IPSEND(5)                                                            IPSEND(5)



NAME
       ipsend - IP packet description language

DESCRIPTION
       The ipsend program expects, with the -L option, input to be a text file
       which fits the grammar described below.  The purpose of this grammar is
       to  allow  IP  packets  to  be  described in an arbitary way which also
       allows encapsulation to be so done to an arbitary level.

GRAMMAR
       line ::= iface | arp | send | defrouter | ipv4line .

       iface ::= ifhdr "{" ifaceopts "}" ";" .
       ifhdr ::= "interface" | "iface" .
       ifaceopts ::= "ifname" name | "mtu" mtu | "v4addr" ipaddr |
                  "eaddr" eaddr .

       send ::= "send" ";" | "send" "{" sendbodyopts "}" ";" .
       sendbodyopts ::= sendbody [ sendbodyopts ] .
       sendbody ::= "ifname" name | "via" ipaddr .

       defrouter ::= "router" ipaddr .

       arp ::= "arp" "{" arpbodyopts "}" ";" .
       arpbodyopts ::= arpbody [ arpbodyopts ] .
       arpbody ::= "v4addr" ipaddr | "eaddr" eaddr .

       bodyline ::= ipv4line | tcpline | udpline | icmpline | dataline .

       ipv4line ::= "ipv4" "{" ipv4bodyopts "}" ";" .
       ipv4bodyopts ::= ipv4body [ ipv4bodyopts ] | bodyline .
       ipv4body ::= "proto" protocol | "src" ipaddr | "dst" ipaddr |
                 "off" number | "v" number | "hl" number| "id" number |
                 "ttl" number | "tos" number | "sum" number | "len" number |
                 "opt" "{" ipv4optlist "}" ";" .
       ipv4optlist ::= ipv4option [ ipv4optlist ] .
       ipv4optlist = "nop" | "rr" | "zsu" | "mtup" | "mtur" | "encode" | "ts" |
                  "tr" | "sec" | "lsrr" | "e-sec" | "cipso" | "satid" |
                  "ssrr" | "addext" | "visa" | "imitd" | "eip" | "finn" |
                  "secclass" ipv4secclass.
       ipv4secclass := "unclass" | "confid" | "reserv-1" | "reserv-2" |
                 "reserv-3" | "reserv-4" | "secret" | "topsecret" .

       tcpline ::= "tcp" "{" tcpbodyopts "}" ";" .
       tcpbodyopts ::= tcpbody [ tcpbodyopts ] | bodyline .
       tcpbody ::= "sport" port | "dport" port | "seq" number | "ack" number |
                "off" number | "urp" number | "win" number | "sum" number |
                "flags" tcpflags | data .

       udpline ::= "udp" "{" udpbodyopts "}" ";" .
       udpbodyopts ::= udpbody [ udpbodyopts ] | bodyline .
       udpbody ::= "sport" port | "dport" port | "len" number | "sum" number |
                data .

       icmpline ::= "icmp" "{" icmpbodyopts "}" ";" .
       icmpbodyopts ::= icmpbody [ icmpbodyopts ] | bodyline .
       icmpbody ::= "type" icmptype [ "code" icmpcode ] .
       icmptype ::= "echorep" | "echorep" "{" echoopts "}" ";" | "unreach" |
                 "unreach" "{" unreachtype "}" ";" | "squench" | "redir" |
                 "redir" "{" redirtype "}" ";" | "echo" "{" echoopts "}" ";" |
                 "echo" | "routerad" | "routersol" | "timex" |
                 "timex" "{" timextype "}" ";" | "paramprob" |
                 "paramprob" "{" parapptype "}" ";" | "timest" | "timestrep" |
                 "inforeq" | "inforep" | "maskreq" | "maskrep" .

       echoopts ::= echoopts [ icmpechoopts ] .
       unreachtype ::= "net-unr" | "host-unr" | "proto-unr" | "port-unr" |
                 "needfrag" | "srcfail" | "net-unk" | "host-unk" | "isolate" |
                 "net-prohib" | "host-prohib" | "net-tos" | "host-tos" |
                 "filter-prohib" | "host-preced" | "cutoff-preced" .
       redirtype ::= "net-redir" | "host-redir" | "tos-net-redir" |
                  "tos-host-redir" .
       timextype ::= "intrans" | "reass" .
       paramptype ::= "optabsent" .

       data ::= "data" "{" databodyopts "}" ";" .
       databodyopts ::= "len" number | "value" string | "file" filename .

       icmpechoopts ::= "icmpseq" number | "icmpid" number .

