OPENSSL(1)                          OpenSSL                         OPENSSL(1)



NAME
       openssl - OpenSSL command line tool

LIBRARY
       libcrypto, -lcrypto

SYNOPSIS
       openssl command [ command_opts ] [ command_args ]

       openssl [ list-standard-commands | list-message-digest-commands | list-
       cipher-commands | list-cipher-algorithms | list-message-digest-algo-
       rithms | list-public-key-algorithms]

       openssl no-XXX [ arbitrary options ]

DESCRIPTION
       OpenSSL is a cryptography toolkit implementing the Secure Sockets Layer
       (SSL v2/v3) and Transport Layer Security (TLS v1) network protocols and
       related cryptography standards required by them.

       The openssl program is a command line tool for using the various cryp-
       tography functions of OpenSSL's crypto library from the shell.  It can
       be used for

        o  Creation and management of private keys, public keys and parameters
        o  Public key cryptographic operations
        o  Creation of X.509 certificates, CSRs and CRLs
        o  Calculation of Message Digests
        o  Encryption and Decryption with Ciphers
        o  SSL/TLS Client and Server Tests
        o  Handling of S/MIME signed or encrypted mail
        o  Time Stamp requests, generation and verification

COMMAND SUMMARY
       The openssl program provides a rich variety of commands (command in the
       SYNOPSIS above), each of which often has a wealth of options and argu-
       ments (command_opts and command_args in the SYNOPSIS).

       The pseudo-commands list-standard-commands, list-message-digest-com-
       mands, and list-cipher-commands output a list (one entry per line) of
       the names of all standard commands, message digest commands, or cipher
       commands, respectively, that are available in the present openssl util-
       ity.

       The pseudo-commands list-cipher-algorithms and list-message-digest-
       algorithms list all cipher and message digest names, one entry per
       line. Aliases are listed as:

        from => to

       The pseudo-command list-public-key-algorithms lists all supported pub-
       lic key algorithms.

       The pseudo-command no-XXX tests whether a command of the specified name
       is available.  If no command named XXX exists, it returns 0 (success)
       and prints no-XXX; otherwise it returns 1 and prints XXX.  In both
       cases, the output goes to stdout and nothing is printed to stderr.
       Additional command line arguments are always ignored.  Since for each
       cipher there is a command of the same name, this provides an easy way
       for shell scripts to test for the availability of ciphers in the
       openssl program.  (no-XXX is not able to detect pseudo-commands such as
       quit, list-...-commands, or no-XXX itself.)

       STANDARD COMMANDS


       asn1parse Parse an ASN.1 sequence.

       ca        Certificate Authority (CA) Management.

       ciphers   Cipher Suite Description Determination.

       crl       Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Management.

       crl2pkcs7 CRL to PKCS#7 Conversion.

       dgst      Message Digest Calculation.

       dh        Diffie-Hellman Parameter Management.  Obsoleted by dhparam.

       dsa       DSA Data Management.

       dsaparam  DSA Parameter Generation and Management. Superseded by
                 genpkey and pkeyparam

       enc       Encoding with Ciphers.

       errstr    Error Number to Error String Conversion.

       dhparam   Generation and Management of Diffie-Hellman Parameters.
                 Superseded by genpkey and pkeyparam

       gendh     Generation of Diffie-Hellman Parameters.  Obsoleted by
                 dhparam.

       gendsa    Generation of DSA Private Key from Parameters. Superseded by
                 genpkey and pkey

       genpkey   Generation of Private Key or Parameters.

       genrsa    Generation of RSA Private Key. Superceded by genpkey.

       ocsp      Online Certificate Status Protocol utility.

       passwd    Generation of hashed passwords.

       pkcs12    PKCS#12 Data Management.

       pkcs7     PKCS#7 Data Management.

       pkey      Public and private key management.

       pkeyutl   Public key algorithm cryptographic operation utility.

       pkeyparam Public key algorithm parameter management.

       rand      Generate pseudo-random bytes.

       req       PKCS#10 X.509 Certificate Signing Request (CSR) Management.

       rsa       RSA key management.

       rsautl    RSA utility for signing, verification, encryption, and
                 decryption. Superseded by  pkeyutl

       s_client  This implements a generic SSL/TLS client which can establish
                 a transparent connection to a remote server speaking SSL/TLS.
                 It's intended for testing purposes only and provides only
                 rudimentary interface functionality but internally uses
                 mostly all functionality of the OpenSSL ssl library.

