INSTALLBOOT(8)          NetBSD System Manager's Manual          INSTALLBOOT(8)

NAME
     installboot -- install disk bootstrap software

SYNOPSIS
     installboot [-fnv] [-B s2bno] [-b s1bno] [-m machine] [-o options]
                 [-t fstype] filesystem primary [secondary]
     installboot -c [-fnv] [-m machine] [-o options] [-t fstype] filesystem
     installboot -e [-fnv] [-m machine] [-o options] bootstrap

DESCRIPTION
     The installboot utility installs and removes NetBSD disk bootstrap soft-
     ware into a file system.  installboot can install primary into
     filesystem, or disable an existing bootstrap in filesystem.

     On some architectures the options of an existing installed bootstrap, or
     those of a bootstrap file can be changed.  Installing a new primary boot-
     strap will reset those options to default values.

     Generally, NetBSD disk bootstrap software consists of two parts: a
     ``primary'' bootstrap program usually written into the disklabel area of
     the file system by installboot, and a ``secondary'' bootstrap program
     that usually resides as an ordinary file in the file system.

     When booting, the primary bootstrap program is loaded and invoked by the
     machine's PROM or BIOS.  After receiving control of the system it loads
     and runs the secondary bootstrap program, which in turn loads and runs
     the kernel.  The secondary bootstrap may allow control over various boot
     parameters passed to the kernel.

     Perform the following steps to make a file system bootable:

     1.   Copy the secondary bootstrap (usually /usr/mdec/boot.MACHINE or
          /usr/mdec/boot) to the root directory of the target file system.

     2.   Use installboot to install the primary bootstrap program (usually
          /usr/mdec/bootxx_FSTYPE) into filesystem.

          The following platforms do not require this step if the primary
          bootstrap already exists and the secondary bootstrap file is just
          being updated: alpha, amd64, amiga, i386, pmax, sparc64, and vax.

          The following platform does not require the first step since a sin-
          gle bootstrap file is used.  The single bootstrap is installed like
          the primary bootstrap on other platforms: next68k.

     The options and arguments recognized by installboot are as follows:

     -B s2bno    When hard-coding the blocks of secondary into primary, start
                 from block s2bno instead of trying to determine the block
                 numbers occupied by secondary by examining filesystem.  If
                 this option is supplied, secondary should refer to an actual
                 secondary bootstrap (rather than the file name of the one
                 present in filesystem) so that its size can be determined.

     -b s1bno    Install primary at block number s1bno instead of the default
                 location for the machine and file system type.  [alpha, pmax,
                 vax]

     -c          Clear (remove) any existing bootstrap instead of installing
                 one.

     -e          Edit the options of an existing bootstrap.  This can be use
                 to change the options in bootxx_xxxfs files, raw disk parti-
                 tions, and the pxeboot_ia32.bin file.  With -v and without
                 -o, show the current options.  [amd64, i386]

     -f          Forces installboot to ignore some errors.

     -m machine  Use machine as the target machine type.  The default machine
                 is determined from uname(3) and then MACHINE.  The following
                 machines are currently supported by installboot:

                       alpha, amd64, amiga, ews4800mips, hp300, hp700, i386,
                       landisk, macppc, news68k, newsmips, next68k, pmax,
                       sparc, sparc64, sun2, sun3, vax, x68k

     -n          Do not write to filesystem.

     -o options  Machine specific installboot options, comma separated.

                 Supported options are (with the machines for they are valid
                 in brackets):

                       alphasum  [alpha] Recalculate and restore the Alpha
                                 checksum.  This is the default for
                                 NetBSD/alpha.

                       append    [alpha, pmax, vax] Append primary to the end
                                 of filesystem, which must be a regular file
                                 in this case.

                       bootconf  [amd64, i386] (Don't) read a ``boot.cfg''
                                 file.

                       command=<boot command>
                                 [amiga] Modify the default boot command line.

                       console=<console name>
                                 [amd64, i386] Set the console device, <con-
                                 sole name> must be one of: pc, com0, com1,
                                 com2, com3, com0kbd, com1kbd, com2kbd or
                                 com3kbd.

