key to command.  By default (without -t) the primary key
             bindings are modified (those normally activated with the prefix
             key); in this case, if -n is specified, it is not necessary to
             use the prefix key, command is bound to key alone.  The -r flag
             indicates this key may repeat, see the repeat-time option.

             If -t is present, key is bound in key-table: the binding for com-
             mand mode with -c or for normal mode without.  To view the
             default bindings and possible commands, see the list-keys com-

     list-keys [-t key-table]
                   (alias: lsk)
             List all key bindings.  Without -t the primary key bindings -
             those executed when preceded by the prefix key - are printed.

             With -t, the key bindings in key-table are listed; this may be
             one of: vi-edit, emacs-edit, vi-choice, emacs-choice, vi-copy or

     send-keys [-lR] [-t target-pane] key ...
                   (alias: send)
             Send a key or keys to a window.  Each argument key is the name of
             the key (such as `C-a' or `npage' ) to send; if the string is not
             recognised as a key, it is sent as a series of characters.  The
             -l flag disables key name lookup and sends the keys literally.
             All arguments are sent sequentially from first to last.  The -R
             flag causes the terminal state to be reset.

     send-prefix [-2] [-t target-pane]
             Send the prefix key, or with -2 the secondary prefix key, to a
             window as if it was pressed.

     unbind-key [-acn] [-t key-table] key
                   (alias: unbind)
             Unbind the command bound to key.  Without -t the primary key
             bindings are modified; in this case, if -n is specified, the com-
             mand bound to key without a prefix (if any) is removed.  If -a is
             present, all key bindings are removed.

             If -t is present, key in key-table is unbound: the binding for
             command mode with -c or for normal mode without.

     The appearance and behaviour of tmux may be modified by changing the
     value of various options.  There are three types of option: server
     options, session options and window options.

     The tmux server has a set of global options which do not apply to any
     particular window or session.  These are altered with the set-option -s
     command, or displayed with the show-options -s command.

     In addition, each individual session may have a set of session options,
     and there is a separate set of global session options.  Sessions which do
     not have a particular option configured inherit the value from the global
     session options.  Session options are set or unset with the set-option
     command and may be listed with the show-options command.  The available
     server and session options are listed under the set-option command.

     Similarly, a set of window options is attached to each window, and there
     is a set of global window options from which any unset options are inher-
     ited.  Window options are altered with the set-window-option command and
     can be listed with the show-window-options command.  All window options
     are documented with the set-window-option command.

     tmux also supports user options which are prefixed with a `@'.  User
     options may have any name, so long as they are prefixed with `@', and be
     set to any string.  For example

           $ tmux setw -q @foo "abc123"
           $ tmux showw -v @foo

     Commands which set options are as follows:

     set-option [-agoqsuw] [-t target-session | target-window] option value
                   (alias: set)
             Set a window option with -w (equivalent to the set-window-option
             command), a server option with -s, otherwise a session option.

             If -g is specified, the global session or window option is set.
             The -u flag unsets an option, so a session inherits the option
             from the global options.  It is not possible to unset a global

             The -o flag prevents setting an option that is already set.

             The -q flag suppresses the informational message (as if the quiet
             server option was set).

             With -a, and if the option expects a string or a style, value is
             appended to the existing setting.  For example:

                   set -g status-left "foo"
                   set -ag status-left "bar"

             Will result in `foobar'.  And:

                   set -g status-style "bg=red"
                   set -ag status-style "fg=blue"

             Will result in a red background and blue foreground.  Without -a,
             the result would be the default background and a blue foreground.

             Available window options are listed under set-window-option.

             value depends on the option and may be a number, a string, or a
             flag (on, off, or omitted to toggle).

             Available server options are:

             buffer-limit number
                     Set the number of buffers; as new buffers are added to
                     the top of the stack, old ones are removed from the bot-
                     tom if necessary to maintain this maximum length.

             escape-time time
                     Set the time in milliseconds for which tmux waits after
                     an escape is input to determine if it is part of a func-
                     tion or meta key sequences.  The default is 500 millisec-

             exit-unattached [on | off]
                     If enabled, the server will exit when there are no
                     attached clients.

             focus-events [on | off]
                     When enabled, focus events are requested from the termi-
                     nal if supported and passed through to applications run-
                     ning in tmux.  Attached clients should be detached and
                     attached again after changing this option.

             quiet [on | off]
                     Enable or disable the display of various informational
                     messages (see also the -q command line flag).

             set-clipboard [on | off]
                     Attempt to set the terminal clipboard content using the
                     \e]52;...\007 xterm(1) escape sequences.  This option is
                     on by default if there is an Ms entry in the terminfo(5)
                     description for the client terminal.  Note that this fea-
                     ture needs to be enabled in xterm(1) by setting the

                           disallowedWindowOps: 20,21,SetXprop

                     Or changing this property from the xterm(1) interactive
                     menu when required.

