KAUTH(9)               NetBSD Kernel Developer's Manual               KAUTH(9)

NAME
     kauth -- kernel authorization framework

SYNOPSIS
     #include <sys/kauth.h>

DESCRIPTION
     kauth, or kernel authorization, is the subsystem managing all authoriza-
     tion requests inside the kernel.  It manages user credentials and rights,
     and can be used to implement a system-wide security policy.  It allows
     external modules to plug-in the authorization process.

     kauth introduces some new concepts, namely ``scopes'' and ``listeners'',
     which will be detailed together with other useful information for kernel
     developers in this document.

   Types
     Some kauth types include the following:

     kauth_cred_t  Representing credentials that can be associated with an
                   object.  Includes user- and group-ids (real, effective, and
                   save) as well as group membership information.

     kauth_scope_t
                   Describes a scope.

     kauth_listener_t
                   Describes a listener.

   Terminology
     kauth operates in various ``scopes'', each scope holding a group of
     ``listeners''.

     Each listener works as a callback for when an authorization request
     within the scope is made.  When such a request is made, all listeners on
     the scope are passed common information such as the credentials of the
     request context, an identifier for the requested operation, and possibly
     other information as well.

     Every listener examines the passed information and returns its decision
     regarding the requested operation.  It can either allow, deny, or defer
     the operation -- in which case, the decision is left to the other listen-
     ers.

     For an operation to be allowed, all listeners must not return any deny or
     defer decisions.

     Scopes manage listeners that operate in the same aspect of the system.

   Kernel Programming Interface
     kauth exports a KPI that allows developers both of NetBSD and third-party
     products to authorize requests, access and modify credentials, create and
     remove scopes and listeners, and perform other miscellaneous operations
     on credentials.

   Authorization Requests
     kauth provides a single authorization request routine, which all autho-
     rization requests go through.  This routine dispatches the request to the
     listeners of the appropriate scope, together with four optional user-data
     variables, and returns the augmented result.

     It is declared as

     int kauth_authorize_action(kauth_scope_t scope, kauth_cred_t cred,
     kauth_action_t op, void *arg0, void *arg1, void *arg2, void *arg3)

     An authorization request can return one of two possible values.  Zero
     indicates success -- the operation is allowed; EPERM (see errno(2)) indi-
     cates failure -- the operation is denied.

     Each scope has its own authorization wrapper, to make it easy to call
     from various places by eliminating the need to specify the scope and/or
     cast values.  The authorization wrappers are detailed in each scope's
     section.

     kauth_authorize_action() has several special cases, when it will always
     allow the request.  These are for when the request is issued by the ker-
     nel itself (indicated by the credentials being either NOCRED or FSCRED),
     or when there was no definitive decision from any of the listeners (i.e.,
     it was not explicitly allowed or denied) and no security model was
     loaded.

   Generic Scope
     The generic scope, ``org.netbsd.kauth.generic'', manages generic autho-
     rization requests in the kernel.

     The authorization wrapper for this scope is declared as

     int kauth_authorize_generic(kauth_cred_t cred, kauth_action_t op, void
     *arg0)

     The following operations are available for this scope:

     KAUTH_GENERIC_ISSUSER
                   Checks whether the credentials belong to the super-user.

                   Using this request is strongly discouraged and should only
                   be done as a temporary place-holder, as it is breaking the
                   separation between the interface for authorization requests
                   from the back-end implementation.

     KAUTH_GENERIC_CANSEE
                   Checks whether an object with one set of credentials can
                   access information about another object, possibly with a
                   different set of credentials.

                   arg0 contains the credentials of the object looked at.

                   This request should be issued only in cases where generic
                   credentials check is required; otherwise it is recommended
                   to use the object-specific routines.

   System Scope
     The system scope, ``org.netbsd.kauth.system'', manages authorization
     requests affecting the entire system.

     The authorization wrapper for this scope is declared as

     int kauth_authorize_system(kauth_cred_t cred, kauth_action_t op, enum
     kauth_system_req req, void *arg1, void *arg2, void *arg3)

     The following requests are available for this scope:

     KAUTH_SYSTEM_ACCOUNTING
                   Check if enabling/disabling accounting allowed.

     KAUTH_SYSTEM_CHROOT
                   req can be any of the following:

                   KAUTH_REQ_SYSTEM_CHROOT_CHROOT
                                 Check if calling chroot(2) is allowed.

                   KAUTH_REQ_SYSTEM_CHROOT_FCHROOT
                                 Check if calling fchroot(2) is allowed.