                       ioaddr=<ioaddr>
                                 [amd64, i386] Set the IO address to be used
                                 for the console serial port.  Defaults to the
                                 IO address used by the system BIOS for the
                                 specified port.

                       keymap=<keymap>
                                 [amd64, i386] Set a boot time keyboard trans-
                                 lation map.  Each character in <keymap> will
                                 be replaced by the one following it.  For
                                 example, an argument of ``zyz'' would swap
                                 the lowercase letters `y' and `z'.

                       modules   [amd64, i386] (Don't) load kernel modules.

                       password=<password>
                                 [amd64, i386] Set the password which must be
                                 entered before the boot menu can be accessed.

                       resetvideo
                                 [amd64, i386] Reset the video before booting.

                       speed=<baud rate>
                                 [amd64, i386] Set the baud rate for the
                                 serial console.  If a value of zero is speci-
                                 fied, then the current baud rate (set by the
                                 BIOS) will be used.

                       sunsum    [alpha, pmax, vax] Recalculate and restore
                                 the Sun and NetBSD/sparc compatible checksum.
                                 Note: The existing NetBSD/sparc disklabel
                                 should use no more than 4 partitions.

                       timeout=<seconds>
                                 [amd64, i386] Set the timeout before the
                                 automatic boot begins to the given number of
                                 seconds.

     -t fstype   Use fstype as the type of filesystem.  The default operation
                 is to attempt to auto-detect this setting.  The following
                 file system types are currently supported by installboot:

                       ffs   BSD Fast File System.

                       raid  Mirrored RAIDframe File System.

                       raw   `Raw' image.  Note: if a platform needs to hard-
                             code the block offset of the secondary bootstrap,
                             it cannot be searched for on this file system
                             type, and must be provided with -B s2bno.

     -v          Verbose operation.

     filesystem  The path name of the device or file system image that
                 installboot is to operate on.  It is not necessary for
                 filesystem to be a currently mounted file system.

     primary     The path name of the ``primary'' boot block to install.  The
                 path name must refer to a file in a file system that is cur-
                 rently mounted.

     secondary   The path name of the ``secondary'' boot block, relative to
                 the root of the file system in the device or image specified
                 by the filesystem argument.  Note that this may refer to a
                 file in a file system that is not mounted.  Most systems
                 require secondary to be in the ``root'' directory of the file
                 system, so the leading ``/'' is not necessary on secondary.

                 Only certain combinations of platform (-m machine) and file
                 system type (-t fstype) require that the name of the sec-
                 ondary bootstrap is supplied as secondary, so that informa-
                 tion such as the disk block numbers occupied by the secondary
                 bootstrap can be stored in the primary bootstrap.  These are:

                       Platform    File systems
                       macppc      ffs, raw
                       news68k     ffs, raw
                       newsmips    ffs, raw
                       sparc       ffs, raid, raw
                       sun2        ffs, raw
                       sun3        ffs, raw

     installboot exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

ENVIRONMENT
     installboot uses the following environment variables:

     MACHINE  Default value for machine, overriding the result from uname(3).

FILES
     Most NetBSD ports will contain variations of the following files:

     /usr/mdec/bootxx_FSTYPE   Primary bootstrap for file system type FSTYPE.
                               Installed into the bootstrap area of the file
                               system by installboot.

     /usr/mdec/bootxx_fat16    Primary bootstrap for MS-DOS FAT16 file sys-
                               tems.  This differs from bootxx_msdos in that
                               it doesn't require the filesystem to have been
                               initialised with any `reserved sectors'.  It
                               also uses the information in the `Boot
                               Parameter Block' to get the media and filesytem
                               properties.

     /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1    Primary bootstrap for FFSv1 file systems (the
                               `traditional' file system prior to NetBSD 6.0).
                               Use dumpfs(8) to confirm the file system format
                               is FFSv1.