             Available session options are:

             assume-paste-time milliseconds
                     If keys are entered faster than one in milliseconds, they
                     are assumed to have been pasted rather than typed and
                     tmux key bindings are not processed.  The default is one
                     millisecond and zero disables.

             base-index index
                     Set the base index from which an unused index should be
                     searched when a new window is created.  The default is

             bell-action [any | none | current]
                     Set action on window bell.  any means a bell in any win-
                     dow linked to a session causes a bell in the current win-
                     dow of that session, none means all bells are ignored and
                     current means only bells in windows other than the cur-
                     rent window are ignored.

             bell-on-alert [on | off]
                     If on, ring the terminal bell when an alert occurs.

             default-command shell-command
                     Set the command used for new windows (if not specified
                     when the window is created) to shell-command, which may
                     be any sh(1) command.  The default is an empty string,
                     which instructs tmux to create a login shell using the
                     value of the default-shell option.

             default-shell path
                     Specify the default shell.  This is used as the login
                     shell for new windows when the default-command option is
                     set to empty, and must be the full path of the exe-
                     cutable.  When started tmux tries to set a default value
                     from the first suitable of the SHELL environment vari-
                     able, the shell returned by getpwuid(3), or /bin/sh.
                     This option should be configured when tmux is used as a
                     login shell.

             default-terminal terminal
                     Set the default terminal for new windows created in this
                     session - the default value of the TERM environment vari-
                     able.  For tmux to work correctly, this must be set to
                     `screen' or a derivative of it.

             destroy-unattached [on | off]
                     If enabled and the session is no longer attached to any
                     clients, it is destroyed.

             detach-on-destroy [on | off]
                     If on (the default), the client is detached when the ses-
                     sion it is attached to is destroyed.  If off, the client
                     is switched to the most recently active of the remaining

             display-panes-active-colour colour
                     Set the colour used by the display-panes command to show
                     the indicator for the active pane.

             display-panes-colour colour
                     Set the colour used by the display-panes command to show
                     the indicators for inactive panes.

             display-panes-time time
                     Set the time in milliseconds for which the indicators
                     shown by the display-panes command appear.

             display-time time
                     Set the amount of time for which status line messages and
                     other on-screen indicators are displayed.  time is in

             history-limit lines
                     Set the maximum number of lines held in window history.
                     This setting applies only to new windows - existing win-
                     dow histories are not resized and retain the limit at the
                     point they were created.

             lock-after-time number
                     Lock the session (like the lock-session command) after
                     number seconds of inactivity, or the entire server (all
                     sessions) if the lock-server option is set.  The default
                     is not to lock (set to 0).

             lock-command shell-command
                     Command to run when locking each client.  The default is
                     to run lock(1) with -np.

             lock-server [on | off]
                     If this option is on (the default), instead of each ses-
                     sion locking individually as each has been idle for
                     lock-after-time, the entire server will lock after all
                     sessions would have locked.  This has no effect as a ses-
                     sion option; it must be set as a global option.

             message-command-style style
                     Set status line message command style, where style is a
                     comma-separated list of characteristics to be specified.

                     These may be `bg=colour' to set the background colour,
                     `fg=colour' to set the foreground colour, and a list of
                     attributes as specified below.

                     The colour is one of: black, red, green, yellow, blue,
                     magenta, cyan, white, aixterm bright variants (if sup-
                     ported: brightred, brightgreen, and so on), colour0 to
                     colour255 from the 256-colour set, default, or a hexadec-
                     imal RGB string such as `#ffffff', which chooses the
                     closest match from the default 256-colour set.

                     The attributes is either none or a comma-delimited list
                     of one or more of: bright (or bold), dim, underscore,
                     blink, reverse, hidden, or italics, to turn an attribute
                     on, or an attribute prefixed with `no' to turn one off.

                     Examples are:


                     With the -a flag to the set-option command the new style
                     is added otherwise the existing style is replaced.

             message-limit number
                     Set the number of error or information messages to save
                     in the message log for each client.  The default is 20.

             message-style style
                     Set status line message style.  For how to specify style,
                     see the message-command-style option.

             mouse-resize-pane [on | off]
                     If on, tmux captures the mouse and allows panes to be
                     resized by dragging on their borders.

             mouse-select-pane [on | off]
                     If on, tmux captures the mouse and when a window is split
                     into multiple panes the mouse may be used to select the
                     current pane.  The mouse click is also passed through to
                     the application as normal.

             mouse-select-window [on | off]
                     If on, clicking the mouse on a window name in the status
                     line will select that window.

             mouse-utf8 [on | off]
                     If enabled, request mouse input as UTF-8 on UTF-8 termi-

             pane-active-border-style style
                     Set the pane border style for the currently active pane.
                     For how to specify style, see the message-command-style
                     option.  Attributes are ignored.

             pane-border-style style
                     Set the pane border style for paneas aside from the
                     active pane.  For how to specify style, see the
                     message-command-style option.  Attributes are ignored.

