des(3)                              OpenSSL                             des(3)



NAME
       DES_random_key, DES_set_key, DES_key_sched, DES_set_key_checked,
       DES_set_key_unchecked, DES_set_odd_parity, DES_is_weak_key,
       DES_ecb_encrypt, DES_ecb2_encrypt, DES_ecb3_encrypt, DES_ncbc_encrypt,
       DES_cfb_encrypt, DES_ofb_encrypt, DES_pcbc_encrypt, DES_cfb64_encrypt,
       DES_ofb64_encrypt, DES_xcbc_encrypt, DES_ede2_cbc_encrypt,
       DES_ede2_cfb64_encrypt, DES_ede2_ofb64_encrypt, DES_ede3_cbc_encrypt,
       DES_ede3_cbcm_encrypt, DES_ede3_cfb64_encrypt, DES_ede3_ofb64_encrypt,
       DES_cbc_cksum, DES_quad_cksum, DES_string_to_key, DES_string_to_2keys,
       DES_fcrypt, DES_crypt, DES_enc_read, DES_enc_write - DES encryption

LIBRARY
       libcrypto, -lcrypto

SYNOPSIS
        #include <openssl/des.h>

        void DES_random_key(DES_cblock *ret);

        int DES_set_key(const_DES_cblock *key, DES_key_schedule *schedule);
        int DES_key_sched(const_DES_cblock *key, DES_key_schedule *schedule);
        int DES_set_key_checked(const_DES_cblock *key,
               DES_key_schedule *schedule);
        void DES_set_key_unchecked(const_DES_cblock *key,
               DES_key_schedule *schedule);

        void DES_set_odd_parity(DES_cblock *key);
        int DES_is_weak_key(const_DES_cblock *key);

        void DES_ecb_encrypt(const_DES_cblock *input, DES_cblock *output,
               DES_key_schedule *ks, int enc);
        void DES_ecb2_encrypt(const_DES_cblock *input, DES_cblock *output,
               DES_key_schedule *ks1, DES_key_schedule *ks2, int enc);
        void DES_ecb3_encrypt(const_DES_cblock *input, DES_cblock *output,
               DES_key_schedule *ks1, DES_key_schedule *ks2,
               DES_key_schedule *ks3, int enc);

        void DES_ncbc_encrypt(const unsigned char *input, unsigned char *output,
               long length, DES_key_schedule *schedule, DES_cblock *ivec,
               int enc);
        void DES_cfb_encrypt(const unsigned char *in, unsigned char *out,
               int numbits, long length, DES_key_schedule *schedule,
               DES_cblock *ivec, int enc);
        void DES_ofb_encrypt(const unsigned char *in, unsigned char *out,
               int numbits, long length, DES_key_schedule *schedule,
               DES_cblock *ivec);
        void DES_pcbc_encrypt(const unsigned char *input, unsigned char *output,
               long length, DES_key_schedule *schedule, DES_cblock *ivec,
               int enc);
        void DES_cfb64_encrypt(const unsigned char *in, unsigned char *out,
               long length, DES_key_schedule *schedule, DES_cblock *ivec,
               int *num, int enc);
        void DES_ofb64_encrypt(const unsigned char *in, unsigned char *out,
               long length, DES_key_schedule *schedule, DES_cblock *ivec,
               int *num);

        void DES_xcbc_encrypt(const unsigned char *input, unsigned char *output,
               long length, DES_key_schedule *schedule, DES_cblock *ivec,
               const_DES_cblock *inw, const_DES_cblock *outw, int enc);

        void DES_ede2_cbc_encrypt(const unsigned char *input,
               unsigned char *output, long length, DES_key_schedule *ks1,
               DES_key_schedule *ks2, DES_cblock *ivec, int enc);
        void DES_ede2_cfb64_encrypt(const unsigned char *in,
               unsigned char *out, long length, DES_key_schedule *ks1,
               DES_key_schedule *ks2, DES_cblock *ivec, int *num, int enc);
        void DES_ede2_ofb64_encrypt(const unsigned char *in,
               unsigned char *out, long length, DES_key_schedule *ks1,
               DES_key_schedule *ks2, DES_cblock *ivec, int *num);