COMMANDS
       Before sending any packets or defining any packets, it is necessary  to
       describe the interface(s) which will be used to send packets out.

       interface
              is  used  to  describe  a  network  interface.   The description
              included need  not  match  the  actual  configuration  currently
              employed by the operating system.

       send   is  used  to  actually send out a packet across the network.  If
              the destination is not specified, it will attempt  to  send  the
              packet  directly  out  on the network to the destination without
              routing it.

       router configures the default router for ipsend, as distinct  from  the
              default route installed in the kernel.

       ipv4   is  used to describe an IP (version 4) packet.  IP header fields
              can be specified, including options, followed by a data  section
              which may contain further protocol headers.

IPv4
       hl <number>
              manually  specifies  the IP header length (automatically adjusts
              with the presence of IP options and defaults to 5);

       v <number>
              set the IP version.  Default is 4.

       tos <number>
              set the type of service (TOS) field in the IP  header.   Default
              is 0.

       len <number>
              manually specifies the length of the IP packet.  The length will
              automatically be adjusted to accommodate data or further  proto-
              col headers.

       off <number>
              sets  the fragment offset field of the IP packet.  Default is 0.

       ttl <number>
              sets the time to live (TTL) field of the IP header.  Default  is
              60.

       proto <protocol>
              sets  the  protocol  field  of  the IP header.  The protocol can
              either be a number or a name found in /etc/protocols.

       sum    manually specifies the checksum for  the  IP  header.   If  left
              unset (0), it will be calculated prior to being sent.

       src    manually specifies the source address of the IP header.  If left
              unset, it will default to the host's IP address.

       dst    sets the destination of the IP packet.  The default is  0.0.0.0.

       opt    is used to include IP options in the IP header.

       tcp    is used to indicate the a TCP protocol header is to follow.  See
              the TCP section for TCP header options.

       udp    is used to indicate the a UDP protocol header is to follow.  See
              the UDP section for UDP header options.

       icmp   is  used  to  indicate  the a ICMP protocol header is to follow.
              See the ICMP section for ICMP header options.

       data   is used to indicate that raw data is to be included  in  the  IP
              packet.   See the DATA section for details on options available.

IPv4 Options
       these keywords indicate that the relevant IP option should be added  to
       the IP header (the header length field will be adjusted appropriately).

       nop    No Operation [RFC 791] (space filler).

       rr <number>
              Record Router [RFC 791].  The number given specifies the  number
              of bytes to be used for storage.  This should be a multiple of 4
              for proper operation.

       zsu    Experimental Measurement.

       mtup [RFC 1191].
              MTU Probe.

       mtur [RFC 1191].
              MTU Ready.

       encode

       ts     Timestamp [RFC 791].

       tr     Traceroute [RFC 1393].

       sec-class <security-level>, sec
              Security [RFC 1108].  This option specifies the  security  label
              for the packet.  Using sec sets up the framework of the security
              option but unless sec-class is given, the level may not be  set.

       lsrr <ip-address>
              Loose Source Route [RFC 791].

       e-sec  Extended Security [RFC 1108].

       cipso  Commercial Security.

       satid  Stream ID [RFC 791].

       ssrr <ip-address>
              Strict Source Route [RFC 791].

       addext Address Extension

       visa   Experimental Access Control.

       imitd  IMI Traffic Descriptor.

       eip    [RFC 1358].

       finn   Experimental Flow Control.

TCP
       sport <port>
              sets the source port to the number/name given.  Default is 0.

       dport <port>
              sets  the destination port to the number/name given.  Default is
              0.

       seq <number>
              sets the sequence number to the number specified.  Default is 0.

       ack <number>
              sets the acknowledge number to the number specified.  Default is
              0.

       off <number>
              sets the offset value for the start of data to the number speci-
              fied.  This implies the size of the TCP header.  It is automati-
              cally adjusted if TCP options are included and defaults to 5.

       urp <number>
              sets the value of the urgent data pointer to the  number  speci-
              fied.  Default is 0.

       win <number>
              sets  the  size  of  the  TCP  window  to  the number specified.
              Default is 4096.

       sum <number>
              manually specifies the checksum for the  TCP  pseudo-header  and
              data.  If left unset, it defaults to 0 and is automatically cal-
              culated.

       flags <tcp-flags>
              sets the TCP flags field to match the  flags  specified.   Valid
              flags are "S" (SYN), "A" (ACK), "R" (RST), "F" (FIN), "U" (URG),
              "P" (PUSH).

       opt    indicates that TCP header options follow.  As  TCP  options  are
              added to the TCP header, the off field is updated to match.

       data   indicates that a data section is to follow and is to be included
              as raw data, being appended to the header.