     /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv2    Primary bootstrap for FFSv2 file systems (the
                               default file system for some platforms as of
                               NetBSD 6.0).  Use dumpfs(8) to confirm the file
                               system format is FFSv2.

     /usr/mdec/bootxx_lfsv1    Primary bootstrap for LFSv1 file systems.

     /usr/mdec/bootxx_lfsv2    Primary bootstrap for LFSv2 file systems (the
                               default LFS version).

     /usr/mdec/bootxx_msdos    Primary bootstrap for MS-DOS FAT file systems.

     /usr/mdec/bootxx_ustarfs  Primary bootstrap for TARFS boot images.  This
                               is used by various install media.

     /usr/mdec/boot.MACHINE    Secondary bootstrap for machine type MACHINE.
                               This should be installed into the file system
                               before installboot is run.

     /usr/mdec/boot            Synonym for /usr/mdec/boot.MACHINE

     /boot.MACHINE             Installed copy of secondary bootstrap for
                               machine type MACHINE.

     /boot                     Installed copy of secondary bootstrap.
                               Searched for by the primary bootstrap if
                               /boot.MACHINE is not found.

   NetBSD/hp700 files
     /usr/mdec/xxboot          NetBSD/hp700 primary bootstrap for FFSv1,
                               FFSv2, LFSv1, and LFSv2.

     /usr/mdec/cdboot          NetBSD/hp700 primary bootstrap for ISO 9660
                               file system.

     /usr/mdec/sdboot          Synonym for /usr/mdec/xxboot

   NetBSD/macppc files
     /usr/mdec/bootxx          NetBSD/macppc primary bootstrap.

     /usr/mdec/ofwboot         NetBSD/macppc secondary bootstrap.

     /ofwboot                  Installed copy of NetBSD/macppc secondary boot-
                               strap.

   NetBSD/next68k files
     /usr/mdec/boot            NetBSD/next68k bootstrap.

   NetBSD/sparc64 files
     /usr/mdec/bootblk         NetBSD/sparc64 primary bootstrap.

     /usr/mdec/ofwboot         NetBSD/sparc64 secondary bootstrap.

     /ofwboot                  Installed copy of NetBSD/sparc64 secondary
                               bootstrap.

EXAMPLES
   common
     Verbosely install the Berkeley Fast File System primary bootstrap on to
     disk `sd0':
           installboot -v /dev/rsd0c /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffs
     Note: the ``whole disk'' partition (c on some ports, d on others) is used
     here, since the a partition probably is already opened (mounted as /), so
     installboot would not be able to access it.

     Remove the primary bootstrap from disk `sd1':
           installboot -c /dev/rsd1c

   NetBSD/amiga
     Modify the command line to change the default from "netbsd -ASn2" to
     "netbsd -S":
           installboot -m amiga -o command="netbsd -S" /dev/rsd0a
           /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffs

   NetBSD/ews4800mips
     Install the System V Boot File System primary bootstrap on to disk `sd0',
     with the secondary bootstrap `/boot' already present in the SysVBFS par-
     tition on the disk:
           installboot /dev/rsd0c /usr/mdec/bootxx_bfs

   NetBSD/i386 and NetBSD/amd64
     Install new boot blocks on an existing FFSv2 mounted root file system on
     `wd0', setting the timeout to five seconds, after copying a new secondary
     bootstrap:
           cp /usr/mdec/boot /boot
           installboot -v -o timeout=5 /dev/rwd0a /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv2
                 Note: Pre NetBSD 6.0 systems used FFSv1 file systems on these
                 platforms; double check with dumpfs(8) to be sure to use the
                 correct secondary bootstrap.

