dhcpd.conf(5)                                                    dhcpd.conf(5)

       dhcpd.conf - dhcpd configuration file

       The  dhcpd.conf  file contains configuration information for dhcpd, the
       Internet Systems Consortium DHCP Server.

       The dhcpd.conf file is a free-form ASCII text file.   It is  parsed  by
       the  recursive-descent  parser built into dhcpd.   The file may contain
       extra tabs and newlines for formatting purposes.  Keywords in the  file
       are case-insensitive.   Comments may be placed anywhere within the file
       (except within quotes).   Comments begin with the # character  and  end
       at the end of the line.

       The  file  essentially  consists  of a list of statements.   Statements
       fall into two broad categories - parameters and declarations.

       Parameter statements either say how to do something (e.g., how  long  a
       lease  to  offer),  whether to do something (e.g., should dhcpd provide
       addresses to unknown clients), or what parameters  to  provide  to  the
       client (e.g., use gateway

       Declarations  are  used  to  describe  the  topology of the network, to
       describe clients on the network,  to  provide  addresses  that  can  be
       assigned  to  clients,  or to apply a group of parameters to a group of
       declarations.   In any group of parameters and declarations, all param-
       eters  must  be specified before any declarations which depend on those
       parameters may be specified.

       Declarations about network topology include the shared-network and  the
       subnet  declarations.    If  clients  on  a  subnet  are to be assigned
       addresses dynamically, a range declaration must appear within the  sub-
       net  declaration.    For clients with statically assigned addresses, or
       for installations where only known clients will be  served,  each  such
       client  must have a host declaration.   If parameters are to be applied
       to a group of declarations which are not related strictly on a per-sub-
       net basis, the group declaration can be used.

       For  every  subnet  which will be served, and for every subnet to which
       the dhcp server is connected, there must  be  one  subnet  declaration,
       which  tells  dhcpd how to recognize that an address is on that subnet.
       A subnet declaration is required for each subnet even if  no  addresses
       will be dynamically allocated on that subnet.

       Some  installations  have  physical  networks on which more than one IP
       subnet operates.   For example, if there  is  a  site-wide  requirement
       that  8-bit subnet masks be used, but a department with a single physi-
       cal ethernet network expands to the point where it has  more  than  254
       nodes,  it may be necessary to run two 8-bit subnets on the same ether-
       net until such time as a new physical network can be added.    In  this
       case,  the  subnet declarations for these two networks must be enclosed
       in a shared-network declaration.

       Some sites may have departments which have clients  on  more  than  one
       subnet, but it may be desirable to offer those clients a uniform set of
       parameters which are different than what would be  offered  to  clients
       from  other departments on the same subnet.   For clients which will be
       declared explicitly with host declarations, these declarations  can  be
       enclosed  in  a  group  declaration along with the parameters which are
       common to that department.   For clients whose addresses will be dynam-
       ically assigned, class declarations and conditional declarations may be
       used to group parameter assignments based  on  information  the  client

       When  a  client  is to be booted, its boot parameters are determined by
       consulting that client's host declaration (if any), and then consulting
       any  class declarations matching the client, followed by the pool, sub-
       net and shared-network declarations for the IP address assigned to  the
       client.    Each  of  these declarations itself appears within a lexical
       scope, and all declarations at less specific lexical  scopes  are  also
       consulted for client option declarations.   Scopes are never considered
       twice, and if parameters are declared  in  more  than  one  scope,  the
       parameter  declared in the most specific scope is the one that is used.

       When dhcpd tries to find a host declaration  for  a  client,  it  first
       looks for a host declaration which has a fixed-address declaration that
       lists an IP address that is valid for the subnet or shared  network  on
       which  the  client  is booting.   If it doesn't find any such entry, it
       tries to find an entry which has no fixed-address declaration.

       A typical dhcpd.conf file will look something like this:

       global parameters...

       subnet netmask {
         subnet-specific parameters...

       subnet netmask {
         subnet-specific parameters...

       subnet netmask {
         subnet-specific parameters...

       group {
         group-specific parameters...
         host zappo.test.isc.org {
           host-specific parameters...
         host beppo.test.isc.org {
           host-specific parameters...
         host harpo.test.isc.org {
           host-specific parameters...

                                      Figure 1

       Notice that at the beginning of the file, there's a  place  for  global
       parameters.    These  might  be  things  like the organization's domain
       name, the addresses of the name servers (if  they  are  common  to  the
       entire organization), and so on.   So, for example:

            option domain-name "isc.org";
            option domain-name-servers ns1.isc.org, ns2.isc.org;

                                      Figure 2

       As  you  can see in Figure 2, you can specify host addresses in parame-
       ters using their domain names rather than their numeric  IP  addresses.
       If  a given hostname resolves to more than one IP address (for example,
       if that host has two ethernet interfaces), then  where  possible,  both
       addresses are supplied to the client.

       The  most obvious reason for having subnet-specific parameters as shown
       in Figure 1 is that each subnet, of necessity, has its own router.   So
       for the first subnet, for example, there should be something like:

            option routers;

       Note  that  the  address  here  is specified numerically.   This is not
       required - if you have a different domain name for  each  interface  on
       your  router, it's perfectly legitimate to use the domain name for that
       interface instead of the numeric  address.    However,  in  many  cases
       there  may  be only one domain name for all of a router's IP addresses,
       and it would not be appropriate to use that name here.

       In Figure 1 there is also a  group  statement,  which  provides  common
       parameters  for  a set of three hosts - zappo, beppo and harpo.  As you
       can see, these hosts are all in the test.isc.org domain,  so  it  might
       make  sense  for a group-specific parameter to override the domain name
       supplied to these hosts:

            option domain-name "test.isc.org";

       Also, given the domain they're in, these are  probably  test  machines.
       If we wanted to test the DHCP leasing mechanism, we might set the lease
       timeout somewhat shorter than the default:

            max-lease-time 120;
            default-lease-time 120;

       You may have noticed that while some parameters start with  the  option
       keyword,  some  do  not.    Parameters starting with the option keyword
       correspond to actual DHCP options, while parameters that do  not  start
       with  the option keyword either control the behavior of the DHCP server
       (e.g., how long a lease dhcpd will give out), or specify client parame-
       ters  that  are not optional in the DHCP protocol (for example, server-
       name and filename).

       In Figure 1, each host  had  host-specific  parameters.    These  could
       include  such  things  as  the  hostname  option, the name of a file to
       upload (the filename parameter) and the  address  of  the  server  from
       which to upload the file (the next-server parameter).   In general, any
       parameter can appear anywhere that parameters are allowed, and will  be
       applied according to the scope in which the parameter appears.

       Imagine  that  you  have  a site with a lot of NCD X-Terminals.   These
       terminals come in a variety of models, and you want to specify the boot
       files for each model.   One way to do this would be to have host decla-
       rations for each server and group them by model:

       group {
         filename "Xncd19r";
         next-server ncd-booter;

         host ncd1 { hardware ethernet 0:c0:c3:49:2b:57; }
         host ncd4 { hardware ethernet 0:c0:c3:80:fc:32; }
         host ncd8 { hardware ethernet 0:c0:c3:22:46:81; }

       group {
         filename "Xncd19c";
         next-server ncd-booter;

         host ncd2 { hardware ethernet 0:c0:c3:88:2d:81; }
         host ncd3 { hardware ethernet 0:c0:c3:00:14:11; }

       group {
         filename "XncdHMX";
         next-server ncd-booter;

         host ncd1 { hardware ethernet 0:c0:c3:11:90:23; }
         host ncd4 { hardware ethernet 0:c0:c3:91:a7:8; }
         host ncd8 { hardware ethernet 0:c0:c3:cc:a:8f; }

       The pool declaration can be used to specify a pool  of  addresses  that
       will be treated differently than another pool of addresses, even on the
       same network segment or subnet.   For example, you may want to  provide
       a  large set of addresses that can be assigned to DHCP clients that are
       registered to your DHCP  server,  while  providing  a  smaller  set  of
       addresses,  possibly  with  short  lease  times, that are available for
       unknown clients.   If you have a firewall, you may be able  to  arrange
       for addresses from one pool to be allowed access to the Internet, while
       addresses in another pool are not, thus encouraging users  to  register
       their  DHCP clients.   To do this, you would set up a pair of pool dec-

       subnet netmask {
         option routers;

         # Unknown clients get this pool.
         pool {
           option domain-name-servers bogus.example.com;
           max-lease-time 300;
           allow unknown-clients;

         # Known clients get this pool.
         pool {
           option domain-name-servers ns1.example.com, ns2.example.com;
           max-lease-time 28800;
           deny unknown-clients;

       It is also possible to set up entirely different subnets for known  and
       unknown  clients - address pools exist at the level of shared networks,
       so address ranges within pool declarations can be on different subnets.

