MMAP(2)                   NetBSD System Calls Manual                   MMAP(2)

     mmap -- map files or devices into memory

     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

     #include <sys/mman.h>

     void *
     mmap(void *addr, size_t len, int prot, int flags, int fd, off_t offset);

     The mmap function causes the pages starting at addr and continuing for at
     most len bytes to be mapped from the object described by fd, starting at
     byte offset offset.  If len is not a multiple of the pagesize, the mapped
     region may extend past the specified range.  Any such extension beyond
     the end of the mapped object will be zero-filled.

     If addr is non-zero, it is used as a hint to the system.  (As a conve-
     nience to the system, the actual address of the region may differ from
     the address supplied.)  If addr is zero, an address will be selected by
     the system.  The actual starting address of the region is returned.  A
     successful mmap deletes any previous mapping in the allocated address

     The protections (region accessibility) are specified in the prot argument
     by OR'ing the following values:

     PROT_EXEC     Pages may be executed.

     PROT_READ     Pages may be read.

     PROT_WRITE    Pages may be written.

     PROT_NONE     Pages may not be accessed.

     Note that, due to hardware limitations, on some platforms PROT_WRITE may
     imply PROT_READ, and PROT_READ may imply PROT_EXEC.  Portable programs
     should not rely on these flags being separately enforceable.

     The flags parameter specifies the type of the mapped object, mapping
     options and whether modifications made to the mapped copy of the page are
     private to the process or are to be shared with other references.  Note
     that either MAP_SHARED, MAP_PRIVATE or MAP_COPY must be specified.  Shar-
     ing, mapping type and options are specified in the flags argument by
     OR'ing the following values:

     MAP_ALIGNED(n)      Request that the allocation be aligned to the given
                         boundary.  The parameter n should be the base 2 loga-
                         rithm of the desired alignment (e.g., to request
                         alignment to 16K, use 14 as the value for n).  The
                         alignment must be equal to or greater than the plat-
                         form's page size as returned by sysconf(3) with the
                         _SC_PAGESIZE request.

     MAP_ANON            Map anonymous memory not associated with any specific
                         file.  The file descriptor is not used for creating
                         MAP_ANON regions, and must be specified as -1.  The
                         mapped memory will be zero filled.

     MAP_FILE            Mapped from a regular file or character-special
                         device memory.

     MAP_FIXED           Do not permit the system to select a different
                         address than the one specified.  If the specified
                         address cannot be used, mmap will fail.  If MAP_FIXED
                         is specified, addr must be a multiple of the page-
                         size.  Use of this option is discouraged.

     MAP_HASSEMAPHORE    Notify the kernel that the region may contain sema-
                         phores and that special handling may be necessary.

     MAP_INHERIT         Permit regions to be inherited across execve(2) sys-
                         tem calls.

     MAP_TRYFIXED        Attempt to use the address addr even if it falls
                         within the normally protected process data or text
                         segment memory regions.  If the requested region of
                         memory is actually present in the memory map, a dif-
                         ferent address will be selected as if MAP_TRYFIXED
                         had not been specified.  If addr is NULL, this flag
                         is ignored and the system will select a mapping

     MAP_WIRED           Lock the mapped region into memory as with mlock(2).

     MAP_PRIVATE         Modifications made by this process are private, how-
                         ever modifications made by other processes using
                         MAP_SHARED will be seen.

     MAP_SHARED          Modifications are shared.

     MAP_COPY            Modifications are private, including other processes.

     The close(2) function does not unmap pages, see munmap(2) for further

     The current design does not allow a process to specify the location of
     swap space.  In the future we may define an additional mapping type,
     MAP_SWAP, in which the file descriptor argument specifies a file or
     device to which swapping should be done.

     If MAP_FIXED is not specified, the system will attempt to place the map-
     ping in an unused portion of the address space chosen to minimize possi-
     ble collision between mapped regions and the heap.

     Upon successful completion, mmap returns a pointer to the mapped region.
     Otherwise, a value of MAP_FAILED is returned and errno is set to indicate
     the error.  The symbol MAP_FAILED is defined in the header <sys/mman.h>.
     No successful return from mmap() will return the value MAP_FAILED.

     mmap() will fail if:

     [EACCES]           The flag PROT_READ was specified as part of the prot
                        parameter and fd was not open for reading.  The flags
                        MAP_SHARED and PROT_WRITE were specified as part of
                        the flags and prot parameters and fd was not open for

     [EBADF]            fd is not a valid open file descriptor.

     [EINVAL]           MAP_FIXED was specified and the addr parameter was not
                        page aligned or was outside of the valid address range
                        for a process.  MAP_ANON was specified and fd was not

     [ENODEV]           fd did not reference a regular or character special

     [ENOMEM]           MAP_FIXED was specified and the addr parameter wasn't
                        available.  MAP_ANON was specified and insufficient
                        memory was available.

     [EOVERFLOW]        fd references a regular file and the value of offset
                        plus len would exceed the offset maximum established
                        in its open file description.

     madvise(2), mincore(2), mlock(2), mprotect(2), msync(2), munmap(2),
     getpagesize(3), sysconf(3)

     The MAP_COPY flag is not implemented.  The current MAP_COPY semantics are
     the same as those of the MAP_PRIVATE flag.

NetBSD 5.1                      October 6, 2003                     NetBSD 5.1

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