        void DES_ede3_cbc_encrypt(const unsigned char *input,
               unsigned char *output, long length, DES_key_schedule *ks1,
               DES_key_schedule *ks2, DES_key_schedule *ks3, DES_cblock *ivec,
               int enc);
        void DES_ede3_cbcm_encrypt(const unsigned char *in, unsigned char *out,
               long length, DES_key_schedule *ks1, DES_key_schedule *ks2,
               DES_key_schedule *ks3, DES_cblock *ivec1, DES_cblock *ivec2,
               int enc);
        void DES_ede3_cfb64_encrypt(const unsigned char *in, unsigned char *out,
               long length, DES_key_schedule *ks1, DES_key_schedule *ks2,
               DES_key_schedule *ks3, DES_cblock *ivec, int *num, int enc);
        void DES_ede3_ofb64_encrypt(const unsigned char *in, unsigned char *out,
               long length, DES_key_schedule *ks1,
               DES_key_schedule *ks2, DES_key_schedule *ks3,
               DES_cblock *ivec, int *num);

        DES_LONG DES_cbc_cksum(const unsigned char *input, DES_cblock *output,
               long length, DES_key_schedule *schedule,
               const_DES_cblock *ivec);
        DES_LONG DES_quad_cksum(const unsigned char *input, DES_cblock output[],
               long length, int out_count, DES_cblock *seed);
        void DES_string_to_key(const char *str, DES_cblock *key);
        void DES_string_to_2keys(const char *str, DES_cblock *key1,
               DES_cblock *key2);

        char *DES_fcrypt(const char *buf, const char *salt, char *ret);
        char *DES_crypt(const char *buf, const char *salt);

        int DES_enc_read(int fd, void *buf, int len, DES_key_schedule *sched,
               DES_cblock *iv);
        int DES_enc_write(int fd, const void *buf, int len,
               DES_key_schedule *sched, DES_cblock *iv);

DESCRIPTION
       This library contains a fast implementation of the DES encryption algo-
       rithm.

       There are two phases to the use of DES encryption.  The first is the
       generation of a DES_key_schedule from a key, the second is the actual
       encryption.  A DES key is of type DES_cblock. This type is consists of
       8 bytes with odd parity.  The least significant bit in each byte is the
       parity bit.  The key schedule is an expanded form of the key; it is
       used to speed the encryption process.

       DES_random_key() generates a random key.  The PRNG must be seeded prior
       to using this function (see openssl_rand(3)).  If the PRNG could not
       generate a secure key, 0 is returned.

       Before a DES key can be used, it must be converted into the architec-
       ture dependent DES_key_schedule via the DES_set_key_checked() or
       DES_set_key_unchecked() function.

       DES_set_key_checked() will check that the key passed is of odd parity
       and is not a week or semi-weak key.  If the parity is wrong, then -1 is
       returned.  If the key is a weak key, then -2 is returned.  If an error
       is returned, the key schedule is not generated.

       DES_set_key() works like DES_set_key_checked() if the DES_check_key
       flag is non-zero, otherwise like DES_set_key_unchecked().  These func-
       tions are available for compatibility; it is recommended to use a func-
       tion that does not depend on a global variable.

       DES_set_odd_parity() sets the parity of the passed key to odd.

       DES_is_weak_key() returns 1 is the passed key is a weak key, 0 if it is
       ok.  The probability that a randomly generated key is weak is 1/2^52,
       so it is not really worth checking for them.

       The following routines mostly operate on an input and output stream of
       DES_cblocks.

       DES_ecb_encrypt() is the basic DES encryption routine that encrypts or
       decrypts a single 8-byte DES_cblock in electronic code book (ECB) mode.
       It always transforms the input data, pointed to by input, into the out-
       put data, pointed to by the output argument.  If the encrypt argument
       is non-zero (DES_ENCRYPT), the input (cleartext) is encrypted in to the
       output (ciphertext) using the key_schedule specified by the schedule
       argument, previously set via DES_set_key. If encrypt is zero
       (DES_DECRYPT), the input (now ciphertext) is decrypted into the output
       (now cleartext).  Input and output may overlap.  DES_ecb_encrypt() does
       not return a value.

       DES_ecb3_encrypt() encrypts/decrypts the input block by using three-key
       Triple-DES encryption in ECB mode.  This involves encrypting the input
       with ks1, decrypting with the key schedule ks2, and then encrypting
       with ks3.  This routine greatly reduces the chances of brute force
       breaking of DES and has the advantage of if ks1, ks2 and ks3 are the
       same, it is equivalent to just encryption using ECB mode and ks1 as the
       key.