       As  you  can  see in the preceding example, pools can have permit lists
       that control which clients are allowed access to  the  pool  and  which
       aren't.   Each  entry  in  a  pool's permit list is introduced with the
       allow or deny keyword.   If a pool has a permit list, then  only  those
       clients that match specific entries on the permit list will be eligible
       to be assigned addresses from the pool.   If a pool has  a  deny  list,
       then  only those clients that do not match any entries on the deny list
       will be eligible.    If both permit and deny lists exist  for  a  pool,
       then  only clients that match the permit list and do not match the deny
       list will be allowed access.

       Address allocation is actually only done when a client is in  the  INIT
       state and has sent a DHCPDISCOVER message.  If the client thinks it has
       a valid lease and sends a DHCPREQUEST to initiate or renew that  lease,
       the server has only three choices - it can ignore the DHCPREQUEST, send
       a DHCPNAK to tell the client it should stop using the address, or  send
       a  DHCPACK,  telling  the  client to go ahead and use the address for a

       If the server finds the address the  client  is  requesting,  and  that
       address is available to the client, the server will send a DHCPACK.  If
       the address is no longer available, or the client  isn't  permitted  to
       have  it,  the server will send a DHCPNAK.  If the server knows nothing
       about the address, it will remain silent, unless the address is  incor-
       rect  for the network segment to which the client has been attached and
       the server is authoritative for that network segment, in which case the
       server  will  send  a  DHCPNAK  even  though  it doesn't know about the

       There may be a host declaration matching the  client's  identification.
       If  that  host  declaration  contains  a fixed-address declaration that
       lists an IP address that is valid for the network segment to which  the
       client  is  connected.   In  this  case,  the DHCP server will never do
       dynamic address allocation.  In this case, the client  is  required  to
       take  the  address  specified  in the host declaration.   If the client
       sends a DHCPREQUEST for some other address,  the  server  will  respond
       with a DHCPNAK.

       When  the  DHCP  server allocates a new address for a client (remember,
       this only happens if the client has  sent  a  DHCPDISCOVER),  it  first
       looks  to see if the client already has a valid lease on an IP address,
       or if there is an old IP address the client had before that hasn't  yet
       been  reassigned.   In that case, the server will take that address and
       check it to see if the client is still permitted to  use  it.   If  the
       client  is  no  longer  permitted  to use it, the lease is freed if the
       server thought it was still in use - the fact that the client has  sent
       a  DHCPDISCOVER proves to the server that the client is no longer using
       the lease.

       If no existing lease is found, or if the client is forbidden to receive
       the  existing  lease,  then the server will look in the list of address
       pools for the network segment to which the client  is  attached  for  a
       lease that is not in use and that the client is permitted to have.   It
       looks through each pool declaration in sequence (all range declarations
       that appear outside of pool declarations are grouped into a single pool
       with no permit list).   If the permit list  for  the  pool  allows  the
       client  to be allocated an address from that pool, the pool is examined
       to see if there is an address available.   If so, then  the  client  is
       tentatively  assigned  that  address.    Otherwise,  the  next  pool is
       tested.   If no addresses are found that can be assigned to the client,
       no response is sent to the client.

       If  an  address is found that the client is permitted to have, and that
       has never been assigned to any client before, the  address  is  immedi-
       ately  allocated to the client.   If the address is available for allo-
       cation but has been previously assigned  to  a  different  client,  the
       server  will keep looking in hopes of finding an address that has never
       before been assigned to a client.

       The DHCP server generates the list of available  IP  addresses  from  a
       hash  table.   This means that the addresses are not sorted in any par-
       ticular order, and so it is not possible to predict the order in  which
       the  DHCP  server  will allocate IP addresses.   Users of previous ver-
       sions of the ISC DHCP server may have become  accustomed  to  the  DHCP
       server  allocating  IP  addresses  in  ascending  order, but this is no
       longer possible, and there is no way to configure  this  behavior  with
       version 3 of the ISC DHCP server.

       The  DHCP  server  checks IP addresses to see if they are in use before
       allocating them to clients.   It does this  by  sending  an  ICMP  Echo
       request  message  to  the IP address being allocated.   If no ICMP Echo
       reply is received within a second, the address is assumed to  be  free.
       This  is  only done for leases that have been specified in range state-
       ments, and only when the lease is thought by the DHCP server to be free
       -  i.e.,  the DHCP server or its failover peer has not listed the lease
       as in use.

       If a response is received to an ICMP  Echo  request,  the  DHCP  server
       assumes  that there is a configuration error - the IP address is in use
       by some host on the network that is not a DHCP client.   It  marks  the
       address as abandoned, and will not assign it to clients.

       If  a  DHCP  client tries to get an IP address, but none are available,
       but there are abandoned IP addresses, then the DHCP server will attempt
       to  reclaim an abandoned IP address.   It marks one IP address as free,
       and then does the same ICMP Echo request  check  described  previously.
       If there is no answer to the ICMP Echo request, the address is assigned
       to the client.

       The DHCP server does not cycle through abandoned IP  addresses  if  the
       first  IP  address it tries to reclaim is free.   Rather, when the next
       DHCPDISCOVER comes in from the client, it will attempt a new allocation
       using  the  same method described here, and will typically try a new IP

       This version of the ISC DHCP server supports the DHCP failover protocol
       as  documented in draft-ietf-dhc-failover-07.txt.   This is not a final
       protocol document, and we have not done interoperability  testing  with
       other vendors' implementations of this protocol, so you must not assume
       that this implementation conforms to the standard.  If you wish to  use
       the  failover  protocol, make sure that both failover peers are running
       the same version of the ISC DHCP server.

       The failover protocol allows two DHCP servers (and no more than two) to
       share  a common address pool.   Each server will have about half of the
       available IP addresses in the pool at any given  time  for  allocation.
       If one server fails, the other server will continue to renew leases out
       of the pool, and will allocate new addresses out of the roughly half of
       available  addresses  that  it  had  when communications with the other
       server were lost.

       It is possible during a prolonged failure to tell the remaining  server
       that  the other server is down, in which case the remaining server will
       (over time) reclaim all the addresses the other  server  had  available
       for  allocation,  and begin to reuse them.   This is called putting the
       server into the PARTNER-DOWN state.

       You can put the server into the PARTNER-DOWN state either by using  the
       omshell  (1)  command  or by stopping the server, editing the last peer
       state declaration in the lease file, and restarting  the  server.    If
       you  use  this  last  method, be sure to leave the date and time of the
       start of the state blank:

       failover peer name state {
       my state partner-down;
       peer state state at date;

       When the other server comes back online, it should automatically detect
       that  it has been offline and request a complete update from the server
       that was running in the PARTNER-DOWN state, and then both servers  will
       resume processing together.