             prefix key
                     Set the key accepted as a prefix key.

             prefix2 key
                     Set a secondary key accepted as a prefix key.

             renumber-windows [on | off]
                     If on, when a window is closed in a session, automati-
                     cally renumber the other windows in numerical order.
                     This respects the base-index option if it has been set.
                     If off, do not renumber the windows.

             repeat-time time
                     Allow multiple commands to be entered without pressing
                     the prefix-key again in the specified time milliseconds
                     (the default is 500).  Whether a key repeats may be set
                     when it is bound using the -r flag to bind-key.  Repeat
                     is enabled for the default keys bound to the resize-pane

             set-remain-on-exit [on | off]
                     Set the remain-on-exit window option for any windows
                     first created in this session.  When this option is true,
                     windows in which the running program has exited do not
                     close, instead remaining open but inactivate.  Use the
                     respawn-window command to reactivate such a window, or
                     the kill-window command to destroy it.

             set-titles [on | off]
                     Attempt to set the client terminal title using the tsl
                     and fsl terminfo(5) entries if they exist.  tmux automat-
                     ically sets these to the \e]2;...\007 sequence if the
                     terminal appears to be an xterm.  This option is off by
                     default.  Note that elinks will only attempt to set the
                     window title if the STY environment variable is set.

             set-titles-string string
                     String used to set the window title if set-titles is on.
                     Character sequences are replaced as for the status-left

             status [on | off]
                     Show or hide the status line.

             status-interval interval
                     Update the status bar every interval seconds.  By
                     default, updates will occur every 15 seconds.  A setting
                     of zero disables redrawing at interval.

             status-justify [left | centre | right]
                     Set the position of the window list component of the sta-
                     tus line: left, centre or right justified.

             status-keys [vi | emacs]
                     Use vi or emacs-style key bindings in the status line,
                     for example at the command prompt.  The default is emacs,
                     unless the VISUAL or EDITOR environment variables are set
                     and contain the string `vi'.

             status-left string
                     Display string (by default the session name) to the left
                     of the status bar.  string will be passed through
                     strftime(3) and formats (see FORMATS) will be expanded.
                     It may also contain any of the following special charac-
                     ter sequences:

                           Character pair    Replaced with
                           #(shell-command)  First line of the command's
                           #[attributes]     Colour or attribute change
                           ##                A literal `#'

                     The #(shell-command) form executes `shell-command' and
                     inserts the first line of its output.  Note that shell
                     commands are only executed once at the interval specified
                     by the status-interval option: if the status line is
                     redrawn in the meantime, the previous result is used.
                     Shell commands are executed with the tmux global environ-
                     ment set (see the ENVIRONMENT section).

                     For details on how the names and titles can be set see
                     the NAMES AND TITLES section.  For a list of allowed
                     attributes see the message-command-style option.

                     Examples are:

                           #(sysctl vm.loadavg)
                           #[fg=yellow,bold]#(apm -l)%%#[default] [#S]

                     Where appropriate, special character sequences may be
                     prefixed with a number to specify the maximum length, for
                     example `#24T'.

                     By default, UTF-8 in string is not interpreted, to enable
                     UTF-8, use the status-utf8 option.

             status-left-length length
                     Set the maximum length of the left component of the sta-
                     tus bar.  The default is 10.

             status-left-style style
                     Set the style of the left part of the status line.  For
                     how to specify style, see the message-command-style

             status-position [top | bottom]
                     Set the position of the status line.

             status-right string
                     Display string to the right of the status bar.  By
                     default, the current window title in double quotes, the
                     date and the time are shown.  As with status-left, string
                     will be passed to strftime(3), character pairs are
                     replaced, and UTF-8 is dependent on the status-utf8

             status-right-length length
                     Set the maximum length of the right component of the sta-
                     tus bar.  The default is 40.

             status-right-style style
                     Set the style of the right part of the status line.  For
                     how to specify style, see the message-command-style

             status-style style
                     Set status line style.  For how to specify style, see the
                     message-command-style option.

             status-utf8 [on | off]
                     Instruct tmux to treat top-bit-set characters in the
                     status-left and status-right strings as UTF-8; notably,
                     this is important for wide characters.  This option
                     defaults to off.

             terminal-overrides string
                     Contains a list of entries which override terminal
                     descriptions read using terminfo(5).  string is a comma-
                     separated list of items each a colon-separated string
                     made up of a terminal type pattern (matched using
                     fnmatch(3)) and a set of name=value entries.

