SETKEY(8)               NetBSD System Manager's Manual               SETKEY(8)

     setkey - manually manipulate the IPsec SA/SP database

     setkey [-v] -c
     setkey [-v] -f filename
     setkey [-aPlv] -D
     setkey [-Pv] -F
     setkey [-h] -x

     setkey adds, updates, dumps, or flushes Security Association Database
     (SAD) entries as well as Security Policy Database (SPD) entries in the

     setkey takes a series of operations from the standard input (if invoked
     with -c) or the file named filename (if invoked with -f filename).

     -D      Dump the SAD entries.  If with -P, the SPD entries are dumped.

     -F      Flush the SAD entries.  If with -P, the SPD entries are flushed.

     -a      setkey usually does not display dead SAD entries with -D. If with
             -a, the dead SAD entries will be displayed as well.  A dead SAD
             entry means that it has been expired but remains in the system
             because it is referenced by some SPD entries.

     -h      Add hexadecimal dump on -x mode.

     -l      Loop forever with short output on -D.

     -v      Be verbose.  The program will dump messages exchanged on PF_KEY
             socket, including messages sent from other processes to the ker-

     -x      Loop forever and dump all the messages transmitted to PF_KEY
             socket.  -xx makes each timestamps unformatted.

   Configuration syntax
     With -c or -f on the command line, setkey accepts the following configu-
     ration sytnax.  Lines starting with hash signs ('#') are treated as com-
     ment lines.

     add [-46n] src dst protocol spi [extensions] algorithm ... ;
             Add an SAD entry.  add can fail with multiple reasons, including
             when the key length does not match the specified algorithm.

     get [-46n] src dst protocol spi ;
             Show an SAD entry.

     delete [-46n] src dst protocol spi ;
             Remove an SAD entry.

     deleteall [-46n] src dst protocol ;
             Remove all SAD entries that match the specification.

     flush [protocol] ;
             Clear all SAD entries matched by the options.  -F on the command
             line achieves the same functionality.

     dump [protocol] ;
             Dumps all SAD entries matched by the options.  -D on the command
             line achieves the same functionality.

     spdadd [-46n] src_range dst_range upperspec policy ;
             Add an SPD entry.

     spddelete [-46n] src_range dst_range upperspec -P direction ;
             Delete an SPD entry.

     spdflush ;
             Clear all SPD entries.  -FP on the command line achieves the same

     spddump ;
             Dumps all SPD entries.  -DP on the command line achieves the same

     Meta-arguments are as follows:

     dst     Source/destination of the secure communication is specified as
             IPv4/v6 address.  setkey can resolve a FQDN into numeric address-
             es.  If the FQDN resolves into multiple addresses, setkey will
             install multiple SAD/SPD entries into the kernel by trying all
             possible combinations.  -4, -6 and -n restricts the address reso-
             lution of FQDN in certain ways.  -4 and -6 restrict results into
             IPv4/v6 addresses only, respectively.  -n avoids FQDN resolution
             and requires addresses to be numeric addresses.

             protocol is one of following:
             esp         ESP based on rfc2405
             esp-old     ESP based on rfc1827
             ah          AH based on rfc2402
             ah-old      AH based on rfc1826
             ipcomp      IPComp

     spi     Security Parameter Index (SPI) for the SAD and the SPD.  spi must
             be a decimal number, or a hexadecimal number with ``0x'' prefix.
             SPI values between 0 and 255 are reserved for future use by IANA
             and they cannot be used.

             take some of the following:
             -m mode     Specify a security protocol mode for use.  mode is
                         one of following: transport, tunnel or any.  The de-
                         fault value is any.
             -r size     Specify window size of bytes for replay prevention.
                         size must be decimal number in 32-bit word.  If size
                         is zero or not specified, replay check don't take
             -u id       Specify the identifier of the policy entry in SPD.
                         See policy.
             -f pad_option
                         defines the content of the ESP padding.  pad_option
                         is one of following:
                         zero-pad    All of the padding are zero.
                         random-pad  A series of randomized values are set.
                         seq-pad     A series of sequential increasing numbers
                                     started from 1 are set.
             -f nocyclic-seq
                         Don't allow cyclic sequence number.
             -lh time
             -ls time    Specify hard/soft life time duration of the SA.

             -E ealgo key
                         Specify a encryption algorithm ealgo for ESP.
             -E ealgo key -A aalgo key
                         Specify a encryption algorithm ealgo, as well as a
                         payload authentication algorith aalgo, for ESP.
             -A aalgo key
                         Specify an authentication algorithm for AH.
             -C calgo [-R]
                         Specify a compression algorithm for IPComp.  If -R is
                         specified, spi field value will be used as the IPComp
                         CPI (compression parameter index) on wire as is.  If
                         -R is not specified, the kernel will use well-known
                         CPI on wire, and spi field will be used only as an
                         index for kernel internal usage.

             key must be double-quoted character string, or a series of hex-
             adecimal digits preceded by ``0x''.

             Possible values for ealgo, aalgo and calgo are specified in sepa-
             rate section.