       It is possible to get into a dangerous situation: if you put one server
       into the PARTNER-DOWN state, and then *that* server goes down, and  the
       other  server  comes  back  up, the other server will not know that the
       first server was in the PARTNER-DOWN state,  and  may  issue  addresses
       previously  issued  by the other server to different clients, resulting
       in IP address conflicts.   Before putting a  server  into  PARTNER-DOWN
       state,  therefore,  make  sure  that  the other server will not restart

       The failover protocol defines a primary server  role  and  a  secondary
       server  role.    There are some differences in how primaries and secon-
       daries act, but most of the differences simply have to do with  provid-
       ing  a  way for each peer to behave in the opposite way from the other.
       So one server must be configured as primary, and the other must be con-
       figured  as  secondary,  and  it  doesn't  matter too much which one is

       When a server starts that has  not  previously  communicated  with  its
       failover  peer, it must establish communications with its failover peer
       and synchronize with it before it can serve clients.   This can  happen
       either  because  you  have just configured your DHCP servers to perform
       failover for the first time, or because one of  your  failover  servers
       has failed catastrophically and lost its database.

       The  initial  recovery  process  is  designed  to  ensure that when one
       failover peer loses its database and then  resynchronizes,  any  leases
       that the failed server gave out before it failed will be honored.  When
       the failed server starts up, it notices that it has no  saved  failover
       state, and attempts to contact its peer.

       When  it  has established contact, it asks the peer for a complete copy
       its peer's lease database.  The peer then sends its complete  database,
       and sends a message indicating that it is done.  The failed server then
       waits until MCLT has passed, and once MCLT has passed both servers make
       the transition back into normal operation.  This waiting period ensures
       that any leases the failed server may have given out while out of  con-
       tact with its partner will have expired.

       While the failed server is recovering, its partner remains in the part-
       ner-down state, which means that it is serving all clients.  The failed
       server provides no service at all to DHCP clients until it has made the
       transition into normal operation.

       In the case where both servers detect that they have never before  com-
       municated  with their partner, they both come up in this recovery state
       and follow the procedure we have just described.    In  this  case,  no
       service will be provided to DHCP clients until MCLT has expired.

       In  order  to  configure failover, you need to write a peer declaration
       that configures the failover protocol, and you need to write peer  ref-
       erences  in  each  pool  declaration for which you want to do failover.
       You do not have to do failover for all pools on a  given  network  seg-
       ment.    You must not tell one server it's doing failover on a particu-
       lar address pool and tell the other it is not.   You must not have  any
       common  address pools on which you are not doing failover.  A pool dec-
       laration that uses failover would look like this:

       pool {
            failover peer "foo";
            deny dynamic bootp clients;
            pool specific parameters

       Dynamic BOOTP leases are not compatible with failover,  and,  as  such,
       you need to disallow BOOTP in pools that you are using failover for.

       The   server currently  does very  little  sanity checking,  so if  you
       configure it wrong, it will just  fail in odd ways.  I would  recommend
       therefore  that you either do  failover or don't do failover, but don't
       do any mixed pools.  Also,  use the same master configuration file  for
       both   servers,  and  have  a  separate file  that  contains  the  peer
       declaration and includes the master file.  This will help you to  avoid
       configuration   mismatches.  As our  implementation evolves,  this will
       become  less of  a  problem.  A  basic  sample dhcpd.conf  file for   a
       primary server might look like this:

       failover peer "foo" {
         address anthrax.rc.vix.com;
         port 519;
         peer address trantor.rc.vix.com;
         peer port 520;
         max-response-delay 60;
         max-unacked-updates 10;
         mclt 3600;
         split 128;
         load balance max seconds 3;

       include "/etc/dhcpd.master";

       The statements in the peer declaration are as follows:

       The primary and secondary statements

         [ primary | secondary ];

         This  determines  whether  the  server  is  primary  or secondary, as
         described earlier under DHCP FAILOVER.

       The address statement

         address address;

         The address statement declares the IP address or DNS  name  on  which
         the  server should listen for connections from its failover peer, and
         also the value to use for the DHCP Failover Protocol  server  identi-
         fier.   Because  this  value  is used as an identifier, it may not be

       The peer address statement

         peer address address;

         The peer address statement declares the IP address  or  DNS  name  to
         which  the  server  should  connect  to  reach  its failover peer for
         failover messages.

       The port statement

         port port-number;

         The port statement declares the TCP port on which the  server  should
         listen  for  connections from its failover peer.   This statement may
         not currently be omitted, because the failover protocol does not  yet
         have a reserved TCP port number.

       The peer port statement

         peer port port-number;

         The  peer  port  statement  declares the TCP port to which the server
         should connect to reach its  failover  peer  for  failover  messages.
         This  statement may not be omitted because the failover protocol does
         not yet have a reserved TCP port number.   The port  number  declared
         in  the  peer  port  statement  may  be  the  same as the port number
         declared in the port statement.

       The max-response-delay statement

         max-response-delay seconds;

         The max-response-delay statement tells the DHCP server how many  sec-
         onds  may  pass  without  receiving  a message from its failover peer
         before it assumes that connection has failed.   This number should be
         small enough that a transient network failure that breaks the connec-
         tion will not result in the servers being out of communication for  a
         long  time,  but large enough that the server isn't constantly making
         and breaking connections.   This parameter must be specified.

       The max-unacked-updates statement

         max-unacked-updates count;

         The max-unacked-updates statement tells  the  DHCP  server  how  many
         BNDUPD  messages  it  can  send  before it receives a BNDACK from the
         failover peer.   We don't have enough operational experience  to  say
         what a good value for this is, but 10 seems to work.   This parameter
         must be specified.

       The mclt statement

         mclt seconds;

         The mclt statement defines the Maximum Client Lead Time.   It must be
         specified  on the primary, and may not be specified on the secondary.
         This is the length of time for which a lease may be renewed by either
         failover  peer  without  contacting  the  other.   The longer you set
         this, the longer it will take for the running server  to  recover  IP
         addresses after moving into PARTNER-DOWN state.   The shorter you set
         it, the more load your servers will experience when they are not com-
         municating.    A value of something like 3600 is probably reasonable,
         but again bear in mind that we have no  real  operational  experience
         with this.

       The split statement

         split index;

         The  split statement specifies the split between the primary and sec-
         ondary for the purposes of load balancing.   Whenever a client  makes
         a DHCP request, the DHCP server runs a hash on the client identifica-
         tion.   If the hash comes out to less than the split value, the  pri-
         mary  answers.    If it comes out to equal to or more than the split,
         the secondary answers.   The only meaningful value is  128,  and  can
         only be configured on the primary.

       The hba statement

         hba colon-separated-hex-list;

         The  hba  statement  specifies the split between the primary and sec-
         ondary as a bitmap rather than a cutoff, which  theoretically  allows
         for  finer-grained  control.   In practice, there is probably no need
         for such fine-grained control, however.   An example hba statement:

           hba ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:

         This is equivalent to a split 128; statement.   You  must  only  have
         split  or  hba defined, never both.  For most cases, the fine-grained
         control that hba offers isn't necessary, and split  should  be  used.
         As such, the use of hba is deprecated.

       The load balance max seconds statement

         load balance max seconds seconds;

         This statement allows you to configure a cutoff after which load bal-
         ancing is disabled.  The cutoff is based on  the  number  of  seconds
         since  the client sent its first DHCPDISCOVER or DHCPREQUEST message,
         and only works with clients that correctly implement the secs field -
         fortunately  most clients do.  We recommend setting this to something
         like 3 or 5.  The effect of this is that if one of the failover peers
         gets into a state where it is responding to failover messages but not
         responding to some client requests, the other failover peer will take
         over its client load automatically as the clients retry.

       Clients  can be separated into classes, and treated differently depend-
       ing on what class they are in.   This separation  can  be  done  either
       with  a  conditional  statement,  or  with a match statement within the
       class declaration.   It is possible to specify a  limit  on  the  total
       number  of  clients within a particular class or subclass that may hold
       leases at one time, and it is possible to specify automatic subclassing
       based on the contents of the client packet.