                     For example, to set the `clear' terminfo(5) entry to
                     `\e[H\e[2J' for all terminal types and the `dch1' entry
                     to `\e[P' for the `rxvt' terminal type, the option could
                     be set to the string:


                     The terminal entry value is passed through strunvis(3)
                     before interpretation.  The default value forcibly cor-
                     rects the `colors' entry for terminals which support 256


             update-environment variables
                     Set a space-separated string containing a list of envi-
                     ronment variables to be copied into the session environ-
                     ment when a new session is created or an existing session
                     is attached.  Any variables that do not exist in the
                     source environment are set to be removed from the session
                     environment (as if -r was given to the set-environment
                     command).  The default is "DISPLAY SSH_ASKPASS

             visual-activity [on | off]
                     If on, display a status line message when activity occurs
                     in a window for which the monitor-activity window option
                     is enabled.

             visual-bell [on | off]
                     If this option is on, a message is shown on a bell
                     instead of it being passed through to the terminal (which
                     normally makes a sound).  Also see the bell-action

             visual-content [on | off]
                     Like visual-activity, display a message when content is
                     present in a window for which the monitor-content window
                     option is enabled.

             visual-silence [on | off]
                     If monitor-silence is enabled, prints a message after the
                     interval has expired on a given window.

             word-separators string
                     Sets the session's conception of what characters are con-
                     sidered word separators, for the purposes of the next and
                     previous word commands in copy mode.  The default is
                     ` -_@'.

     set-window-option [-agoqu] [-t target-window] option value
                   (alias: setw)
             Set a window option.  The -a, -g, -o, -q and -u flags work simi-
             larly to the set-option command.

             Supported window options are:

             aggressive-resize [on | off]
                     Aggressively resize the chosen window.  This means that
                     tmux will resize the window to the size of the smallest
                     session for which it is the current window, rather than
                     the smallest session to which it is attached.  The window
                     may resize when the current window is changed on another
                     sessions; this option is good for full-screen programs
                     which support SIGWINCH and poor for interactive programs
                     such as shells.

             allow-rename [on | off]
                     Allow programs to change the window name using a terminal
                     escape sequence (\033k...\033\\).  The default is on.

             alternate-screen [on | off]
                     This option configures whether programs running inside
                     tmux may use the terminal alternate screen feature, which
                     allows the smcup and rmcup terminfo(5) capabilities.  The
                     alternate screen feature preserves the contents of the
                     window when an interactive application starts and
                     restores it on exit, so that any output visible before
                     the application starts reappears unchanged after it
                     exits.  The default is on.

             automatic-rename [on | off]
                     Control automatic window renaming.  When this setting is
                     enabled, tmux will rename the window automatically using
                     the format specified by automatic-rename-format.  This
                     flag is automatically disabled for an individual window
                     when a name is specified at creation with new-window or
                     new-session, or later with rename-window, or with a ter-
                     minal escape sequence.  It may be switched off globally

                           set-window-option -g automatic-rename off

             automatic-rename-format format
                     The format (see FORMATS) used when the automatic-rename
                     option is enabled.

             c0-change-interval interval
             c0-change-trigger trigger
                     These two options configure a simple form of rate limit-
                     ing for a pane.  If tmux sees more than trigger C0
                     sequences that modify the screen (for example, carriage
                     returns, linefeeds or backspaces) in one millisecond, it
                     will stop updating the pane immediately and instead
                     redraw it entirely every interval milliseconds.  This
                     helps to prevent fast output (such as yes(1)) overwhelm-
                     ing the terminal.  The default is a trigger of 250 and an
                     interval of 100.  A trigger of zero disables the rate

             clock-mode-colour colour
                     Set clock colour.

             clock-mode-style [12 | 24]
                     Set clock hour format.

             force-height height
             force-width width
                     Prevent tmux from resizing a window to greater than width
                     or height.  A value of zero restores the default unlim-
                     ited setting.

             main-pane-height height
             main-pane-width width
                     Set the width or height of the main (left or top) pane in
                     the main-horizontal or main-vertical layouts.

             mode-keys [vi | emacs]
                     Use vi or emacs-style key bindings in copy and choice
                     modes.  As with the status-keys option, the default is
                     emacs, unless VISUAL or EDITOR contains `vi'.

             mode-mouse [on | off | copy-mode]
                     Mouse state in modes.  If on, the mouse may be used to
                     enter copy mode and copy a selection by dragging, to
                     enter copy mode and scroll with the mouse wheel, or to
                     select an option in choice mode.  If set to copy-mode,
                     the mouse behaves as set to on, but cannot be used to
                     enter copy mode.

             mode-style style
                     Set window modes style.  For how to specify style, see
                     the message-command-style option.

             monitor-activity [on | off]
                     Monitor for activity in the window.  Windows with activ-
                     ity are highlighted in the status line.

             monitor-content match-string
                     Monitor content in the window.  When fnmatch(3) pattern
                     match-string appears in the window, it is highlighted in
                     the status line.

             monitor-silence [interval]
                     Monitor for silence (no activity) in the window within
                     interval seconds.  Windows that have been silent for the
                     interval are highlighted in the status line.  An interval
                     of zero disables the monitoring.