       s_server  This implements a generic SSL/TLS server which accepts con-
                 nections from remote clients speaking SSL/TLS. It's intended
                 for testing purposes only and provides only rudimentary
                 interface functionality but internally uses mostly all func-
                 tionality of the OpenSSL ssl library.  It provides both an
                 own command line oriented protocol for testing SSL functions
                 and a simple HTTP response facility to emulate an
                 SSL/TLS-aware webserver.

       s_time    SSL Connection Timer.

       sess_id   SSL Session Data Management.

       smime     S/MIME mail processing.

       speed     Algorithm Speed Measurement.

       ts        Time Stamping Authority tool (client/server)

       verify    X.509 Certificate Verification.

       version   OpenSSL Version Information.

       x509      X.509 Certificate Data Management.

       MESSAGE DIGEST COMMANDS


       md2       MD2 Digest

       md5       MD5 Digest

       mdc2      MDC2 Digest

       rmd160    RMD-160 Digest

       sha       SHA Digest

       sha1      SHA-1 Digest

sha224
SHA-224 Digest

sha256
SHA-256 Digest

sha384
SHA-384 Digest

sha512
SHA-512 Digest

ENCODING AND CIPHER COMMANDS


base64    Base64 Encoding

bf bf-cbc bf-cfb bf-ecb bf-ofb
          Blowfish Cipher

cast cast-cbc
          CAST Cipher

cast5-cbc cast5-cfb cast5-ecb cast5-ofb
          CAST5 Cipher

des des-cbc des-cfb des-ecb des-ede des-ede-cbc des-ede-cfb des-ede-ofb des-
ofb
          DES Cipher

des3 desx des-ede3 des-ede3-cbc des-ede3-cfb des-ede3-ofb
          Triple-DES Cipher

idea idea-cbc idea-cfb idea-ecb idea-ofb
          IDEA Cipher

rc2 rc2-cbc rc2-cfb rc2-ecb rc2-ofb
          RC2 Cipher

rc4       RC4 Cipher

rc5 rc5-cbc rc5-cfb rc5-ecb rc5-ofb
          RC5 Cipher

PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS
       Several commands accept password arguments, typically using -passin and
       -passout for input and output passwords respectively. These allow the
       password to be obtained from a variety of sources. Both of these
       options take a single argument whose format is described below. If no
       password argument is given and a password is required then the user is
       prompted to enter one: this will typically be read from the current
       terminal with echoing turned off.

       pass:password
                 the actual password is password. Since the password is visi-
                 ble to utilities (like 'ps' under Unix) this form should only
                 be used where security is not important.

       env:var   obtain the password from the environment variable var. Since
                 the environment of other processes is visible on certain
                 platforms (e.g. ps under certain Unix OSes) this option
                 should be used with caution.

       file:pathname
                 the first line of pathname is the password. If the same path-
                 name argument is supplied to -passin and -passout arguments
                 then the first line will be used for the input password and
                 the next line for the output password. pathname need not
                 refer to a regular file: it could for example refer to a
                 device or named pipe.

       fd:number read the password from the file descriptor number. This can
                 be used to send the data via a pipe for example.

       stdin     read the password from standard input.

SEE ALSO
       openssl_asn1parse(1), openssl_ca(1), openssl.cnf(5), openssl_crl(1),
       openssl_crl2pkcs7(1), openssl_dgst(1), openssl_dhparam(1),
       openssl_dsa(1), openssl_dsaparam(1), openssl_enc(1), openssl_gendsa(1),
       genpkey(1), openssl_genrsa(1), openssl_nseq(1), openssl(1),
       openssl_passwd(1), openssl_pkcs12(1), openssl_pkcs7(1),
       openssl_pkcs8(1), openssl_rand(1), openssl_req(1), openssl_rsa(1),
       openssl_rsautl(1), openssl_s_client(1), openssl_s_server(1), s_time(1),
       openssl_smime(1), openssl_spkac(1), openssl_verify(1), openssl_ver-
       sion(1), openssl_x509(1), crypto(3), ssl(3), x509v3_config(5)

HISTORY
       The openssl(1) document appeared in OpenSSL 0.9.2.  The list-XXX-com-
       mands pseudo-commands were added in OpenSSL 0.9.3; The list-XXX-algo-
       rithms pseudo-commands were added in OpenSSL 0.9.9; the no-XXX pseudo-
       commands were added in OpenSSL 0.9.5a.  For notes on the availability
       of other commands, see their individual manual pages.



0.9.9-dev                         2008-05-09                        OPENSSL(1)

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