       The macro DES_ecb2_encrypt() is provided to perform two-key Triple-DES
       encryption by using ks1 for the final encryption.

       DES_ncbc_encrypt() encrypts/decrypts using the cipher-block-chaining
       (CBC) mode of DES.  If the encrypt argument is non-zero, the routine
       cipher-block-chain encrypts the cleartext data pointed to by the input
       argument into the ciphertext pointed to by the output argument, using
       the key schedule provided by the schedule argument, and initialization
       vector provided by the ivec argument.  If the length argument is not an
       integral multiple of eight bytes, the last block is copied to a tempo-
       rary area and zero filled.  The output is always an integral multiple
       of eight bytes.

       DES_xcbc_encrypt() is RSA's DESX mode of DES.  It uses inw and outw to
       'whiten' the encryption.  inw and outw are secret (unlike the iv) and
       are as such, part of the key.  So the key is sort of 24 bytes.  This is
       much better than CBC DES.

       DES_ede3_cbc_encrypt() implements outer triple CBC DES encryption with
       three keys. This means that each DES operation inside the CBC mode is
       really an "C=E(ks3,D(ks2,E(ks1,M)))".  This mode is used by SSL.

       The DES_ede2_cbc_encrypt() macro implements two-key Triple-DES by
       reusing ks1 for the final encryption.  "C=E(ks1,D(ks2,E(ks1,M)))".
       This form of Triple-DES is used by the RSAREF library.

       DES_pcbc_encrypt() encrypt/decrypts using the propagating cipher block
       chaining mode used by Kerberos v4. Its parameters are the same as
       DES_ncbc_encrypt().

       DES_cfb_encrypt() encrypt/decrypts using cipher feedback mode.  This
       method takes an array of characters as input and outputs and array of
       characters.  It does not require any padding to 8 character groups.
       Note: the ivec variable is changed and the new changed value needs to
       be passed to the next call to this function.  Since this function runs
       a complete DES ECB encryption per numbits, this function is only sug-
       gested for use when sending small numbers of characters.

       DES_cfb64_encrypt() implements CFB mode of DES with 64bit feedback.
       Why is this useful you ask?  Because this routine will allow you to
       encrypt an arbitrary number of bytes, no 8 byte padding.  Each call to
       this routine will encrypt the input bytes to output and then update
       ivec and num.  num contains 'how far' we are though ivec.  If this does
       not make much sense, read more about cfb mode of DES :-).

       DES_ede3_cfb64_encrypt() and DES_ede2_cfb64_encrypt() is the same as
       DES_cfb64_encrypt() except that Triple-DES is used.

       DES_ofb_encrypt() encrypts using output feedback mode.  This method
       takes an array of characters as input and outputs and array of charac-
       ters.  It does not require any padding to 8 character groups.  Note:
       the ivec variable is changed and the new changed value needs to be
       passed to the next call to this function.  Since this function runs a
       complete DES ECB encryption per numbits, this function is only sug-
       gested for use when sending small numbers of characters.

       DES_ofb64_encrypt() is the same as DES_cfb64_encrypt() using Output
       Feed Back mode.

       DES_ede3_ofb64_encrypt() and DES_ede2_ofb64_encrypt() is the same as
       DES_ofb64_encrypt(), using Triple-DES.

       The following functions are included in the DES library for compatibil-
       ity with the MIT Kerberos library.

       DES_cbc_cksum() produces an 8 byte checksum based on the input stream
       (via CBC encryption).  The last 4 bytes of the checksum are returned
       and the complete 8 bytes are placed in output. This function is used by
       Kerberos v4.  Other applications should use EVP_DigestInit(3) etc.
       instead.

       DES_quad_cksum() is a Kerberos v4 function.  It returns a 4 byte check-
       sum from the input bytes.  The algorithm can be iterated over the
       input, depending on out_count, 1, 2, 3 or 4 times.  If output is
       non-NULL, the 8 bytes generated by each pass are written into output.

       The following are DES-based transformations:

       DES_fcrypt() is a fast version of the Unix crypt(3) function.  This
       version takes only a small amount of space relative to other fast
       crypt() implementations.  This is different to the normal crypt in that
       the third parameter is the buffer that the return value is written
       into.  It needs to be at least 14 bytes long.  This function is thread
       safe, unlike the normal crypt.