     KAUTH_SYSTEM_CPU
                   Check CPU-manipulation access.

                   req can be any of the following:

                   KAUTH_REQ_SYSTEM_CPU_SETSTATE
                                 Set CPU state, including setting it online or
                                 offline.

     KAUTH_SYSTEM_DEBUG
                   This request concentrates several debugging-related opera-
                   tions.  req can be any of the following:

                   KAUTH_REQ_SYSTEM_DEBUG_IPKDB
                                 Check if using ipkdb(4) is allowed.

     KAUTH_SYSTEM_FILEHANDLE
                   Check if filehandle operations allowed.

     KAUTH_SYSTEM_LKM
                   Check if an LKM request is allowed.

                   arg1 is the command.

     KAUTH_SYSTEM_MKNOD
                   Check if creating devices is allowed.

     KAUTH_SYSTEM_MOUNT
                   Check if mount-related operations are allowed.

                   req can be any of the following:

                   KAUTH_REQ_SYSTEM_MOUNT_GET
                                 Check if retrieving information about a mount
                                 is allowed.  arg1 is a struct mount * with
                                 the mount structure in question, arg2 is a
                                 void * with file-system specific data, if
                                 any.

                   KAUTH_REQ_SYSTEM_MOUNT_NEW
                                 Check if mounting a new file-system is
                                 allowed.

                                 arg1 is the struct vnode * on which the file-
                                 system is to be mounted, arg2 is an int with
                                 the mount flags, and arg3 is a void * with
                                 file-system specific data, if any.

                   KAUTH_REQ_SYSTEM_MOUNT_UNMOUNT
                                 Checks if unmounting a file-system is
                                 allowed.

                                 arg1 is a struct mount * with the mount in
                                 question.

                   KAUTH_REQ_SYSTEM_MOUNT_UPDATE
                                 Checks if updating an existing mount is
                                 allowed.

                                 arg1 is the struct mount * of the existing
                                 mount, arg2 is an int with the new mount
                                 flags, and arg3 is a void * with file-system
                                 specific data, if any.

     KAUTH_SYSTEM_PSET
                   Check processor-set manipulation.

                   req can be any of the following:

                   KAUTH_REQ_SYSTEM_PSET_ASSIGN
                                 Change processor-set processor assignment.

                   KAUTH_REQ_SYSTEM_PSET_BIND
                                 Bind an LWP to a processor-set.

                   KAUTH_REQ_SYSTEM_PSET_CREATE
                                 Create a processor-set.

                   KAUTH_REQ_SYSTEM_PSET_DESTROY
                                 Destroy a processor-set.

     KAUTH_SYSTEM_REBOOT
                   Check if rebooting is allowed.

     KAUTH_SYSTEM_SETIDCORE
                   Check if changing coredump settings for set-id processes is
                   allowed.

     KAUTH_SYSTEM_SWAPCTL
                   Check if privileged swapctl(2) requests are allowed.

     KAUTH_SYSTEM_SYSCTL
                   This requests operations related to sysctl(9).  req indi-
                   cates the specific request and can be one of the following:

                   KAUTH_REQ_SYSTEM_SYSCTL_ADD
                                 Check if adding a sysctl(9) node is allowed.

                   KAUTH_REQ_SYSTEM_SYSCTL_DELETE
                                 Check if deleting a sysctl(9) node is
                                 allowed.

                   KAUTH_REQ_SYSTEM_SYSCTL_DESC
                                 Check if adding description to a sysctl(9)
                                 node is allowed.

                   KAUTH_REQ_SYSTEM_SYSCTL_PRVT
                                 Check if accessing private sysctl(9) nodes is
                                 allowed.

     KAUTH_SYSTEM_TIME
                   This request groups time-related operations.  req can be
                   any of the following:

                   KAUTH_REQ_SYSTEM_TIME_ADJTIME
                                 Check if changing the time using adjtime(2)
                                 is allowed.

                   KAUTH_REQ_SYSTEM_TIME_NTPADJTIME
                                 Check if setting the time using
                                 ntp_adjtime(2) is allowed.

                   KAUTH_REQ_SYSTEM_TIME_SYSTEM
                                 Check if changing the time (usually via
                                 settimeofday(2)) is allowed.

                                 arg1 is a struct timespec * with the new
                                 time, arg2 is a struct timeval * with the
                                 delta from the current time, arg3 is a bool
                                 indicating whether the caller is a device
                                 context (eg.  /dev/clockctl) or not.

                   KAUTH_REQ_SYSTEM_TIME_RTCOFFSET
                                 Check if changing the RTC offset is allowed.

                   KAUTH_REQ_SYSTEM_TIME_TIMECOUNTERS
                                 Check if manipulating timecounters is
                                 allowed.

