TAR(1)                  NetBSD General Commands Manual                  TAR(1)

NAME
     tar -- tape archiver

SYNOPSIS
     tar [-]{crtux}[-014578befHhjklmOoPpqSvwXZz] [archive] [blocksize]
         [-C directory] [-s replstr] [-T file] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
     The tar command creates, adds files to, or extracts files from an archive
     file in ``tar'' format.  A tar archive is often stored on a magnetic
     tape, but can be stored equally well on a floppy, CD-ROM, or in a regular
     disk file.

     One of the following flags must be present:

     -c, --create  Create new archive, or overwrite an existing archive,
                   adding the specified files to it.

     -r, --append  Append the named new files to existing archive.  Note that
                   this will only work on media on which an end-of-file mark
                   can be overwritten.

     -t, --list    List contents of archive.  If any files are named on the
                   command line, only those files will be listed.

     -u, --update  Alias for -r.

     -x, --extract, --get
                   Extract files from archive.  If any files are named on the
                   command line, only those files will be extracted from the
                   archive.  If more than one copy of a file exists in the ar-
                   chive, later copies will overwrite earlier copies during
                   extraction.  The file mode and modification time are pre-
                   served if possible.  The file mode is subject to modifica-
                   tion by the umask(2).

     In addition to the flags mentioned above, any of the following flags may
     be used:

     -b blocking factor, --block-size blocking factor
                   Set blocking factor to use for the archive.  tar uses 512
                   byte blocks.  The default is 20, the maximum is 126.  Ar-
                   chives with a blocking factor larger 63 violate the POSIX
                   standard and will not be portable to all systems.

     -e            Stop after first error.

     -f archive, --file archive
                   Filename where the archive is stored.  Defaults to
                   /dev/rst0.  If the archive is of the form:
                   [[user@]host:]file then the archive will be processed using
                   rmt(8).

     -h, --dereference
                   Follow symbolic links as if they were normal files or
                   directories.

     -j, --bzip2, --bunzip2
                   Use bzip2(1) for compression of the archive.  This option
                   is a GNU extension.

     -k, --keep-old-files
                   Keep existing files; don't overwrite them from archive.

     -l, --one-file-system
                   Do not descend across mount points.

     -m, --modification-time
                   Do not preserve modification time.

     -O            When creating and appending to an archive, write old-style
                   (non-POSIX) archives.  When extracting from an archive,
                   extract to standard output.

     -o, --portability, --old-archive
                   Don't write directory information that the older (V7) style
                   tar is unable to decode.  This implies the -O flag.

     -p, --preserve-permissions, --preserve
                   Preserve user and group ID as well as file mode regardless
                   of the current umask(2).  The setuid and setgid bits are
                   only preserved if the user is the superuser.  Only meaning-
                   ful in conjunction with the -x flag.

     -q, --fast-read
                   Select the first archive member that matches each pattern
                   operand.  No more than one archive member is matched for
                   each pattern.  When members of type directory are matched,
                   the file hierarchy rooted at that directory is also
                   matched.

     -S, --sparse  This flag has no effect as tar always generates sparse
                   files.

     -s replstr    Modify the file or archive member names specified by the
                   pattern or file operands according to the substitution
                   expression replstr, using the syntax of the ed(1) utility
                   regular expressions.  The format of these regular expres-
                   sions are:
                         /old/new/[gps]
                   As in ed(1), old is a basic regular expression and new can
                   contain an ampersand (&), \n (where n is a digit) back-ref-
                   erences, or subexpression matching.  The old string may
                   also contain <newline> characters.  Any non-null character
                   can be used as a delimiter (/ is shown here).  Multiple -s
                   expressions can be specified.  The expressions are applied
                   in the order they are specified on the command line, termi-
                   nating with the first successful substitution.  The
                   optional trailing g continues to apply the substitution
                   expression to the pathname substring which starts with the
                   first character following the end of the last successful
                   substitution.  The first unsuccessful substitution stops
                   the operation of the g option.  The optional trailing p
                   will cause the final result of a successful substitution to
                   be written to standard error in the following format:
                         <original pathname> >> <new pathname>
                   File or archive member names that substitute to the empty
                   string are not selected and will be skipped.  The substitu-
                   tions are applied by default to the destination hard and
                   symbolic links.  The optional trailing s prevents the sub-
                   stitutions from being performed on symbolic link destina-
                   tions.