       To  add  clients  to  classes  based on conditional evaluation, you can
       specify a matching expression in the class statement:

       class "ras-clients" {
         match if substring (option dhcp-client-identifier, 1, 3) = "RAS";

       Note that whether you use matching expressions or  add  statements  (or
       both)  to  classify  clients, you must always write a class declaration
       for any class that you use.   If there will be no match  statement  and
       no  in-scope  statements  for a class, the declaration should look like

       class "ras-clients" {

       In addition to classes, it is possible to declare subclasses.   A  sub-
       class is a class with the same name as a regular class, but with a spe-
       cific submatch expression which is hashed for quick matching.  This  is
       essentially  a  speed  hack  - the main difference between five classes
       with match expressions and one class with five subclasses  is  that  it
       will be quicker to find the subclasses.   Subclasses work as follows:

       class "allocation-class-1" {
         match pick-first-value (option dhcp-client-identifier, hardware);

       class "allocation-class-2" {
         match pick-first-value (option dhcp-client-identifier, hardware);

       subclass "allocation-class-1" 1:8:0:2b:4c:39:ad;
       subclass "allocation-class-2" 1:8:0:2b:a9:cc:e3;
       subclass "allocation-class-1" 1:0:0:c4:aa:29:44;

       subnet netmask {
         pool {
           allow members of "allocation-class-1";
         pool {
           allow members of "allocation-class-2";

       The data following the class name in the subclass declaration is a con-
       stant value to use in matching the  match  expression  for  the  class.
       When class matching is done, the server will evaluate the match expres-
       sion and then look the result up in the hash table.    If  it  finds  a
       match, the client is considered a member of both the class and the sub-

       Subclasses can be declared with or without scope.   In the above  exam-
       ple,  the  sole purpose of the subclass is to allow some clients access
       to one address pool, while other clients are given access to the  other
       pool, so these subclasses are declared without scopes.   If part of the
       purpose of the subclass were to define different parameter  values  for
       some clients, you might want to declare some subclasses with scopes.

       In  the above example, if you had a single client that needed some con-
       figuration parameters, while most didn't, you might write the following
       subclass declaration for that client:

       subclass "allocation-class-2" 1:08:00:2b:a1:11:31 {
         option root-path "samsara:/var/diskless/alphapc";
         filename "/tftpboot/netbsd.alphapc-diskless";

       In  this  example,  we've  used subclassing as a way to control address
       allocation on a per-client basis.  However, it's also possible  to  use
       subclassing  in ways that are not specific to clients - for example, to
       use the value of the vendor-class-identifier option to  determine  what
       values  to  send in the vendor-encapsulated-options option.  An example
       of this is shown under the VENDOR  ENCAPSULATED  OPTIONS  head  in  the
       dhcp-options(5) manual page.

       You may specify a limit to the number of clients in a class that can be
       assigned leases.   The effect of this will be to make it difficult  for
       a  new  client in a class to get an address.   Once a class with such a
       limit has reached its limit, the only way a new client  in  that  class
       can  get  a  lease  is  for an existing client to relinquish its lease,
       either by letting it  expire,  or  by  sending  a  DHCPRELEASE  packet.
       Classes with lease limits are specified as follows:

       class "limited-1" {
         lease limit 4;

       This will produce a class in which a maximum of four members may hold a
       lease at one time.

       It is possible to declare a spawning class.   A  spawning  class  is  a
       class  that  automatically produces subclasses based on what the client
       sends.   The reason that spawning classes were created was to  make  it
       possible  to  create lease-limited classes on the fly.   The envisioned
       application is a cable-modem environment where the ISP wishes  to  pro-
       vide  clients  at  a particular site with more than one IP address, but
       does not wish to provide such clients with their own subnet,  nor  give
       them  an  unlimited  number of IP addresses from the network segment to
       which they are connected.

       Many cable modem head-end systems can be  configured  to  add  a  Relay
       Agent Information option to DHCP packets when relaying them to the DHCP
       server.   These systems typically add a circuit ID or remote ID  option
       that  uniquely  identifies  the  customer  site.   To take advantage of
       this, you can write a class declaration as follows:

       class "customer" {
         spawn with option agent.circuit-id;
         lease limit 4;

       Now whenever a request comes in from a customer site,  the  circuit  ID
       option  will be checked against the class's hash table.   If a subclass
       is found that matches the circuit ID, the client will be classified  in
       that subclass and treated accordingly.   If no subclass is found match-
       ing the circuit ID, a new  one  will  be  created  and  logged  in  the
       dhcpd.leases file, and the client will be classified in this new class.
       Once the client has been classified, it will be  treated  according  to
       the  rules  of the class, including, in this case, being subject to the
       per-site limit of four leases.

       The use of the subclass spawning mechanism is not restricted  to  relay
       agent  options  - this particular example is given only because it is a
       fairly straightforward one.

       In some cases, it may be useful to  use  one  expression  to  assign  a
       client  to a particular class, and a second expression to put it into a
       subclass of that class.   This can be done by combining  the  match  if
       and  spawn with statements, or the match if and match statements.   For

       class "jr-cable-modems" {
         match if option dhcp-vendor-identifier = "jrcm";
         spawn with option agent.circuit-id;
         lease limit 4;

       class "dv-dsl-modems" {
         match if option dhcp-vendor-identifier = "dvdsl";
         spawn with option agent.circuit-id;
         lease limit 16;

       This allows you to have two classes that both have the same spawn  with
       expression without getting the clients in the two classes confused with
       each other.

       The DHCP server has the ability to dynamically update the  Domain  Name
       System.   Within  the  configuration files, you can define how you want
       the Domain Name System to be updated.  These updates are RFC 2136  com-
       pliant  so  any DNS server supporting RFC 2136 should be able to accept
       updates from the DHCP server.

       Two DNS update  schemes  are  currently  implemented,  and  another  is
       planned.    The  two  that  are  currently available are the ad-hoc DNS
       update mode and the interim DHCP-DNS interaction draft update mode.  If
       and  when  the  DHCP-DNS  interaction draft and the DHCID draft make it
       through the IETF standards process, there will be a third  mode,  which
       will  be the standard DNS update method.   The DHCP server must be con-
       figured to use one of the two currently-supported methods, or not to do
       dns  updates.    This can be done with the ddns-update-style configura-
       tion parameter.

       The ad-hoc Dynamic DNS update scheme is now  deprecated  and  does  not
       work.   In future releases of the ISC DHCP server, this scheme will not
       likely be available.  The interim scheme works,  allows  for  failover,
       and  should  now  be  used.  The following description is left here for
       informational purposes only.

       The ad-hoc Dynamic DNS update scheme implemented in this version of the
       ISC  DHCP  server is a prototype design, which does not have much to do
       with the standard update method that is being standardized in the  IETF
       DHC  working  group, but rather implements some very basic, yet useful,
       update capabilities.   This mode does not work with the failover proto-
       col  because  it  does not account for the possibility of two different
       DHCP servers updating the same set of DNS records.

       For the ad-hoc DNS update method, the client's FQDN is derived  in  two
       parts.    First, the hostname is determined.   Then, the domain name is
       determined, and appended to the hostname.

       The DHCP server determines the client's hostname by first looking for a
       ddns-hostname  configuration  option,  and using that if it is present.
       If no such option is present, the server looks for a valid hostname  in
       the  FQDN option sent by the client.  If one is found, it is used; oth-
       erwise, if the client sent a host-name option, that  is  used.   Other-
       wise,  if  there  is a host declaration that applies to the client, the
       name from that declaration will be used.  If none of these applies, the
       server will not have a hostname for the client, and will not be able to
       do a DNS update.

       The domain name is determined based strictly on the  server  configura-
       tion, not on what the client sends.   First, if there is a ddns-domain-
       name configuration option, it is used.   Second, if there is a  domain-
       name  option  configured, that is used.  Otherwise, the server will not
       do the DNS update.