             other-pane-height height
                     Set the height of the other panes (not the main pane) in
                     the main-horizontal layout.  If this option is set to 0
                     (the default), it will have no effect.  If both the
                     main-pane-height and other-pane-height options are set,
                     the main pane will grow taller to make the other panes
                     the specified height, but will never shrink to do so.

             other-pane-width width
                     Like other-pane-height, but set the width of other panes
                     in the main-vertical layout.

             pane-base-index index
                     Like base-index, but set the starting index for pane num-

             remain-on-exit [on | off]
                     A window with this flag set is not destroyed when the
                     program running in it exits.  The window may be reacti-
                     vated with the respawn-window command.

             synchronize-panes [on | off]
                     Duplicate input to any pane to all other panes in the
                     same window (only for panes that are not in any special

             utf8 [on | off]
                     Instructs tmux to expect UTF-8 sequences to appear in
                     this window.

             window-status-activity-style style
                     Set status line style for windows with an activity alert.
                     For how to specify style, see the message-command-style

             window-status-bell-style style
                     Set status line style for windows with a bell alert.  For
                     how to specify style, see the message-command-style

             window-status-content-style style
                     Set status line style for windows with a content alert.
                     For how to specify style, see the message-command-style

             window-status-current-format string
                     Like window-status-format, but is the format used when
                     the window is the current window.

             window-status-current-style style
                     Set status line style for the currently active window.
                     For how to specify style, see the message-command-style

             window-status-format string
                     Set the format in which the window is displayed in the
                     status line window list.  See the status-left option for
                     details of special character sequences available.  The
                     default is `#I:#W#F'.

             window-status-last-style style
                     Set status line style for the last active window.  For
                     how to specify style, see the message-command-style

             window-status-separator string
                     Sets the separator drawn between windows in the status
                     line.  The default is a single space character.

             window-status-style style
                     Set status line style for a single window.  For how to
                     specify style, see the message-command-style option.

             xterm-keys [on | off]
                     If this option is set, tmux will generate xterm(1) -style
                     function key sequences; these have a number included to
                     indicate modifiers such as Shift, Alt or Ctrl.  The
                     default is off.

             wrap-search [on | off]
                     If this option is set, searches will wrap around the end
                     of the pane contents.  The default is on.

     show-options [-gqsvw] [-t target-session | target-window] [option]
                   (alias: show)
             Show the window options (or a single window option if given) with
             -w (equivalent to show-window-options), the server options with
             -s, otherwise the session options for target session.  Global
             session or window options are listed if -g is used.  -v shows
             only the option value, not the name.  If -q is set, no error will
             be returned if option is unset.

     show-window-options [-gv] [-t target-window] [option]
                   (alias: showw)
             List the window options or a single option for target-window, or
             the global window options if -g is used.  -v shows only the
             option value, not the name.

     Certain commands accept the -F flag with a format argument.  This is a
     string which controls the output format of the command.  Replacement
     variables are enclosed in `#{' and `}', for example `#{session_name}'.
     Some variables also have an shorter alias such as `#S'.  `##' is replaced
     by a single `#'.  Conditionals are also accepted by prefixing with `?'
     and separating two alternatives with a comma; if the specified variable
     exists and is not zero, the first alternative is chosen, otherwise the
     second is used.  For example `#{?session_attached,attached,not attached}'
     will include the string `attached' if the session is attached and the
     string `not attached' if it is unattached.  A limit may be placed on the
     length of the resultant string by prefixing it by an `=', a number and a
     colon, so `#{=10:pane_title}' will include at most the first 10 charac-
     ters of the pane title.

     The following variables are available, where appropriate:

     Variable name          Alias    Replaced with
     alternate_on                    If pane is in alternate screen
     alternate_saved_x               Saved cursor X in alternate screen
     alternate_saved_y               Saved cursor Y in alternate screen
     buffer_sample                   First 50 characters from buffer
     buffer_size                     Size of the specified buffer in bytes
     client_activity                 Integer time client last had activity
     client_activity_string          String time client last had activity
     client_created                  Integer time client created
     client_created_string           String time client created
     client_height                   Height of client
     client_last_session             Name of the client's last session
     client_prefix                   1 if prefix key has been pressed
     client_readonly                 1 if client is readonly
     client_session                  Name of the client's session
     client_termname                 Terminal name of client
     client_tty                      Pseudo terminal of client
     client_utf8                     1 if client supports utf8
     client_width                    Width of client
     cursor_flag                     Pane cursor flag
     cursor_x                        Cursor X position in pane
     cursor_y                        Cursor Y position in pane
     history_bytes                   Number of bytes in window history
     history_limit                   Maximum window history lines
     history_size                    Size of history in bytes
     host                   #H       Hostname of local host
     host_short             #h       Hostname of local host (no domain name)
     insert_flag                     Pane insert flag
     keypad_cursor_flag              Pane keypad cursor flag
     keypad_flag                     Pane keypad flag
     line                            Line number in the list
     mouse_any_flag                  Pane mouse any flag
     mouse_button_flag               Pane mouse button flag
     mouse_standard_flag             Pane mouse standard flag
     mouse_utf8_flag                 Pane mouse UTF-8 flag
     pane_active                     1 if active pane
     pane_current_command            Current command if available
     pane_current_path               Current path if available
     pane_dead                       1 if pane is dead
     pane_height                     Height of pane
     pane_id                #D       Unique pane ID
     pane_in_mode                    If pane is in a mode
     pane_synchronized               If pane is synchronized
     pane_index             #P       Index of pane
     pane_pid                        PID of first process in pane
     pane_start_command              Command pane started with
     pane_start_path                 Path pane started with
     pane_tabs                       Pane tab positions
     pane_title             #T       Title of pane
     pane_tty                        Pseudo terminal of pane
     pane_width                      Width of pane
     saved_cursor_x                  Saved cursor X in pane
     saved_cursor_y                  Saved cursor Y in pane
     scroll_region_lower             Bottom of scroll region in pane
     scroll_region_upper             Top of scroll region in pane
     session_attached                1 if session attached
     session_created                 Integer time session created
     session_created_string          String time session created
     session_group                   Number of session group
     session_grouped                 1 if session in a group
     session_height                  Height of session
     session_id                      Unique session ID
     session_name           #S       Name of session
     session_width                   Width of session
     session_windows                 Number of windows in session
     window_active                   1 if window active
     window_activity_flag            1 if window has activity alert
     window_bell_flag                1 if window has bell
     window_content_flag             1 if window has content alert
     window_find_matches             Matched data from the find-window
     window_flags           #F       Window flags
     window_height                   Height of window
     window_id                       Unique window ID
     window_index           #I       Index of window
     window_layout                   Window layout description
     window_name            #W       Name of window
     window_panes                    Number of panes in window
     window_silence_flag             1 if window has silence alert
     window_width                    Width of window
     wrap_flag                       Pane wrap flag

     tmux distinguishes between names and titles.  Windows and sessions have
     names, which may be used to specify them in targets and are displayed in
     the status line and various lists: the name is the tmux identifier for a
     window or session.  Only panes have titles.  A pane's title is typically
     set by the program running inside the pane and is not modified by tmux.
     It is the same mechanism used to set for example the xterm(1) window
     title in an X(7) window manager.  Windows themselves do not have titles -
     a window's title is the title of its active pane.  tmux itself may set
     the title of the terminal in which the client is running, see the
     set-titles option.

     A session's name is set with the new-session and rename-session commands.
     A window's name is set with one of:

     1.      A command argument (such as -n for new-window or new-session).

     2.      An escape sequence:

                   $ printf '\033kWINDOW_NAME\033\\'

     3.      Automatic renaming, which sets the name to the active command in
             the window's active pane.  See the automatic-rename option.

     When a pane is first created, its title is the hostname.  A pane's title
     can be set via the OSC title setting sequence, for example:

           $ printf '\033]2;My Title\033\\'

     When the server is started, tmux copies the environment into the global
     environment; in addition, each session has a session environment.  When a
     window is created, the session and global environments are merged.  If a
     variable exists in both, the value from the session environment is used.
     The result is the initial environment passed to the new process.

     The update-environment session option may be used to update the session
     environment from the client when a new session is created or an old reat-
     tached.  tmux also initialises the TMUX variable with some internal
     information to allow commands to be executed from inside, and the TERM
     variable with the correct terminal setting of `screen'.

     Commands to alter and view the environment are:

     set-environment [-gru] [-t target-session] name [value]
                   (alias: setenv)
             Set or unset an environment variable.  If -g is used, the change
             is made in the global environment; otherwise, it is applied to
             the session environment for target-session.  The -u flag unsets a
             variable.  -r indicates the variable is to be removed from the
             environment before starting a new process.

     show-environment [-g] [-t target-session] [variable]
                   (alias: showenv)
             Display the environment for target-session or the global environ-
             ment with -g.  If variable is omitted, all variables are shown.
             Variables removed from the environment are prefixed with `-'.

     tmux includes an optional status line which is displayed in the bottom
     line of each terminal.  By default, the status line is enabled (it may be
     disabled with the status session option) and contains, from left-to-
     right: the name of the current session in square brackets; the window
     list; the title of the active pane in double quotes; and the time and

     The status line is made of three parts: configurable left and right sec-
     tions (which may contain dynamic content such as the time or output from
     a shell command, see the status-left, status-left-length, status-right,
     and status-right-length options below), and a central window list.  By
     default, the window list shows the index, name and (if any) flag of the
     windows present in the current session in ascending numerical order.  It
     may be customised with the window-status-format and
     window-status-current-format options.  The flag is one of the following
     symbols appended to the window name:

           Symbol    Meaning
           *         Denotes the current window.
           -         Marks the last window (previously selected).
           #         Window is monitored and activity has been detected.
           !         A bell has occurred in the window.
           +         Window is monitored for content and it has appeared.
           ~         The window has been silent for the monitor-silence
           Z         The window's active pane is zoomed.