   Process Scope
     The process scope, ``org.netbsd.kauth.process'', manages authorization
     requests related to processes in the system.

     The authorization wrapper for this scope is declared as

     int kauth_authorize_process(kauth_cred_t cred, kauth_action_t op, struct
     proc *p, void *arg1, void *arg2, void *arg3)

     The following operations are available for this scope:

     KAUTH_PROCESS_KTRACE
                   Checks whether an object with one set of credentials can
                   ktrace(1) another process p, possibly with a different set
                   of credentials.

                   If arg1 is KAUTH_REQ_PROCESS_KTRACE_PERSISTENT, this checks
                   if persistent tracing can be done.  Persistent tracing
                   maintains the trace across a set-user-id/set-group-id
                   exec(2), and normally requires privileged credentials.

     KAUTH_PROCESS_PROCFS
                   Checks whether object with passed credentials can use
                   procfs to access process p.

                   arg1 is the struct pfsnode * for the target element in the
                   target process, and arg2 is the access type, which can be
                   either KAUTH_REQ_PROCESS_PROCFS_CTL,
                   KAUTH_REQ_PROCESS_PROCFS_READ, KAUTH_REQ_PROCESS_PROCFS_RW,
                   or KAUTH_REQ_PROCESS_PROCFS_WRITE, indicating control,
                   read, read-write, or write access respectively.

     KAUTH_PROCESS_PTRACE
                   Checks whether object with passed credentials can use
                   ptrace(2) to access process p.

                   arg1 is the ptrace(2) command.

     KAUTH_PROCESS_CANSEE
                   Checks whether an object with one set of credentials can
                   access information about another process, possibly with a
                   different set of credentials.

                   arg1 indicates the class of information being viewed, and
                   can either of KAUTH_REQ_PROCESS_CANSEE_ARGS,
                   KAUTH_REQ_PROCESS_CANSEE_ENTRY,
                   KAUTH_REQ_PROCESS_CANSEE_ENV, or
                   KAUTH_REQ_PROCESS_CANSEE_OPENFILES.

     KAUTH_PROCESS_SCHEDULER_GETAFFINITY
                   Checks whether viewing the scheduler affinity is allowed.

     KAUTH_PROCESS_SCHEDULER_SETAFFINITY
                   Checks whether setting the scheduler affinity is allowed.

     KAUTH_PROCESS_SCHEDULER_GETPARAMS
                   Checks whether viewing the scheduler policy and parameters
                   is allowed.

     KAUTH_PROCESS_SCHEDULER_SETPARAMS
                   Checks whether modifying the scheduler policy and parame-
                   ters is allowed.

     KAUTH_PROCESS_SIGNAL
                   Checks whether an object with one set of credentials can
                   post signals to another process.

                   p is the process the signal is being posted to, and arg1 is
                   the signal number.

     KAUTH_PROCESS_CORENAME
                   Controls access to process corename.

                   arg1 can be KAUTH_REQ_PROCESS_CORENAME_GET or
                   KAUTH_REQ_PROCESS_CORENAME_SET, indicating access to read
                   or write the process' corename, respectively.

                   When modifying the corename, arg2 holds the new corename to
                   be used.

     KAUTH_PROCESS_FORK
                   Checks if the process can fork.  arg1 is an int indicating
                   how many processes exist on the system at the time of the
                   check.

     KAUTH_PROCESS_KEVENT_FILTER
                   Checks whether setting a process kevent(2) filter is
                   allowed.

     KAUTH_PROCESS_NICE
                   Checks whether the nice value of p can be changed to arg1.

     KAUTH_PROCESS_RLIMIT
                   Controls access to process resource limits.

                   arg1 can be KAUTH_REQ_PROCESS_RLIMIT_GET or
                   KAUTH_REQ_PROCESS_RLIMIT_SET, indicating access to read or
                   write the process' resource limits, respectively.

                   When modifying resource limits, arg2 is the new value to be
                   used and arg3 indicates which resource limit is to be modi-
                   fied.

     KAUTH_PROCESS_SETID
                   Check if changing the user- or group-ids, groups, or login-
                   name for p is allowed.

     KAUTH_PROCESS_STOPFLAG
                   Check if setting the stop flags for exec(3), exit(3), and
                   fork(2) is allowed.

                   arg1 indicates the flag, and can be either P_STOPEXEC,
                   P_STOPEXIT, or P_STOPFORK respectively.

   Network Scope
     The network scope, ``org.netbsd.kauth.network'', manages networking-
     related authorization requests in the kernel.