       The client's fully-qualified domain name, derived as we have described,
       is  used  as  the  name  on  which an "A" record will be stored.  The A
       record will contain the IP address that the client was assigned in  its
       lease.    If there is already an A record with the same name in the DNS
       server, no update of either the A or PTR records will occur - this pre-
       vents a client from claiming that its hostname is the name of some net-
       work  server.    For  example,  if  you  have   a   fileserver   called
       "fs.sneedville.edu", and the client claims its hostname is "fs", no DNS
       update will be done for that client,  and  an  error  message  will  be

       If  the  A record update succeeds, a PTR record update for the assigned
       IP address will be done, pointing to the A  record.    This  update  is
       unconditional  - it will be done even if another PTR record of the same
       name exists.   Since the IP address  has  been  assigned  to  the  DHCP
       server, this should be safe.

       Please note that the current implementation assumes clients only have a
       single network interface.   A client with two network  interfaces  will
       see  unpredictable  behavior.    This  is considered a bug, and will be
       fixed in a later release.   It may be helpful to enable the  one-lease-
       per-client  parameter  so that roaming clients do not trigger this same

       The DHCP protocol normally involves a four-packet exchange - first  the
       client sends a DHCPDISCOVER message, then the server sends a DHCPOFFER,
       then the client sends a DHCPREQUEST, then the server sends  a  DHCPACK.
       In  the  current version of the server, the server will do a DNS update
       after it has received the DHCPREQUEST, and before it has sent the  DHC-
       PACK.    It  only  sends  the DNS update if it has not sent one for the
       client's address before, in order to minimize the impact  on  the  DHCP

       When the client's lease expires, the DHCP server (if it is operating at
       the time, or when next it operates) will remove the client's A and  PTR
       records  from  the  DNS database.   If the client releases its lease by
       sending a DHCPRELEASE message, the server will likewise  remove  the  A
       and PTR records.

       The  interim  DNS  update  scheme  operates mostly according to several
       drafts that are being considered by the IETF and are expected to become
       standards,  but  are  not  yet  standards,  and may not be standardized
       exactly as currently proposed.   These are:


       Because our implementation is slightly different than the standard,  we
       will briefly document the operation of this update style here.

       The  first  point  to understand about this style of DNS update is that
       unlike the ad-hoc style, the DHCP server does  not  necessarily  always
       update  both  the  A  and the PTR records.   The FQDN option includes a
       flag which, when sent by the client, indicates that the  client  wishes
       to  update  its own A record.   In that case, the server can be config-
       ured either to honor the client's intentions or ignore them.   This  is
       done  with  the statement allow client-updates; or the statement ignore
       client-updates;.   By default, client updates are allowed.

       If the server is configured to allow client updates, then if the client
       sends a fully-qualified domain name in the FQDN option, the server will
       use that name the client sent in the FQDN  option  to  update  the  PTR
       record.   For example, let us say that the client is a visitor from the
       "radish.org" domain, whose hostname is "jschmoe".   The server  is  for
       the  "example.org"  domain.    The  DHCP  client  indicates in the FQDN
       option that its FQDN is "jschmoe.radish.org.".   It also indicates that
       it  wants  to update its own A record.   The DHCP server therefore does
       not attempt to set up an A record for the client, but does set up a PTR
       record  for  the  IP  address  that  it assigns the client, pointing at
       jschmoe.radish.org.   Once the DHCP client has an IP  address,  it  can
       update its own A record, assuming that the "radish.org" DNS server will
       allow it to do so.

       If the server is configured not to allow  client  updates,  or  if  the
       client doesn't want to do its own update, the server will simply choose
       a name for the client from either the fqdn option (if present)  or  the
       hostname  option (if present).  It will use its own domain name for the
       client, just as in the ad-hoc update scheme.  It will then update  both
       the A and PTR record, using the name that it chose for the client.   If
       the client sends a fully-qualified domain name in the fqdn option,  the
       server  uses only the leftmost part of the domain name - in the example
       above, "jschmoe" instead of "jschmoe.radish.org".

       Also, if the use-host-decl-names configuration option is enabled,  then
       the  host  declaration's hostname will be used in place of the hostname
       option, and the same rules will apply as described above.

       The other difference between the ad-hoc scheme and the  interim  scheme
       is that with the interim scheme, a method is used that allows more than
       one DHCP server to update the DNS database without accidentally  delet-
       ing  A  records  that shouldn't be deleted nor failing to add A records
       that should be added.   The scheme works as follows:

       When the DHCP server issues a client a new lease,  it  creates  a  text
       string  that  is an MD5 hash over the DHCP client's identification (see
       draft-ietf-dnsext-dhcid-rr-??.txt for details).   The update adds an  A
       record  with  the name the server chose and a TXT record containing the
       hashed identifier string  (hashid).    If  this  update  succeeds,  the
       server is done.

       If  the update fails because the A record already exists, then the DHCP
       server attempts to add the A record with the  prerequisite  that  there
       must be a TXT record in the same name as the new A record, and that TXT
       record's contents must be equal to hashid.   If this  update  succeeds,
       then  the  client  has its A record and PTR record.   If it fails, then
       the name the client has been assigned (or requested)  is  in  use,  and
       can't  be  used by the client.   At this point the DHCP server gives up
       trying to do a DNS update for the client until the client chooses a new

       The  interim  DNS  update  scheme  is  called  interim for two reasons.
       First, it does not quite follow the drafts.   The current  versions  of
       the  drafts call for a new DHCID RRtype, but this is not yet available.
       The interim DNS update scheme uses a TXT record  instead.    Also,  the
       existing ddns-resolution draft calls for the DHCP server to put a DHCID
       RR on the PTR record, but the interim update method does not  do  this.
       It is our position that this is not useful, and we are working with the
       author in hopes of removing it from the next version of the  draft,  or
       better understanding why it is considered useful.

       In  addition to these differences, the server also does not update very
       aggressively.  Because each DNS update involves a round trip to the DNS
       server,  there  is a cost associated with doing updates even if they do
       not actually modify the DNS  database.    So  the  DHCP  server  tracks
       whether  or not it has updated the record in the past (this information
       is stored on the lease) and does not attempt to update records that  it
       thinks it has already updated.

       This  can  lead  to cases where the DHCP server adds a record, and then
       the record is deleted through some  other  mechanism,  but  the  server
       never  again  updates  the  DNS  because  it thinks the data is already
       there.   In this case the data can be removed from  the  lease  through
       operator  intervention,  and  once  this has been done, the DNS will be
       updated the next time the client renews.

       When you set your DNS server up to allow updates from the DHCP  server,
       you  may  be  exposing  it to unauthorized updates.  To avoid this, you
       should use TSIG signatures -  a  method  of  cryptographically  signing
       updates using a shared secret key.   As long as you protect the secrecy
       of this key, your updates should also be secure.   Note, however,  that
       the  DHCP  protocol  itself  provides no security, and that clients can
       therefore provide information to the DHCP server which the DHCP  server
       will  then  use  in  its updates, with the constraints described previ-

       The DNS server must be configured to allow updates for  any  zone  that
       the DHCP server will be updating.  For example, let us say that clients
       in  the  sneedville.edu  domain  will  be  assigned  addresses  on  the  subnet.   In  that case, you will need a key declaration
       for the TSIG key you will be using, and also two  zone  declarations  -
       one  for the zone containing A records that will be updates and one for
       the zone containing PTR records - for ISC BIND, something like this:

       key DHCP_UPDATER {
         algorithm HMAC-MD5.SIG-ALG.REG.INT;
         secret pRP5FapFoJ95JEL06sv4PQ==;

       zone "example.org" {
            type master;
            file "example.org.db";
            allow-update { key DHCP_UPDATER; };

       zone "17.10.10.in-addr.arpa" {
            type master;
            file "10.10.17.db";
            allow-update { key DHCP_UPDATER; };

       You will also have to configure your DHCP server to do updates to these
       zones.    To  do  so,  you  need  to  add  something  like this to your
       dhcpd.conf file:

       key DHCP_UPDATER {
         algorithm HMAC-MD5.SIG-ALG.REG.INT;
         secret pRP5FapFoJ95JEL06sv4PQ==;

       zone EXAMPLE.ORG. {
         key DHCP_UPDATER;

       zone 17.127.10.in-addr.arpa. {
         key DHCP_UPDATER;

       The primary statement specifies the IP address of the name server whose
       zone information is to be updated.