             These are selections of the secure communication specified as
             IPv4/v6 address or IPv4/v6 address range, and it may accompany
             TCP/UDP port specification.  This takes the following form:


             prefixlen and port must be decimal number.  The square bracket
             around port is really necessary.  They are not manpage metachar-
             acters.  For FQDN resolution, the rules applicable to src and dst
             apply here as well.

             Upper-layer protocol to be used.  You can use one of words in
             /etc/protocols as upperspec.  Or icmp6, ip4, and any can be spec-
             ified.  any stands for ``any protocol''.  Also you can use the
             protocol number.

             NOTE: upperspec does not work against forwarding case at this mo-
             ment, as it requires extra reassembly at forwarding node (not
             implemented at this moment).  We have many protocols in
             /etc/protocols, but protocols except of TCP, UDP and ICMP may not
             be suitable to use with IPSec.  You have to consider and be care-
             ful to use them.

     policy  policy is the one of the following three formats:

           -P direction discard
           -P direction none
           -P direction ipsec protocol/mode/src-dst/level [...]

             You must specify the direction of its policy as direction.  Ei-
             ther out or in are used.  discard means the packet matching in-
             dexes will be discarded.  none means that IPsec operation will
             not take place onto the packet.  ipsec means that IPsec operation
             will take place onto the packet.  The part of protocol/mode/src-
             dst/level specifies the rule how to process the packet .  Either
             ah, esp or ipcomp is to be set as protocol.  mode is either
             transport or tunnel.  If mode is tunnel, you must specify the
             end-points addresses of the SA as src and dst with `-' between
             these addresses which is used to specify the SA to use.  If mode
             is transport, both src and dst can be omitted.  level is to be
             one of the following: default, use, require or unique.  If the SA
             is not available in every level, the kernel will request getting
             SA to the key exchange daemon.  default means the kernel consults
             to the system wide default against protocol you specified, e.g.
             esp_trans_deflev sysctl variable, when the kernel processes the
             packet.  use means that the kernel use a SA if it's available,
             otherwise the kernel keeps normal operation.  require means SA is
             required whenever the kernel sends a packet matched with the pol-
             icy.  unique is the same to require, in addition, it allows the
             policy to bind with the unique out-bound SA.  You just specify
             the policy level unique, racoon(8) will configure the SA for the
             policy.  If you configure the SA by manual keying for that poli-
             cy, you can put the decimal number as the policy identifier after
             unique separated by colon `:' like the following; unique:number.
             in order to bind this policy to the SA .  number must be between
             1 and 32767.  It corresponds to extensions -u of the manual SA
             configuration.  When you want to use SA bundle, you can define
             multiple rules.  For example, if an IP header was followed by AH
             header followed by ESP header followed by an upper layer protocol
             header, the rule would be:
                   esp/transport//require ah/transport//require;
             The rule order is very important.

             Note that ``discard'' and ``none'' are not in the syntax de-
             scribed in ipsec_set_policy(3).  There are little differences in
             the syntax.  See ipsec_set_policy(3) for detail.

     The following list shows the supported algorithms.  protocol and
     algorithm are almost orthogonal.  Followings are the list of authentica-
     tion algorithms that can be used as aalgo in -A aalgo of protocol parame-

           algorithm       keylen (bits)
           hmac-md5        128             ah: rfc2403
                           128             ah-old: rfc2085
           hmac-sha1       160             ah: rfc2404
                           160             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           keyed-md5       128             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                           128             ah-old: rfc1828
           keyed-sha1      160             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                           160             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           null            0 to 2048       for debugging

     Followings are the list of encryption algorithms that can be used as
     ealgo in -E ealgo of protocol parameter:

           algorithm       keylen (bits)
           des-cbc         64              esp-old: rfc1829, esp: rfc2405
           3des-cbc        192             rfc2451
           simple          0 to 2048       rfc2410
           blowfish-cbc    40 to 448       rfc2451
           cast128-cbc     40 to 128       rfc2451
           des-deriv       64              ipsec-ciph-des-derived-01 (expired)
           3des-deriv      192             no document
           rijndael-cbc    128/192/256     draft-ietf-ipsec-ciph-aes-cbc-01

     Followings are the list of compression algorithms that can be used as
     calgo in -C calgo of protocol parameter:

           deflate         rfc2394

     The command exits with 0 on success, and non-zero on errors.

     add 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 esp 123457
             -E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff ;

     add -6 ah 123456
             -A hmac-sha1 "AH SA configuration!" ;

     add esp 0x10001
             -E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff
             -A hmac-md5 "authentication!!" ;

     get 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 ah 123456 ;

     flush ;

     dump esp ;

     spdadd[21][any] any
             -P out ipsec esp/tunnel/ ;

     ipsec_set_policy(3), racoon(8), sysctl(8)

     The setkey command first appeared in WIDE Hydrangea IPv6 protocol stack
     kit.  The command was completely re-designed in June 1998.

     setkey should report and handle syntax errors better.

NetBSD 1.6                     November 20, 2000                             5

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©1996-2018 Modified for NetBSD by Kimmo Suominen