     The authorization wrapper for this scope is declared as

     int kauth_authorize_network(kauth_cred_t cred, kauth_action_t op, enum
     kauth_network_req req, void *arg1, void *arg2, void *arg3)

     The following operations are available for this scope:

     KAUTH_NETWORK_ALTQ
                   Checks if an ALTQ operation is allowed.

                   req indicates the ALTQ subsystem in question, and can be
                   one of the following:

                   KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_ALTQ_AFMAP
                   KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_ALTQ_BLUE
                   KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_ALTQ_CBQ
                   KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_ALTQ_CDNR
                   KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_ALTQ_CONF
                   KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_ALTQ_FIFOQ
                   KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_ALTQ_HFSC
                   KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_ALTQ_JOBS
                   KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_ALTQ_PRIQ
                   KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_ALTQ_RED
                   KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_ALTQ_RIO
                   KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_ALTQ_WFQ

     KAUTH_NETWORK_BIND
                   Checks if a bind(2) request is allowed.

                   req allows to indicate the type of the request to structure
                   listeners and callers easier.  Supported request types:

                   KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_BIND_PRIVPORT
                                 Checks if binding to a privileged/reserved
                                 port is allowed.

     KAUTH_NETWORK_FIREWALL
                   Checks if firewall-related operations are allowed.

                   req indicates the sub-action, and can be one of the follow-
                   ing:

                   KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_FIREWALL_FW
                                 Modification of packet filtering rules.

                   KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_FIREWALL_NAT
                                 Modification of NAT rules.

     KAUTH_NETWORK_INTERFACE
                   Checks if network interface-related operations are allowed.

                   arg1 is (optionally) the struct ifnet * associated with the
                   interface.  arg2 is (optionally) an int describing the
                   interface-specific operation.  arg3 is (optionally) a
                   pointer to the interface-specific request structure.  req
                   indicates the sub-action, and can be one of the following:

                   KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_INTERFACE_GET
                                 Check if retrieving information from the
                                 device is allowed.

                   KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_INTERFACE_GETPRIV
                                 Check if retrieving privileged information
                                 from the device is allowed.

                   KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_INTERFACE_SET
                                 Check if setting parameters on the device is
                                 allowed.

                   KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_INTERFACE_SETPRIV
                                 Check if setting privileged parameters on the
                                 device is allowed.

                   Note that unless the struct ifnet * for the interface was
                   passed in arg1, there's no way to tell what structure arg3
                   is.

     KAUTH_NETWORK_FORWSRCRT
                   Checks whether status of forwarding of source-routed pack-
                   ets can be modified or not.

     KAUTH_NETWORK_NFS
                   Check is an NFS related operation is allowed.

                   req can be any of the following:

                   KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_NFS_EXPORT
                                 Check if modifying the NFS export table is
                                 allowed.

                   KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_NFS_SVC
                                 Check if access to the NFS nfssvc(2) syscall
                                 is allowed.

     KAUTH_NETWORK_ROUTE
                   Checks if a routing-related request is allowed.

                   arg1 is the struct rt_msghdr * for the request.

     KAUTH_NETWORK_SOCKET
                   Checks if a socket related operation is allowed.

                   req allows to indicate the type of the request to structure
                   listeners and callers easier.  Supported request types:

                   KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_SOCKET_RAWSOCK
                                 Checks if opening a raw socket is allowed.

                   KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_SOCKET_OPEN
                                 Checks if opening a socket is allowed.  arg1,
                                 arg2, and arg3 are all int parameters
                                 describing the domain, socket type, and pro-
                                 tocol, respectively.

                   KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_SOCKET_CANSEE
                                 Checks if looking at the socket passed is
                                 allowed.

                                 arg1 is a struct socket * describing the
                                 socket.

   Machine-dependent Scope
     The machine-dependent (machdep) scope, ``org.netbsd.kauth.machdep'', man-
     ages machine-dependent authorization requests in the kernel.

     The authorization wrapper for this scope is declared as

     int kauth_authorize_machdep(kauth_cred_t cred, kauth_action_t op, void
     *arg0, void *arg1, void *arg2, void *arg3)

     The actions on this scope provide a set that may or may not affect all
     platforms.  Below is a list of available actions, along with which plat-
     forms are affected by each.

     KAUTH_MACHDEP_IOPERM_GET
                   Request to get the I/O permission level.  Affects amd64,
                   i386, xen.

     KAUTH_MACHDEP_IOPERM_SET
                   Request to set the I/O permission level.  Affects amd64,
                   i386, xen.

     KAUTH_MACHDEP_IOPL
                   Request to set the I/O privilege level.  Affects amd64,
                   i386, xen.

     KAUTH_MACHDEP_LDT_GET
                   Request to get the LDT (local descriptor table).  Affects
                   amd64, i386, xen.