       Note that the zone declarations have to correspond to authority records
       in your name server - in the above example, there must be an SOA record
       for  "example.org." and for "17.10.10.in-addr.arpa.".   For example, if
       there were a subdomain "foo.example.org"  with  no  separate  SOA,  you
       could not write a zone declaration for "foo.example.org."  Also keep in
       mind that zone names in your DHCP configuration should end  in  a  ".";
       this  is  the  preferred syntax.  If you do not end your zone name in a
       ".", the DHCP server will figure it out.  Also note that  in  the  DHCP
       configuration,  zone  names  are not encapsulated in quotes where there
       are in the DNS configuration.

       You should choose your own secret key, of course.  The ISC BIND 8 and 9
       distributions  come  with  a  program for generating secret keys called
       dnssec-keygen.  The version that comes with BIND 9 is likely to produce
       a  substantially more random key, so we recommend you use that one even
       if you are not using BIND 9 as your DNS server.  If you are using  BIND
       9's dnssec-keygen, the above key would be created as follows:

            dnssec-keygen -a HMAC-MD5 -b 128 -n USER DHCP_UPDATER

       If  you  are  using the BIND 8 dnskeygen program, the following command
       will generate a key as seen above:

            dnskeygen -H 128 -u -c -n DHCP_UPDATER

       You may wish to enable logging of DNS updates on your DNS  server.   To
       do so, you might write a logging statement like the following:

       logging {
            channel update_debug {
                 file "/var/log/update-debug.log";
                 severity  debug 3;
                 print-category yes;
                 print-severity yes;
                 print-time     yes;
            channel security_info    {
                 file "/var/log/named-auth.info";
                 severity  info;
                 print-category yes;
                 print-severity yes;
                 print-time     yes;

            category update { update_debug; };
            category security { security_info; };

       You  must  create  the  /var/log/named-auth.info  and  /var/log/update-
       debug.log files before starting the name server.   For more information
       on configuring ISC BIND, consult the documentation that accompanies it.

       There are three kinds of events that can happen regarding a lease,  and
       it  is  possible  to  declare  statements  that occur when any of these
       events happen.   These events are the commit event, when the server has
       made  a  commitment  of a certain lease to a client, the release event,
       when the client has released the server from its  commitment,  and  the
       expiry event, when the commitment expires.

       To  declare  a  set of statements to execute when an event happens, you
       must use the on statement, followed by the name of the event,  followed
       by  a  series of statements to execute when the event happens, enclosed
       in braces.   Events are used to implement DNS updates,  so  you  should
       not  define  your  own event handlers if you are using the built-in DNS
       update mechanism.

       The built-in version of the DNS update mechanism is in  a  text  string
       towards  the  top  of  server/dhcpd.c.    If you want to use events for
       things other than DNS updates, and you also want DNS updates, you  will
       have  to  start  out by copying this code into your dhcpd.conf file and
       modifying it.

       The include statement

        include "filename";

       The include statement is used to read in a named file, and process  the
       contents of that file as though it were entered in place of the include

       The shared-network statement

        shared-network name {
          [ parameters ]
          [ declarations ]

       The shared-network statement is used to inform  the  DHCP  server  that
       some  IP subnets actually share the same physical network.  Any subnets
       in a shared network should be declared within a  shared-network  state-
       ment.   Parameters  specified  in  the shared-network statement will be
       used when booting clients on those subnets unless  parameters  provided
       at  the  subnet or host level override them.  If any subnet in a shared
       network has addresses available for dynamic allocation, those addresses
       are  collected  into a common pool for that shared network and assigned
       to clients as needed.  There is no way to distinguish on  which  subnet
       of a shared network a client should boot.

       Name should be the name of the shared network.   This name is used when
       printing debugging messages, so it should be descriptive for the shared
       network.    The  name  may  have  the  syntax  of  a  valid domain name
       (although it will never be used as such), or it may  be  any  arbitrary
       name, enclosed in quotes.

       The subnet statement

        subnet subnet-number netmask netmask {
          [ parameters ]
          [ declarations ]

       The  subnet  statement is used to provide dhcpd with enough information
       to tell whether or not an IP address is on that subnet.  It may also be
       used   to  provide  subnet-specific  parameters  and  to  specify  what
       addresses may be dynamically allocated to clients booting on that  sub-
       net.   Such addresses are specified using the range declaration.

       The subnet-number should be an IP address or domain name which resolves
       to the subnet number of  the  subnet  being  described.    The  netmask
       should  be  an  IP  address or domain name which resolves to the subnet
       mask of the subnet being described.   The subnet number, together  with
       the  netmask,  are sufficient to determine whether any given IP address
       is on the specified subnet.

       Although a netmask must be given with every subnet declaration,  it  is
       recommended  that if there is any variance in subnet masks at a site, a
       subnet-mask option statement be used in each subnet declaration to  set
       the  desired  subnet  mask, since any subnet-mask option statement will
       override the subnet mask declared in the subnet statement.

       The range statement

       range [ dynamic-bootp ] low-address [ high-address];

       For any subnet on which addresses will be assigned  dynamically,  there
       must  be  at least one range statement.   The range statement gives the
       lowest and highest IP addresses in a range.   All IP addresses  in  the
       range should be in the subnet in which the range statement is declared.
       The dynamic-bootp flag may be specified if addresses in  the  specified
       range  may  be  dynamically  assigned  to BOOTP clients as well as DHCP
       clients.   When specifying a single address, high-address can be  omit-

       The host statement

        host hostname {
          [ parameters ]
          [ declarations ]

       The host declaration provides a scope in which to provide configuration
       information about a specific client, and also provides a way to  assign
       a  client a fixed address.  The host declaration provides a way for the
       DHCP server to identify a DHCP or BOOTP  client,  and  also  a  way  to
       assign the client a static IP address.

       If  it  is  desirable to be able to boot a DHCP or BOOTP client on more
       than one subnet with fixed addresses, more  than  one  address  may  be
       specified  in  the  fixed-address  declaration,  or  more than one host
       statement may be specified matching the same client.

       If client-specific boot parameters must change based on the network  to
       which the client is attached, then multiple host declarations should be
       used.  The host declarations will only match a client if one  of  their
       fixed-address  statements  is  viable on the subnet (or shared network)
       where the client is attached.  Conversely, for a  host  declaration  to
       match  a client being allocated a dynamic address, it must not have any
       fixed-address statements.  You may therefore need  a  mixture  of  host
       declarations  for  any  given client...some having fixed-address state-
       ments, others without.

       hostname should be a name identifying the host.  If a  hostname  option
       is not specified for the host, hostname is used.

       Host declarations are matched to actual DHCP or BOOTP clients by match-
       ing the dhcp-client-identifier option specified in the host declaration
       to  the  one supplied by the client, or, if the host declaration or the
       client does not provide a dhcp-client-identifier  option,  by  matching
       the  hardware parameter in the host declaration to the network hardware
       address supplied by the client.   BOOTP clients do not normally provide
       a  dhcp-client-identifier, so the hardware address must be used for all
       clients that may boot using the BOOTP protocol.