     Create a bootable CD-ROM with an ISO 9660 file system for an i386 system
     with a serial console:
           mkdir cdrom
           cp sys/arch/i386/compile/mykernel/netbsd cdrom/netbsd
           cp /usr/mdec/boot cdrom/boot
           cp /usr/mdec/bootxx_cd9660 bootxx
           installboot -o console=com0,speed=19200 -m i386 -e bootxx
           makefs -t cd9660 -o 'bootimage=i386;bootxx,no-emul-boot' boot.iso
                cdrom

     Create a bootable floppy disk with an FFSv1 file system for a small cus-
     tom kernel (note: bigger kernels needing multiple disks are handled with
     the ustarfs file system):
           newfs -s 1440k /dev/rfd0a
                 Note: Ignore the warnings that newfs(8) displays; it can not
                 write a disklabel, which is not a problem for a floppy disk.
           mount /dev/fd0a /mnt
           cp /usr/mdec/boot /mnt/boot
           gzip -9 < sys/arch/i386/compile/mykernel/netbsd > /mnt/netbsd.gz
           umount /mnt
           installboot -v /dev/rfd0a /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1

     Create a bootable FAT file system on `wd1a', which should have the same
     offset and size as a FAT primary partition in the Master Boot Record
     (MBR):
           newfs_msdos -r 16 /dev/rwd1a
                 Notes: The -r 16 is to reserve space for the primary boot-
                 strap.  newfs_msdos(8) will display an ``MBR type'' such as
                 `1', `4', or `6'; the MBR partition type of the appropriate
                 primary partition should be changed to this value.
           mount -t msdos /dev/wd1a /mnt
           cp /usr/mdec/boot /mnt/boot
           cp path/to/kernel /mnt/netbsd
           umount /mnt
           installboot -t raw /dev/rwd1a /usr/mdec/bootxx_msdos

     Make the existing FAT16 filesystem on `sd0e' bootable.  This can be used
     to make USB memory bootable provided it has 512 byte sectors and that the
     manufacturer correctly initialised the file system.
           mount -t msdos /dev/sd0e /mnt
           cp /usr/mdec/boot /mnt/boot
           cp path/to/kernel /mnt/netbsd
           umount /mnt
           installboot /dev/rsd0e /usr/mdec/bootxx_fat16
     It may also be necessary to use fdisk to make the device itself bootable.

     Switch the existing installed bootstrap to use a serial console without
     reinstalling or altering other options such as timeout.
           installboot -e -o console=com0 /dev/rwd0a

   NetBSD/macppc
     Note the installboot utility is only required for macppc machines with
     OpenFirmware version 2 to boot.  OpenFirmware 3 cannot load bootblocks
     specified in the Apple partition map.

     Install the Berkeley Fast File System primary bootstrap on to disk `wd0':
           installboot /dev/rwd0c /usr/mdec/bootxx /ofwboot

     The secondary NetBSD/macppc bootstrap is located in /usr/mdec/ofwboot.

     The primary bootstrap requires the raw ofwboot for the secondary boot-
     strap, not ofwboot.xcf, which is used for the OpenFirmware to load ker-
     nels.

   NetBSD/next68k
     Install the bootstrap on to disk `sd0':
           installboot /dev/rsd0c /usr/mdec/boot

   NetBSD/pmax
     Install the Berkeley Fast File System primary bootstrap on to disk `sd0':
           installboot /dev/rsd0c /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffs

     NetBSD/pmax requires that this file system starts at block 0 of the disk.

     Install the ISO 9660 primary bootstrap in the file /tmp/cd-image:
           installboot -m pmax /tmp/cd-image /usr/mdec/bootxx_cd9660

     Make an ISO 9660 filesystem in the file /tmp/cd-image and install the ISO
     9660 primary bootstrap in the filesystem, where the source directory for
     the ISO 9660 filesystem contains a kernel, the primary bootstrap
     bootxx_cd9660 and the secondary bootstrap boot.pmax:
           mkisofs -o /tmp/cd-image -a -l -v iso-source-dir
           ...
           48 51 iso-source-dir/bootxx_cd9660
           ...
           installboot -b `expr 48 \* 4` /tmp/cd-image /usr/mdec/bootxx_cd9660

   NetBSD/sparc
     Install the Berkeley Fast File System primary bootstrap on to disk `sd0',
     with the secondary bootstrap `/boot' already present:
           installboot /dev/rsd0c /usr/mdec/bootxx /boot

   NetBSD/sparc64
     Install the primary bootstrap on to disk `sd0':
           installboot /dev/rsd0c /usr/mdec/bootblk

     The secondary NetBSD/sparc64 bootstrap is located in /usr/mdec/ofwboot.