TCP options
       With a TCP header, it is possible to append a number of header options.
       The  TCP  header  offset  will  be updated automatically to reflect the
       change in size.  The valid options are: nop No Operation,  eol  End  Of
       (option)  List, mss [ size ] Maximum Segment Size - this sets the maxi-
       mum receivable size of a packet containing data, wscale  Window  Scale,
       ts Timestamp.

UDP
       sport <port>
              sets the source port to the number/name given.  Default is 0.

       dport <port>
              sets  the destination port to the number/name given.  Default is
              0.

       len <number>
              manually specifies the length of the UDP header  and  data.   If
              left  unset,  it  is  automatically adjusted to match the header
              presence and any data if present.

       sum <number>
              manually specifies the checksum for the  UDP  pseudo-header  and
              data.  If left unset, it defaults to 0 and is automatically cal-
              culated.

       data   indicates that a data section is to follow and is to be included
              as raw data, being appended to the header.

ICMP
       type <icmptype>
              sets  the ICMP type according the to the icmptype tag.  This may
              either be a number or one of the recognised tags (see  the  ICMP
              TYPES section for a list of names recognised).

       code <icmpcode>
              sets the ICMP code.

       data   indicates that a data section is to follow and is to be included
              as raw data, being appended to the header.

DATA
       Each of the following extend the packet in a different way.   Len  just
       increases  the length (without adding any content), value uses a string
       and file a file.

       len <number>
              extend the length of the packet by number bytes (without filling
              those bytes with any particular data).

       value <string>
              indicates  that  the string provided should be added to the cur-
              rent packet as data.  A string may  be  a  consecutive  list  of
              characters  and numbers (with no white spaces) or bounded by "'s
              (may not contain them, even if \'d).  The \ character is  recog-
              nised  with  the  appropriate  C escaped values, including octal
              numbers.

       file <filename>
              reads data in from the specified file and appends it to the cur-
              rent packet.  If the new total length would exceed 64k, an error
              will be reported.

ICMP TYPES
       echorep
              Echo Reply.

       unreach [ unreachable-code ]
              Generic Unreachable error.  This is used  to  indicate  that  an
              error  has  occurred whilst trying to send the packet across the
              network  and  that  the  destination  cannot  be  reached.   The
              unreachable  code  names are: net-unr network unreachable, host-
              unr host unreachable, proto-unr protocol  unreachable,  port-unr
              port unreachable, needfrag, srcfail source route failed, net-unk
              network unknown,  host-unk  host  unknown,  isolate,  net-prohib
              administratively  prohibited  contact  with network, host-prohib
              administratively prohibited contact with host,  net-tos  network
              unreachable with given TOS, host-tos host unreachable with given
              TOS, filter-prohib packet prohibited  by  packet  filter,  host-
              preced, cutoff-preced.

       squench
              Source Quence.

       redir [ redirect-code ]
              Redirect  (routing).   This  is  used to indicate that the route
              being chosen for forwarding the packet is  suboptimal  and  that
              the  sender  of the packet should be routing packets via another
              route.  The redirect code names are: net-redir redirect  packets
              for  a network, host-redir redirect packets for a host, tos-net-
              redir redirect packets for a network with a given TOS, tos-host-
              redir redirect packets for a host with a given TOS.

       echo   Echo.

       routerad
              Router Advertisement.

       routersol
              Router solicitation.

       timex [ timexceed-code ]
              Time  Exceeded.  This is used to indicate that the packet failed
              to reach the destination because it  was  in  transit  too  long
              (i.e.  ttl reached 0).  The valid code names are: intrans, reass
              could not reassemble packet from fragments within a given  time.

       paramprob [ paramprob-code ]
              Parameter  problem.  There is only one available parameter prob-
              lem code name: optabsent.

       timest Time stamp request.

       timestrep [ { timestamp-code } ]
              Time stamp reply.  In a timestamp reply, it is possible to  sup-
              ply the following values: rtime, otime, ttime.

       inforeq
              Information request.

       inforep
              Information reply.

       maskreq
              Address mask request.

       maskrep
              Address mask reply.

FILES
       /etc/hosts
       /etc/protocols
       /etc/services

SEE ALSO
       ipsend(1), iptest(1), hosts(5), protocols(5), services(5)



                                                                     IPSEND(5)

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©1994 Man-cgi 1.15, Panagiotis Christias <christia@softlab.ntua.gr>
©1996-2014 Modified for NetBSD by Kimmo Suominen