       Please be aware that only the  dhcp-client-identifier  option  and  the
       hardware  address  can be used to match a host declaration.   For exam-
       ple, it is not possible to match a  host  declaration  to  a  host-name
       option.    This is because the host-name option cannot be guaranteed to
       be unique for any given client, whereas both the hardware  address  and
       dhcp-client-identifier  option are at least theoretically guaranteed to
       be unique to a given client.

       The group statement

        group {
          [ parameters ]
          [ declarations ]

       The group statement is used simply to apply one or more parameters to a
       group  of  declarations.    It  can be used to group hosts, shared net-
       works, subnets, or even other groups.

       The allow and deny statements can be used to control  the  response  of
       the  DHCP server to various sorts of requests.  The allow and deny key-
       words actually have different meanings depending on the context.  In  a
       pool  context,  these  keywords  can be used to set up access lists for
       address allocation pools.  In other contexts, the keywords simply  con-
       trol  general  server  behavior with respect to clients based on scope.
       In a non-pool context, the ignore keyword can be used in place  of  the
       deny keyword to prevent logging of denied requests.

       The following usages of allow and deny will work in any scope, although
       it is not recommended that they be used in pool declarations.

       The unknown-clients keyword

        allow unknown-clients;
        deny unknown-clients;
        ignore unknown-clients;

       The unknown-clients flag is used to tell dhcpd whether or not to dynam-
       ically  assign  addresses to unknown clients.   Dynamic address assign-
       ment to unknown clients is allowed by default.  An  unknown  client  is
       simply a client that has no host declaration.

       The  use  of  this  option  is  now  deprecated.   If you are trying to
       restrict access on your network to known clients, you should  use  deny
       unknown-clients;  inside  of  your address pool, as described under the

       The bootp keyword

        allow bootp;
        deny bootp;
        ignore bootp;

       The bootp flag is used to tell dhcpd whether or not to respond to bootp
       queries.  Bootp queries are allowed by default.

       This  option  does  not  satisfy  the requirement of failover peers for
       denying dynamic bootp clients.  The deny dynamic bootp clients;  option
       should be used instead. See the ALLOW AND DENY WITHIN POOL DECLARATIONS
       section of this man page for more details.

       The booting keyword

        allow booting;
        deny booting;
        ignore booting;

       The booting flag is used to tell dhcpd whether or  not  to  respond  to
       queries  from  a particular client.  This keyword only has meaning when
       it appears in a host declaration.   By default, booting is allowed, but
       if it is disabled for a particular client, then that client will not be
       able to get an address from the DHCP server.

       The duplicates keyword

        allow duplicates;
        deny duplicates;

       Host declarations can match client messages based on  the  DHCP  Client
       Identifier  option  or  based on the client's network hardware type and
       MAC address.   If the MAC address is used, the  host  declaration  will
       match  any  client  with that MAC address - even clients with different
       client identifiers.   This doesn't normally  happen,  but  is  possible
       when  one computer has more than one operating system installed on it -
       for example, Microsoft Windows and NetBSD or Linux.

       The duplicates flag tells the DHCP server that if a request is received
       from  a  client that matches the MAC address of a host declaration, any
       other leases matching that MAC  address  should  be  discarded  by  the
       server,  even  if the UID is not the same.   This is a violation of the
       DHCP protocol, but can prevent clients whose client identifiers  change
       regularly  from  holding  many  leases  at  the same time.  By default,
       duplicates are allowed.

       The declines keyword

        allow declines;
        deny declines;
        ignore declines;

       The DHCPDECLINE message is used by DHCP clients to  indicate  that  the
       lease the server has offered is not valid.   When the server receives a
       DHCPDECLINE  for  a  particular  address,  it  normally  abandons  that
       address,  assuming that some unauthorized system is using it.  Unfortu-
       nately, a malicious or buggy client can,  using  DHCPDECLINE  messages,
       completely exhaust the DHCP server's allocation pool.   The server will
       reclaim these leases, but while the client is running through the pool,
       it  may  cause serious thrashing in the DNS, and it will also cause the
       DHCP server to forget old DHCP client address allocations.

       The declines flag tells the DHCP server whether or not to honor DHCPDE-
       CLINE messages.   If it is set to deny or ignore in a particular scope,
       the DHCP server will not respond to DHCPDECLINE messages.

       The client-updates keyword

        allow client-updates;
        deny client-updates;

       The client-updates flag tells the DHCP server whether or not  to  honor
       the  client's  intention to do its own update of its A record.  This is
       only relevant when doing interim DNS updates.   See  the  documentation
       under the heading THE INTERIM DNS UPDATE SCHEME for details.

       The  uses  of the allow and deny keywords shown in the previous section
       work pretty much the same way whether the client is sending a  DHCPDIS-
       COVER  or  a  DHCPREQUEST message - an address will be allocated to the
       client (either the old address it's requesting, or a new  address)  and
       then  that address will be tested to see if it's okay to let the client
       have it.   If the client requested it, and it's not  okay,  the  server
       will  send  a  DHCPNAK message.   Otherwise, the server will simply not
       respond to the client.   If it is okay  to  give  the  address  to  the
       client, the server will send a DHCPACK message.

       The  primary  motivation  behind  pool  declarations is to have address
       allocation pools whose allocation policies are  different.    A  client
       may be denied access to one pool, but allowed access to another pool on
       the same network segment.   In order for this to work,  access  control
       has  to be done during address allocation, not after address allocation
       is done.

       When a DHCPREQUEST message is processed, address allocation simply con-
       sists  of looking up the address the client is requesting and seeing if
       it's still available for the client.  If it is, then  the  DHCP  server
       checks  both  the  address  pool permit lists and the relevant in-scope
       allow and deny statements to see if it's okay to give the lease to  the
       client.   In the case of a DHCPDISCOVER message, the allocation process
       is done as described previously in the ADDRESS ALLOCATION section.

       When declaring permit lists for address allocation pools, the following
       syntaxes are recognized following the allow or deny keywords:


       If  specified, this statement either allows or prevents allocation from
       this pool to any client that has a host declaration (i.e.,  is  known).
       A  client  is known if it has a host declaration in any scope, not just
       the current scope.


       If specified, this statement either allows or prevents allocation  from
       this  pool  to  any  client  that has no host declaration (i.e., is not

        members of "class";

       If specified, this statement either allows or prevents allocation  from
       this pool to any client that is a member of the named class.

        dynamic bootp clients;

       If  specified, this statement either allows or prevents allocation from
       this pool to any bootp client.

        authenticated clients;

       If specified, this statement either allows or prevents allocation  from
       this  pool  to  any  client  that has been authenticated using the DHCP
       authentication protocol.   This is not yet supported.

        unauthenticated clients;

       If specified, this statement either allows or prevents allocation  from
       this  pool to any client that has not been authenticated using the DHCP
       authentication protocol.   This is not yet supported.

        all clients;

       If specified, this statement either allows or prevents allocation  from
       this  pool  to all clients.   This can be used when you want to write a
       pool declaration for some reason, but hold it in reserve, or  when  you
       want  to  renumber  your  network  quickly, and thus want the server to
       force all clients that have been allocated addresses from this pool  to
       obtain new addresses immediately when they next renew.

       The always-broadcast statement

         always-broadcast flag;

         The  DHCP  and BOOTP protocols both require DHCP and BOOTP clients to
         set the broadcast bit in the flags field of the BOOTP message header.
         Unfortunately, some DHCP and BOOTP clients do not do this, and there-
         fore may not receive responses  from  the  DHCP  server.    The  DHCP
         server  can  be  made to always broadcast its responses to clients by
         setting this flag to 'on' for the  relevant  scope;  relevant  scopes
         would  be inside a conditional statement, as a parameter for a class,
         or as a parameter for a host declaration.   To avoid creating  excess
         broadcast traffic on your network, we recommend that you restrict the
         use of this option to as few clients as possible.   For example,  the
         Microsoft  DHCP  client is known not to have this problem, as are the
         OpenTransport and ISC DHCP clients.