     KAUTH_MACHDEP_LDT_SET
                   Request to set the LDT (local descriptor table).  Affects
                   amd64, i386, xen.

     KAUTH_MACHDEP_MTRR_GET
                   Request to get the MTRR (memory type range registers).
                   Affects amd64, i386, xen.

     KAUTH_MACHDEP_MTRR_SET
                   Request to set the MTRR (memory type range registers).
                   Affects amd64, i386, xen.

     KAUTH_MACHDEP_UNMANAGEDMEM
                   Request to access unmanaged memory.  Affects alpha, amd64,
                   arm, i386, powerpc, sh3, vax, xen.

   Device Scope
     The device scope, ``org.netbsd.kauth.device'', manages authorization
     requests related to devices on the system.  Devices can be, for example,
     terminals, tape drives, and any other hardware.  Network devices specifi-
     cally are handled by the network scope.

     In addition to the standard authorization wrapper:

     int kauth_authorize_device(kauth_cred_t cred, kauth_action_t op, void
     *arg0, void *arg1, void *arg2, void *arg3)

     this scope provides authorization wrappers for various device types.

     int kauth_authorize_device_tty(kauth_cred_t cred, kauth_action_t op,
     struct tty *tty)

     Authorizes requests for terminal devices on the system.  The third argu-
     ment, tty, is the terminal device in question.  It is passed to the lis-
     tener as arg0.  The second argument, op, is the action and can be one of
     the following:

     KAUTH_DEVICE_TTY_OPEN
                   Open the terminal device pointed to by tty.

     KAUTH_DEVICE_TTY_PRIVSET
                   Set privileged settings on the terminal device pointed to
                   by tty.

     KAUTH_DEVICE_TTY_STI
                   Use the ``TIOCSTI'' device ioctl(2), allowing to inject
                   characters into the terminal buffer, simulating terminal
                   input.

     int kauth_authorize_device_spec(kauth_cred_t cred, enum kauth_device_req
     req, struct vnode *vp)

     Authorizes requests for special files, usually disk devices, but also
     direct memory access, on the system.

     It passes KAUTH_DEVICE_RAWIO_SPEC as the action to the listener, and
     accepts two arguments.  req, passed to the listener as arg0, is access
     requested, and can be one of KAUTH_REQ_DEVICE_RAWIO_SPEC_READ,
     KAUTH_REQ_DEVICE_RAWIO_SPEC_WRITE, or KAUTH_REQ_DEVICE_RAWIO_SPEC_RW,
     representing read, write, or both read/write access respectively.  vp is
     the vnode of the special file in question, and is passed to the listener
     as arg1.

     Keep in mind that it is the responsibility of the security model devel-
     oper to check whether the underlying device is a disk or the system mem-
     ory, using iskmemdev():

           if ((vp->v_type == VCHR) &&
               iskmemdev(vp->v_un.vu_specinfo->si_rdev))
                   /* system memory access */

     int kauth_authorize_device_passthru(kauth_cred_t cred, dev_t dev, u_long
     mode, void *data)

     Authorizes hardware passthru requests, or user commands passed directly
     to the hardware.  These have the potential of resulting in direct disk
     and/or memory access.

     It passes KAUTH_DEVICE_RAWIO_PASSTHRU as the action to the listener, and
     accepts three arguments.  dev, passed as arg1 to the listener, is the
     device for which the request is made.  mode, passed as arg0 to the lis-
     tener, is a generic representation of the access mode requested.  It can
     be one or more (binary-OR'd) of the following:

           KAUTH_REQ_DEVICE_RAWIO_PASSTHRU_READ
           KAUTH_REQ_DEVICE_RAWIO_PASSTHRU_READCONF
           KAUTH_REQ_DEVICE_RAWIO_PASSTHRU_WRITE
           KAUTH_REQ_DEVICE_RAWIO_PASSTHRU_WRITECONF

     data, passed as arg2 to the listener, is device-specific data that may be
     associated with the request.

   Credentials Scope
     The credentials scope, ``org.netbsd.kauth.cred'', is a special scope used
     internally by the kauth framework to provide hooking to credential-
     related operations.

     It is a ``notify-only'' scope, allowing hooking operations such as ini-
     tialization of new credentials, credential inheritance during a fork, and
     copying and freeing of credentials.  The main purpose for this scope is
     to give a security model a way to control the aforementioned operations,
     especially in cases where the credentials hold security model-private
     data.