   NetBSD/sun2 and NetBSD/sun3
     Install the Berkeley Fast File System primary bootstrap on to disk `sd0',
     with the secondary bootstrap `/boot' already present:
           installboot /dev/rsd0c /usr/mdec/bootxx /boot

SEE ALSO
     uname(3), boot(8), disklabel(8), dumpfs(8), fdisk(8), pxeboot(8)

HISTORY
     This implementation of installboot appeared in NetBSD 1.6.

AUTHORS
     The machine independent portion of this implementation of installboot was
     written by Luke Mewburn.  The following people contributed to the various
     machine dependent back-ends: Simon Burge (pmax), Chris Demetriou (alpha),
     Matthew Fredette (sun2, sun3), Matthew Green (sparc64), Ross Harvey
     (alpha), Michael Hitch (amiga), Paul Kranenburg (sparc), David Laight
     (i386), Christian Limpach (next68k), Luke Mewburn (macppc), Matt Thomas
     (vax), Izumi Tsutsui (news68k, newsmips), and UCHIYAMA Yasushi
     (ews4800mips).

BUGS
     There are not currently primary bootstraps to support all file systems
     types which are capable of being the root file system.

     If a disk has been converted from FFS to RAID without the contents of the
     disk erased, then the original FFS installation may be auto-detected
     instead of the RAID installation.  In this case, the -t raid option must
     be provided.

   NetBSD/alpha
     The NetBSD/alpha primary bootstrap program can only load the secondary
     bootstrap program from file systems starting at the beginning (block 0)
     of disks.  Similarly, the secondary bootstrap program can only load ker-
     nels from file systems starting at the beginning of disks.

     The size of primary bootstrap programs is restricted to 7.5KB, even
     though some file systems (e.g., ISO 9660) are able to accommodate larger
     ones.

   NetBSD/hp300
     The disk must have a boot partition large enough to hold the bootstrap
     code.  Currently the primary bootstrap must be a LIF format file.

   NetBSD/i386 and NetBSD/amd64
     The bootstrap must be installed in the NetBSD partition that starts at
     the beginning of the mbr partition.  If that is a valid filesystem and
     contains the /boot program then it will be used as the root filesystem,
     otherwise the `a' partition will be booted.

     The size of primary bootstrap programs is restricted to 8KB, even though
     some file systems (e.g., ISO 9660) are able to accommodate larger ones.

   NetBSD/macppc
     Due to restrictions in installboot and the secondary bootstrap implemen-
     tation, file systems where kernels exist must start at the beginning of
     disks.

     Currently, installboot doesn't recognize an existing Apple partition map
     on the disk and always writes a faked map to make disks bootable.

     The NetBSD/macppc bootstrap program can't load kernels from FFSv2 parti-
     tions.

   NetBSD/next68k
     The size of bootstrap programs is restricted to the free space before the
     file system at the beginning of the disk minus 8KB.

   NetBSD/pmax
     The NetBSD/pmax secondary bootstrap program can only load kernels from
     file systems starting at the beginning of disks.

     The size of primary bootstrap programs is restricted to 7.5KB, even
     though some file systems (e.g., ISO 9660) are able to accommodate larger
     ones.

   NetBSD/sun2 and NetBSD/sun3
     The NetBSD/sun2 and NetBSD/sun3 secondary bootstrap program can only load
     kernels from file systems starting at the beginning of disks.

   NetBSD/vax
     The NetBSD/vax secondary bootstrap program can only load kernels from
     file systems starting at the beginning of disks.

     The size of primary bootstrap programs is restricted to 7.5KB, even
     though some file systems (e.g., ISO 9660) are able to accommodate larger
     ones.

NetBSD 6.0.1                   February 11, 2012                  NetBSD 6.0.1

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