     The # symbol relates to the monitor-activity and + to the monitor-content
     window options.  The window name is printed in inverted colours if an
     alert (bell, activity or content) is present.

     The colour and attributes of the status line may be configured, the
     entire status line using the status-style session option and individual
     windows using the window-status-style window option.

     The status line is automatically refreshed at interval if it has changed,
     the interval may be controlled with the status-interval session option.

     Commands related to the status line are as follows:

     command-prompt [-I inputs] [-p prompts] [-t target-client] [template]
             Open the command prompt in a client.  This may be used from
             inside tmux to execute commands interactively.

             If template is specified, it is used as the command.  If present,
             -I is a comma-separated list of the initial text for each prompt.
             If -p is given, prompts is a comma-separated list of prompts
             which are displayed in order; otherwise a single prompt is dis-
             played, constructed from template if it is present, or `:' if

             Both inputs and prompts may contain the special character
             sequences supported by the status-left option.

             Before the command is executed, the first occurrence of the
             string `%%' and all occurrences of `%1' are replaced by the
             response to the first prompt, the second `%%' and all `%2' are
             replaced with the response to the second prompt, and so on for
             further prompts.  Up to nine prompt responses may be replaced
             (`%1' to `%9').

     confirm-before [-p prompt] [-t target-client] command
                   (alias: confirm)
             Ask for confirmation before executing command.  If -p is given,
             prompt is the prompt to display; otherwise a prompt is con-
             structed from command.  It may contain the special character
             sequences supported by the status-left option.

             This command works only from inside tmux.

     display-message [-p] [-c target-client] [-t target-pane] [message]
                   (alias: display)
             Display a message.  If -p is given, the output is printed to std-
             out, otherwise it is displayed in the target-client status line.
             The format of message is described in the FORMATS section; infor-
             mation is taken from target-pane if -t is given, otherwise the
             active pane for the session attached to target-client.

     tmux maintains a stack of paste buffers.  Up to the value of the
     buffer-limit option are kept; when a new buffer is added, the buffer at
     the bottom of the stack is removed.  Buffers may be added using copy-mode
     or the set-buffer command, and pasted into a window using the
     paste-buffer command.

     A configurable history buffer is also maintained for each window.  By
     default, up to 2000 lines are kept; this can be altered with the
     history-limit option (see the set-option command above).

     The buffer commands are as follows:

     choose-buffer [-F format] [-t target-window] [template]
             Put a window into buffer choice mode, where a buffer may be cho-
             sen interactively from a list.  After a buffer is selected, `%%'
             is replaced by the buffer index in template and the result exe-
             cuted as a command.  If template is not given, "paste-buffer -b
             '%%'" is used.  For the meaning of the -F flag, see the FORMATS
             section.  This command works only if at least one client is

     clear-history [-t target-pane]
                   (alias: clearhist)
             Remove and free the history for the specified pane.

     delete-buffer [-b buffer-index]
                   (alias: deleteb)
             Delete the buffer at buffer-index, or the top buffer if not spec-

     list-buffers [-F format]
                   (alias: lsb)
             List the global buffers.  For the meaning of the -F flag, see the
             FORMATS section.

     load-buffer [-b buffer-index] path
                   (alias: loadb)
             Load the contents of the specified paste buffer from path.

     paste-buffer [-dpr] [-b buffer-index] [-s separator] [-t target-pane]
                   (alias: pasteb)
             Insert the contents of a paste buffer into the specified pane.
             If not specified, paste into the current one.  With -d, also
             delete the paste buffer from the stack.  When output, any line-
             feed (LF) characters in the paste buffer are replaced with a sep-
             arator, by default carriage return (CR).  A custom separator may
             be specified using the -s flag.  The -r flag means to do no
             replacement (equivalent to a separator of LF).  If -p is speci-
             fied, paste bracket control codes are inserted around the buffer
             if the application has requested bracketed paste mode.

     save-buffer [-a] [-b buffer-index] path
                   (alias: saveb)
             Save the contents of the specified paste buffer to path.  The -a
             option appends to rather than overwriting the file.

     set-buffer [-b buffer-index] data
                   (alias: setb)
             Set the contents of the specified buffer to data.

     show-buffer [-b buffer-index]
                   (alias: showb)
             Display the contents of the specified buffer.

     Miscellaneous commands are as follows:

     clock-mode [-t target-pane]
             Display a large clock.

     if-shell [-b] [-t target-pane] shell-command command [command]
                   (alias: if)
             Execute the first command if shell-command returns success or the
             second command otherwise.  Before being executed, shell-command
             is expanded using the rules specified in the FORMATS section,
             including those relevant to target-pane.  With -b, shell-command
             is run in the background.