     Notifications are made using the following function, which is internal to
     kauth:

     int kauth_cred_hook(kauth_cred_t cred, kauth_action_t action, void *arg0,
     void *arg1)

     With the following actions:

     KAUTH_CRED_COPY
                   The credentials are being copied.  cred are the credentials
                   of the lwp context doing the copy, and arg0 and arg1 are
                   both kauth_cred_t representing the ``from'' and ``to'' cre-
                   dentials, respectively.

     KAUTH_CRED_FORK
                   The credentials are being inherited from a parent to a
                   child process during a fork.

                   cred are the credentials of the lwp context doing the fork,
                   and arg0 and arg1 are both struct proc * of the parent and
                   child processes, respectively.

     KAUTH_CRED_FREE
                   The credentials in cred are being freed.

     KAUTH_CRED_INIT
                   The credentials in cred are being initialized.

     Since this is a notify-only scope, all listeners are required to return
     KAUTH_RESULT_ALLOW.

   Credentials Accessors and Mutators
     kauth has a variety of accessor and mutator routines to handle
     kauth_cred_t objects.

     The following routines can be used to access and modify the user- and
     group-ids in a kauth_cred_t:

     uid_t kauth_cred_getuid(kauth_cred_t cred)
               Returns the real user-id from cred.

     uid_t kauth_cred_geteuid(kauth_cred_t cred)
               Returns the effective user-id from cred.

     uid_t kauth_cred_getsvuid(kauth_cred_t cred)
               Returns the saved user-id from cred.

     void kauth_cred_setuid(kauth_cred_t cred, uid_t uid)
               Sets the real user-id in cred to uid.

     void kauth_cred_seteuid(kauth_cred_t cred, uid_t uid)
               Sets the effective user-id in cred to uid.

     void kauth_cred_setsvuid(kauth_cred_t cred, uid_t uid)
               Sets the saved user-id in cred to uid.

     gid_t kauth_cred_getgid(kauth_cred_t cred)
               Returns the real group-id from cred.

     gid_t kauth_cred_getegid(kauth_cred_t cred)
               Returns the effective group-id from cred.

     gid_t kauth_cred_getsvgid(kauth_cred_t cred)
               Returns the saved group-id from cred.

     void kauth_cred_setgid(kauth_cred_t cred, gid_t gid)
               Sets the real group-id in cred to gid.

     void kauth_cred_setegid(kauth_cred_t cred, gid_t gid)
               Sets the effective group-id in cred to gid.

     void kauth_cred_setsvgid(kauth_cred_t cred, gid_t gid)
               Sets the saved group-id in cred to gid.

     u_int kauth_cred_getrefcnt(kauth_cred_t cred)
               Return the reference count for cred.

     The following routines can be used to access and modify the group list in
     a kauth_cred_t:

     int kauth_cred_ismember_gid(kauth_cred_t cred, gid_t gid, int *resultp)
               Checks if the group-id gid is a member in the group list of
               cred.

               If it is, resultp will be set to one, otherwise, to zero.

               The return value is an error code, or zero for success.

     u_int kauth_cred_ngroups(kauth_cred_t cred)
               Return the number of groups in the group list of cred.

     gid_t kauth_cred_group(kauth_cred_t cred, u_int idx)
               Return the group-id of the group at index idx in the group list
               of cred.

     int kauth_cred_setgroups(kauth_cred_t cred, const gid_t *groups, size_t
               ngroups, uid_t gmuid, enum uio_seg seg)
               Copy ngroups groups from array pointed to by groups to the
               group list in cred, adjusting the number of groups in cred
               appropriately.  seg should be either UIO_USERSPACE or
               UIO_SYSSPACE indicating whether groups is a user or kernel
               space address.

               Any groups remaining will be set to an invalid value.

               gmuid is unused for now, and to maintain interface compatibil-
               ity with the Darwin KPI.

               The return value is an error code, or zero for success.

     int kauth_cred_getgroups(kauth_cred_t cred, gid_t *groups, size_t
               ngroups, enum uio_seg seg)
               Copy ngroups groups from the group list in cred to the buffer
               pointed to by groups.  seg should be either UIO_USERSPACE or
               UIO_SYSSPACE indicating whether groups is a user or kernel
               space address.

               The return value is an error code, or zero for success.

   Credential Private Data
     kauth provides an interface to allow attaching security-model private
     data to credentials.

     The use of this interface has two parts that can be divided to direct and
     indirect control of the private-data.  Directly controlling the private
     data is done by using the below routines, while the indirect control is
     often dictated by events such as process fork, and is handled by listen-
     ing on the credentials scope (see above).

     Attaching private data to credentials works by registering a key to serve
     as a unique identifier, distinguishing various sets of private data that
     may be associated with the credentials.  Registering, and deregistering,
     a key is done by using these routines:

     int kauth_register_key(const char *name, kauth_key_t *keyp)
               Register new key for private data for name (usually, the secu-
               rity model name).  keyp will be used to return the key to be
               used in further calls.