       DES_crypt() is a faster replacement for the normal system crypt().
       This function calls DES_fcrypt() with a static array passed as the
       third parameter.  This emulates the normal non-thread safe semantics of
       crypt(3).

       DES_enc_write() writes len bytes to file descriptor fd from buffer buf.
       The data is encrypted via pcbc_encrypt (default) using sched for the
       key and iv as a starting vector.  The actual data send down fd consists
       of 4 bytes (in network byte order) containing the length of the follow-
       ing encrypted data.  The encrypted data then follows, padded with ran-
       dom data out to a multiple of 8 bytes.

       DES_enc_read() is used to read len bytes from file descriptor fd into
       buffer buf. The data being read from fd is assumed to have come from
       DES_enc_write() and is decrypted using sched for the key schedule and
       iv for the initial vector.

       Warning: The data format used by DES_enc_write() and DES_enc_read() has
       a cryptographic weakness: When asked to write more than MAXWRITE bytes,
       DES_enc_write() will split the data into several chunks that are all
       encrypted using the same IV.  So don't use these functions unless you
       are sure you know what you do (in which case you might not want to use
       them anyway).  They cannot handle non-blocking sockets.  DES_enc_read()
       uses an internal state and thus cannot be used on multiple files.

       DES_rw_mode is used to specify the encryption mode to use with
       DES_enc_read() and DES_end_write().  If set to DES_PCBC_MODE (the
       default), DES_pcbc_encrypt is used.  If set to DES_CBC_MODE
       DES_cbc_encrypt is used.

NOTES
       Single-key DES is insecure due to its short key size.  ECB mode is not
       suitable for most applications; see des_modes(7).

       The openssl_evp(3) library provides higher-level encryption functions.

BUGS
       DES_3cbc_encrypt() is flawed and must not be used in applications.

       DES_cbc_encrypt() does not modify ivec; use DES_ncbc_encrypt() instead.

       DES_cfb_encrypt() and DES_ofb_encrypt() operates on input of 8 bits.
       What this means is that if you set numbits to 12, and length to 2, the
       first 12 bits will come from the 1st input byte and the low half of the
       second input byte.  The second 12 bits will have the low 8 bits taken
       from the 3rd input byte and the top 4 bits taken from the 4th input
       byte.  The same holds for output.  This function has been implemented
       this way because most people will be using a multiple of 8 and because
       once you get into pulling bytes input bytes apart things get ugly!

       DES_string_to_key() is available for backward compatibility with the
       MIT library.  New applications should use a cryptographic hash func-
       tion.  The same applies for DES_string_to_2key().

CONFORMING TO
       ANSI X3.106

       The des library was written to be source code compatible with the MIT
       Kerberos library.

SEE ALSO
       crypt(3), des_modes(7), openssl_evp(3), openssl_rand(3)

HISTORY
       In OpenSSL 0.9.7, all des_ functions were renamed to DES_ to avoid
       clashes with older versions of libdes.  Compatibility des_ functions
       are provided for a short while, as well as crypt().  Declarations for
       these are in <openssl/des_old.h>. There is no DES_ variant for des_ran-
       dom_seed().  This will happen to other functions as well if they are
       deemed redundant (des_random_seed() just calls RAND_seed() and is
       present for backward compatibility only), buggy or already scheduled
       for removal.

       des_cbc_cksum(), des_cbc_encrypt(), des_ecb_encrypt(),
       des_is_weak_key(), des_key_sched(), des_pcbc_encrypt(),
       des_quad_cksum(), des_random_key() and des_string_to_key() are avail-
       able in the MIT Kerberos library; des_check_key_parity(),
       des_fixup_key_parity() and des_is_weak_key() are available in newer
       versions of that library.

       des_set_key_checked() and des_set_key_unchecked() were added in OpenSSL
       0.9.5.

       des_generate_random_block(), des_init_random_number_generator(),
       des_new_random_key(), des_set_random_generator_seed() and
       des_set_sequence_number() and des_rand_data() are used in newer ver-
       sions of Kerberos but are not implemented here.

       des_random_key() generated cryptographically weak random data in SSLeay
       and in OpenSSL prior version 0.9.5, as well as in the original MIT
       library.

AUTHOR
       Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com). Modified for the OpenSSL project
       (http://www.openssl.org).



0.9.9-dev                         2004-03-19                            des(3)

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