     -v            Verbose operation mode.

     -w, --interactive, --confirmation
                   Interactively rename files.  This option causes tar to
                   prompt the user for the filename to use when storing or
                   extracting files in an archive.

     --xz          Compress/decompress archive using xz(1).

     -z, --gzip, --gunzip
                   Compress/decompress archive using gzip(1).

     -B, --read-full-blocks
                   Reassemble small reads into full blocks (For reading from
                   4.2BSD pipes).

     -C directory, --directory directory
                   This is a positional argument which sets the working direc-
                   tory for the following files.  When extracting, files will
                   be extracted into the specified directory; when creating,
                   the specified files will be matched from the directory.
                   This argument and its parameter may also appear in a file
                   list specified by -T.

     -H            Only follow symlinks given on command line.

                   Note SysVr3/i386 picked up ISC/SCO UNIX compatibility which
                   implemented ``-F file'' which was defined as obtaining a
                   list of command line switches and files on which to operate
                   from the specified file, but SunOS-5 uses ``-I file''
                   because they use `-F' to mean something else.  We might
                   someday provide SunOS-5 compatibility but it makes little
                   sense to confuse things with ISC/SCO compatibility.

     -P, --absolute-paths
                   Do not strip leading slashes (`/') from pathnames.  The
                   default is to strip leading slashes.

     -T file, --files-from file
                   Read the names of files to archive or extract from the
                   given file, one per line.  A line may also specify the
                   positional argument ``-C directory''.

     -X file, --exclude-from file
                   Exclude files matching the shell glob patterns listed in
                   the given file.

                   Note that it would be more standard to use this option to
                   mean ``do not cross filesystem mount points.''

     -Z, --compress, --uncompress
                   Compress archive using compress.

     --strict      Do not enable GNU tar extensions such as long filenames and
                   long link names.

     --atime-preserve
                   Preserve file access times.

     --chroot      chroot() to the current directory before extracting files.
                   Use with -x and -h to make absolute symlinks relative to
                   the current directory.

     --unlink      Ignored, only accepted for compatibility with other tar
                   implementations.  tar always unlinks files before creating
                   them.

     --use-compress-program program
                   Use the named program as the program to decompress the
                   input.

     --force-local
                   Do not interpret filenames that contain a `:' as remote
                   files.

     --insecure    Normally tar ignores filenames that contain ``..'' as a
                   path component.  With this option, files that contain
                   ``..'' can be processed.

     --no-recursion
                   Cause files of type directory being copied or archived, or
                   archive members of type directory being extracted, to match
                   only the directory file or archive member and not the file
                   hierarchy rooted at the directory.

     The options [-014578] can be used to select one of the compiled-in backup
     devices, /dev/rstN.

FILES
     /dev/rst0  default archive name

DIAGNOSTICS
     tar will exit with one of the following values:

     0   All files were processed successfully.

     1   An error occurred.

     Whenever tar cannot create a file or a link when extracting an archive or
     cannot find a file while writing an archive, or cannot preserve the user
     ID, group ID, file mode, or access and modification times when the -p
     option is specified, a diagnostic message is written to standard error
     and a non-zero exit value will be returned, but processing will continue.
     In the case where tar cannot create a link to a file, tar will not create
     a second copy of the file.

     If the extraction of a file from an archive is prematurely terminated by
     a signal or error, tar may have only partially extracted the file the
     user wanted.  Additionally, the file modes of extracted files and direc-
     tories may have incorrect file bits, and the modification and access
     times may be wrong.

     If the creation of an archive is prematurely terminated by a signal or
     error, tar may have only partially created the archive which may violate
     the specific archive format specification.

SEE ALSO
     cpio(1), pax(1)

HISTORY
     A tar command first appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

AUTHORS
     Keith Muller at the University of California, San Diego.

NetBSD 6.1.4                     June 18, 2011                    NetBSD 6.1.4

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©1996-2014 Modified for NetBSD by Kimmo Suominen