               The function returns 0 on success and an error code (see
               errno(2)) on failure.

     int kauth_deregister_key(kauth_key_t key)
               Deregister private data key key.

     Once registered, private data may be manipulated by the following rou-
     tines:

     void kauth_cred_setdata(kauth_cred_t cred, kauth_key_t key, void *data)
               Set private data for key in cred to be data.

     void * kauth_cred_getdata(kauth_cred_t cred, kauth_key_t key)
               Retrieve private data for key in cred.

     Note that it is required to use the above routines every time the private
     data is changed, i.e., using kauth_cred_getdata() and later modifying the
     private data should be accompanied by a call to kauth_cred_setdata() with
     the ``new'' private data.

   Credential Inheritance and Reference Counting
     kauth provides an interface for handling shared credentials.

     When a kauth_cred_t is first allocated, its reference count is set to 1.
     However, with time, its reference count can grow as more objects (pro-
     cesses, LWPs, files, etc.) reference it.

     The following routines are available for managing credentials reference
     counting:

     void kauth_cred_hold(kauth_cred_t cred)
               Increases reference count to cred by one.

     void kauth_cred_free(kauth_cred_t cred)
               Decreases the reference count to cred by one.

               If the reference count dropped to zero, the memory used by cred
               will be freed.

     Credential inheritance happens during a fork(2), and is handled by the
     following function:

     void kauth_proc_fork(struct proc *parent, struct proc *child)

     When called, it references the parent's credentials from the child, and
     calls the credentials scope's hook with the KAUTH_CRED_FORK action to
     allow security model-specific handling of the inheritance to take place.

   Credentials Memory Management
     Data-structures for credentials, listeners, and scopes are allocated from
     memory pools managed by the pool(9) subsystem.

     The kauth_cred_t objects have their own memory management routines:

     kauth_cred_t kauth_cred_alloc(void)
               Allocates a new kauth_cred_t, initializes its lock, and sets
               its reference count to one.

   Conversion Routines
     Sometimes it might be necessary to convert a kauth_cred_t to userland's
     view of credentials, a struct uucred, or vice versa.

     The following routines are available for these cases:

     void kauth_uucred_to_cred(kauth_cred_t cred, const struct uucred *uucred)
               Convert userland's view of credentials to a kauth_cred_t.

               This includes effective user- and group-ids, a number of
               groups, and a group list.  The reference count is set to one.

               Note that kauth will try to copy as many groups as can be held
               inside a kauth_cred_t.

     void kauth_cred_to_uucred(struct uucred *uucred, const kauth_cred_t cred)
               Convert kauth_cred_t to userland's view of credentials.

               This includes effective user- and group-ids, a number of
               groups, and a group list.

               Note that kauth will try to copy as many groups as can be held
               inside a struct uucred.

     int kauth_cred_uucmp(kauth_cred_t cred, struct uucred *uucred)
               Compares cred with the userland credentials in uucred.

               Common values that will be compared are effective user- and
               group-ids, and the group list.

   Miscellaneous Routines
     Other routines provided by kauth are:

     void kauth_cred_clone(kauth_cred_t cred1, kauth_cred_t cred2)
               Clone credentials from cred1 to cred2, except for the lock and
               reference count.

     kauth_cred_t kauth_cred_dup(kauth_cred_t cred)
               Duplicate cred.

               What this routine does is call kauth_cred_alloc() followed by a
               call to kauth_cred_clone().

     kauth_cred_t kauth_cred_copy(kauth_cred_t cred)
               Works like kauth_cred_dup(), except for a few differences.

               If cred already has a reference count of one, it will be
               returned.  Otherwise, a new kauth_cred_t will be allocated and
               the credentials from cred will be cloned to it.  Last, a call
               to kauth_cred_free() for cred will be done.

     kauth_cred_t kauth_cred_get(void)
               Return the credentials associated with the current LWP.

   Scope Management
     kauth provides routines to manage the creation and deletion of scopes on
     the system.

     Note that the built-in scopes, the ``generic'' scope and the ``process''
     scope, can't be deleted.

     kauth_scope_t kauth_register_scope(const char *id, kauth_scope_callback_t
               cb, void *cookie)
               Register a new scope on the system.  id is the name of the
               scope, usually in reverse DNS-like notation.  For example,
               ``org.netbsd.kauth.myscope''.  cb is the default listener, to
               which authorization requests for this scope will be dispatched
               to.  cookie is optional user-data that will be passed to all
               listeners during authorization on the scope.

     void kauth_deregister_scope(kauth_scope_t scope)
               Deregister scope from the scopes available on the system, and
               free the kauth_scope_t object scope.