                   (alias: lock)
             Lock each client individually by running the command specified by
             the lock-command option.

     run-shell [-b] [-t target-pane] shell-command
                   (alias: run)
             Execute shell-command in the background without creating a win-
             dow.  Before being executed, shell-command is expanded using the
             rules specified in the FORMATS section.  With -b, the command is
             run in the background.  After it finishes, any output to stdout
             is displayed in copy mode (in the pane specified by -t or the
             current pane if omitted).  If the command doesn't return success,
             the exit status is also displayed.

     wait-for [-L | -S | -U] channel
                   (alias: wait)
             When used without options, prevents the client from exiting until
             woken using wait-for -S with the same channel.  When -L is used,
             the channel is locked and any clients that try to lock the same
             channel are made to wait until the channel is unlocked with
             wait-for -U.  This command only works from outside tmux.

     tmux understands some extensions to terminfo(5):

     Cs, Cr  Set the cursor colour.  The first takes a single string argument
             and is used to set the colour; the second takes no arguments and
             restores the default cursor colour.  If set, a sequence such as
             this may be used to change the cursor colour from inside tmux:

                   $ printf '\033]12;red\033\\'

     Ss, Se  Change the cursor style.  If set, a sequence such as this may be
             used to change the cursor to an underline:

                   $ printf '\033[4 q'

             If Csr is set, it will be used to reset the cursor style instead
             of Cs.

     Ms      This sequence can be used by tmux to store the current buffer in
             the host terminal's selection (clipboard).  See the set-clipboard
             option above and the xterm(1) man page.

     tmux offers a textual interface called control mode.  This allows appli-
     cations to communicate with tmux using a simple text-only protocol.

     In control mode, a client sends tmux commands or command sequences termi-
     nated by newlines on standard input.  Each command will produce one block
     of output on standard output.  An output block consists of a %begin line
     followed by the output (which may be empty).  The output block ends with
     a %end or %error.  %begin and matching %end or %error have two arguments:
     an integer time (as seconds from epoch) and command number.  For example:

           %begin 1363006971 2
           0: ksh* (1 panes) [80x24] [layout b25f,80x24,0,0,2] @2 (active)
           %end 1363006971 2

     In control mode, tmux outputs notifications.  A notification will never
     occur inside an output block.

     The following notifications are defined:

     %exit [reason]
             The tmux client is exiting immediately, either because it is not
             attached to any session or an error occurred.  If present, reason
             describes why the client exited.

     %layout-change window-id window-layout
             The layout of a window with ID window-id changed.  The new layout
             is window-layout.

     %output pane-id value
             A window pane produced output.  value escapes non-printable char-
             acters and backslash as octal \xxx.

     %session-changed session-id name
             The client is now attached to the session with ID session-id,
             which is named name.

     %session-renamed name
             The current session was renamed to name.

             A session was created or destroyed.

     %unlinked-window-add window-id
             The window with ID window-id was created but is not linked to the
             current session.

     %window-add window-id
             The window with ID window-id was linked to the current session.

     %window-close window-id
             The window with ID window-id closed.

     %window-renamed window-id name
             The window with ID window-id was renamed to name.

     ~/.tmux.conf               Default tmux configuration file.
     @SYSCONFDIR@/tmux.conf     System-wide configuration file.

     To create a new tmux session running vi(1):

           $ tmux new-session vi

     Most commands have a shorter form, known as an alias.  For new-session,
     this is new:

           $ tmux new vi

     Alternatively, the shortest unambiguous form of a command is accepted.
     If there are several options, they are listed:

           $ tmux n
           ambiguous command: n, could be: new-session, new-window, next-window

     Within an active session, a new window may be created by typing `C-b c'
     (Ctrl followed by the `b' key followed by the `c' key).

     Windows may be navigated with: `C-b 0' (to select window 0), `C-b 1' (to
     select window 1), and so on; `C-b n' to select the next window; and `C-b
     p' to select the previous window.

     A session may be detached using `C-b d' (or by an external event such as
     ssh(1) disconnection) and reattached with:

           $ tmux attach-session

     Typing `C-b ?' lists the current key bindings in the current window; up
     and down may be used to navigate the list or `q' to exit from it.

     Commands to be run when the tmux server is started may be placed in the
     ~/.tmux.conf configuration file.  Common examples include:

     Changing the default prefix key:

           set-option -g prefix C-a
           unbind-key C-b
           bind-key C-a send-prefix

     Turning the status line off, or changing its colour:

           set-option -g status off
           set-option -g status-style bg=blue

     Setting other options, such as the default command, or locking after 30
     minutes of inactivity:

           set-option -g default-command "exec /bin/ksh"
           set-option -g lock-after-time 1800

     Creating new key bindings:

           bind-key b set-option status
           bind-key / command-prompt "split-window 'exec man %%'"
           bind-key S command-prompt "new-window -n %1 'ssh %1'"


     Nicholas Marriott <>

NetBSD 7.1.2                     May 26, 2019                     NetBSD 7.1.2

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