   Listener Management
     Listeners in kauth are authorization callbacks that are called during an
     authorization request in the scope which they belong to.

     When an authorization request is made, all listeners associated with a
     scope are called to allow, deny, or defer the request.

     It is enough for one listener to deny the request in order for the
     request to be denied; but all listeners are called during an authoriza-
     tion process none-the-less.  All listeners are required to allow the
     request for it to be granted, and in a case where all listeners defer the
     request -- leaving the decision for other listeners -- the request is
     denied.

     The following KPI is provided for the management of listeners:

     kauth_listener_t kauth_listen_scope(const char *id,
               kauth_scope_callback_t cb, void *cookie)
               Create a new listener on the scope with the id id, setting the
               default listener to cb.  cookie is optional user-data that will
               be passed to the listener when called during an authorization
               request.

     void kauth_unlisten_scope(kauth_listener_t listener)
               Removes listener from the scope which it belongs to, ensuring
               it won't be called again, and frees the kauth_listener_t object
               listener.

     kauth provides no means for synchronization within listeners.  It is the
     the programmer's responsibility to make sure data used by the listener is
     properly locked during its use, as it can be accessed simultaneously from
     the same listener called multiple times.  It is also the programmer's
     responsibility to do garbage collection after the listener, possibly
     freeing any allocated data it used.

     The common method to do the above is by having a reference count to each
     listener.  On entry to the listener, this reference count should be
     raised, and on exit -- lowered.

     During the removal of a listener, first kauth_scope_unlisten() should be
     called to make sure the listener code will not be entered in the future.
     Then, the code should wait (possibly sleeping) until the reference count
     drops to zero.  When that happens, it is safe to do the final cleanup.

     Listeners might sleep, so no locks can be held when calling an authoriza-
     tion wrapper.

EXAMPLES
     Older code had no abstraction of the security model, so most privilege
     checks looked like this:

           if (suser(cred, &acflag) == 0)
                   /* allow privileged operation */

     Using the new interface, you must ask for a specific privilege explic-
     itly.  For example, checking whether it is possible to open a socket
     would look something like this:

           if (kauth_authorize_network(cred, KAUTH_NETWORK_SOCKET,
               KAUTH_REQ_NETWORK_SOCKET_OPEN, PF_INET, SOCK_STREAM,
               IPPROTO_TCP) == 0)
                   /* allow opening the socket */

     Note that the securelevel implications were also integrated into the
     kauth framework so you don't have to note anything special in the call to
     the authorization wrapper, but rather just have to make sure the security
     model handles the request as you expect it to.

     To do that you can just grep(1) in the relevant security model directory
     and have a look at the code.

EXTENDING KAUTH
     Although kauth provides a large set of both detailed and more or less
     generic requests, it might be needed eventually to introduce more scopes,
     actions, or requests.

     Adding a new scope should happen only when an entire subsystem is intro-
     duced and it is assumed other parts of the kernel may want to interfere
     with its inner-workings.  When a subsystem that has the potential of
     impacting the security if the system is introduced, existing security
     modules must be updated to also handle actions on the newly added scope.

     New actions should be added when sets of operations not covered at all
     belong in an already existing scope.

     Requests (or sub-actions) can be added as subsets of existing actions
     when an operation that belongs in an already covered area is introduced.

     Note that all additions should include updates to this manual, the secu-
     rity models shipped with NetBSD, and the example skeleton security model.

SEE ALSO
     secmodel(9)

HISTORY
     The kernel authorization framework first appeared in Mac OS X 10.4.

     The kernel authorization framework in NetBSD first appeared in
     NetBSD 4.0, and is a clean-room implementation based on Apple TN2127,
     available at http://developer.apple.com/technotes/tn2005/tn2127.html

NOTES
     As kauth in NetBSD is still under active development, it is likely that
     the ABI, and possibly the API, will differ between NetBSD versions.
     Developers are to take notice of this fact in order to avoid building
     code that expects one version of the ABI and running it in a system with
     a different one.

AUTHORS
     Elad Efrat <elad@NetBSD.org> implemented the kernel authorization frame-
     work in NetBSD.

     Jason R. Thorpe <thorpej@NetBSD.org> provided guidance and answered ques-
     tions about the Darwin implementation.

ONE MORE THING
     The kauth framework is dedicated to Brian Mitchell, one of the most tal-
     ented people I know.  Thanks for everything.

NetBSD 5.1                    September 24, 2008                    NetBSD 5.1

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