       The always-reply-rfc1048 statement

         always-reply-rfc1048 flag;

         Some BOOTP clients expect RFC1048-style responses, but do not  follow
         RFC1048  when sending their requests.   You can tell that a client is
         having this problem if it is not getting the options you have config-
         ured  for  it  and  if  you  see in the server log the message "(non-
         rfc1048)" printed with each BOOTREQUEST that is logged.

         If you want to send rfc1048 options to such a client, you can set the
         always-reply-rfc1048  option  in  that client's host declaration, and
         the DHCP server will respond with an  RFC-1048-style  vendor  options
         field.    This  flag  can  be  set  in any scope, and will affect all
         clients covered by that scope.

       The authoritative statement


         not authoritative;

         The DHCP server will normally assume that the configuration  informa-
         tion  about a given network segment is not known to be correct and is
         not authoritative.  This is so that if a naive user installs  a  DHCP
         server  not fully understanding how to configure it, it does not send
         spurious DHCPNAK messages to clients  that  have  obtained  addresses
         from a legitimate DHCP server on the network.

         Network  administrators  setting  up  authoritative  DHCP servers for
         their networks should always write authoritative; at the top of their
         configuration file to indicate that the DHCP server should send DHCP-
         NAK messages to misconfigured clients.   If this is not done, clients
         will  be  unable  to  get a correct IP address after changing subnets
         until their old lease has expired, which  could  take  quite  a  long

         Usually,  writing  authoritative; at the top level of the file should
         be sufficient.   However, if a DHCP server is to be set up so that it
         is aware of some networks for which it is authoritative and some net-
         works for which it is not, it may  be  more  appropriate  to  declare
         authority on a per-network-segment basis.

         Note  that the most specific scope for which the concept of authority
         makes any sense is the physical network segment -  either  a  shared-
         network  statement or a subnet statement that is not contained within
         a shared-network statement.  It is not meaningful to specify that the
         server is authoritative for some subnets within a shared network, but
         not authoritative for others, nor is it meaningful  to  specify  that
         the  server  is authoritative for some host declarations and not oth-

       The boot-unknown-clients statement

         boot-unknown-clients flag;

         If the boot-unknown-clients statement is present and has a  value  of
         false  or  off,  then  clients for which there is no host declaration
         will not be allowed to obtain IP addresses.   If  this  statement  is
         not  present  or has a value of true or on, then clients without host
         declarations will be allowed to obtain IP addresses, as long as those
         addresses  are  not  restricted  by  allow and deny statements within
         their pool declarations.

       The ddns-hostname statement

         ddns-hostname name;

         The name parameter should be the hostname that will be used  in  set-
         ting  up  the  client's  A  and PTR records.   If no ddns-hostname is
         specified in scope, then the server will derive the hostname automat-
         ically,  using  an  algorithm  that  varies for each of the different
         update methods.

       The ddns-domainname statement

         ddns-domainname name;

         The name parameter should be the domain name that will be appended to
         the client's hostname to form a fully-qualified domain-name (FQDN).

       The ddns-rev-domainname statement

         ddns-rev-domainname  name;  The  name  parameter should be the domain
         name that will be appended to the client's  reversed  IP  address  to
         produce a name for use in the client's PTR record.   By default, this
         is "in-addr.arpa.", but the default can be overridden here.

         The reversed IP address to which this  domain  name  is  appended  is
         always  the  IP  address  of  the  client,  in  dotted quad notation,
         reversed - for example, if the IP address assigned to the  client  is,  then  the  reversed  IP  address is   So a
         client with that IP address would, by default, be given a PTR  record

       The ddns-update-style parameter

         ddns-update-style style;

         The  style  parameter  must  be  one of ad-hoc, interim or none.  The
         ddns-update-style statement is only meaningful in the outer  scope  -
         it  is  evaluated once after reading the dhcpd.conf file, rather than
         each time a client is assigned an IP address, so there is no  way  to
         use different DNS update styles for different clients.

       The ddns-updates statement

          ddns-updates flag;

         The  ddns-updates  parameter  controls whether or not the server will
         attempt to do a DNS update when a lease is confirmed.   Set  this  to
         off  if  the server should not attempt to do updates within a certain
         scope.  The ddns-updates parameter is on by default.   To disable DNS
         updates  in all scopes, it is preferable to use the ddns-update-style
         statement, setting the style to none.

       The default-lease-time statement

         default-lease-time time;

         Time should be the length in seconds that will be assigned to a lease
         if  the client requesting the lease does not ask for a specific expi-
         ration time.

       The do-forward-updates statement

         do-forward-updates flag;

         The do-forward-updates statement instructs  the  DHCP  server  as  to
         whether it should attempt to update a DHCP client's A record when the
         client acquires or renews a lease.   This  statement  has  no  effect
         unless  DNS  updates  are  enabled  and  ddns-update-style  is set to
         interim.   Forward updates are enabled by default.   If  this  state-
         ment  is  used to disable forward updates, the DHCP server will never
         attempt to update the client's A record, and will only  ever  attempt
         to update the client's PTR record if the client supplies an FQDN that
         should be placed in the PTR record using the fqdn option.  If forward
         updates  are enabled, the DHCP server will still honor the setting of
         the client-updates flag.

       The dynamic-bootp-lease-cutoff statement

         dynamic-bootp-lease-cutoff date;

         The dynamic-bootp-lease-cutoff statement sets the ending time for all
         leases  assigned dynamically to BOOTP clients.  Because BOOTP clients
         do not have any way of renewing leases, and  don't  know  that  their
         leases  could expire, by default dhcpd assigns infinite leases to all
         BOOTP clients.  However, it may make sense in some situations to  set
         a cutoff date for all BOOTP leases - for example, the end of a school
         term, or the time at night when a facility is closed and all machines
         are required to be powered off.

         Date  should be the date on which all assigned BOOTP leases will end.
         The date is specified in the form:

                                 W YYYY/MM/DD HH:MM:SS

         W is the day of the week expressed as a number from zero (Sunday)  to
         six  (Saturday).  YYYY is the year, including the century.  MM is the
         month expressed as a number from 1 to 12.   DD  is  the  day  of  the
         month,  counting from 1.  HH is the hour, from zero to 23.  MM is the
         minute and SS is the second.  The time is always in Coordinated  Uni-
         versal Time (UTC), not local time.

       The dynamic-bootp-lease-length statement

         dynamic-bootp-lease-length length;

         The dynamic-bootp-lease-length statement is used to set the length of
         leases dynamically assigned to BOOTP clients.   At some sites, it may
         be  possible to assume that a lease is no longer in use if its holder
         has not used BOOTP or DHCP to get its address within a  certain  time
         period.    The  period is specified in length as a number of seconds.
         If a client reboots using BOOTP during the timeout period, the  lease
         duration  is reset to length, so a BOOTP client that boots frequently
         enough will never lose its lease.  Needless to  say,  this  parameter
         should be adjusted with extreme caution.

       The filename statement

         filename "filename";

         The filename statement can be used to specify the name of the initial
         boot file which is to be loaded by a client.  The filename should  be
         a filename recognizable to whatever file transfer protocol the client
         can be expected to use to load the file.

       The fixed-address declaration

         fixed-address address [, address ... ];

         The fixed-address declaration is used to assign one or more fixed  IP
         addresses  to a client.  It should only appear in a host declaration.
         If more than one address is supplied, then when the client boots,  it
         will be assigned the address that corresponds to the network on which
         it is booting.  If none of the addresses in the fixed-address  state-
         ment are valid for the network to which the client is connected, that
         client will not match the host  declaration  containing  that  fixed-
         address  declaration.   Each address in the fixed-address declaration
         should be either an IP address or a domain name that resolves to  one
         or more IP addresses.

       The get-lease-hostnames statement

         get-lease-hostnames flag;

         The  get-lease-hostnames  statement  is used to tell dhcpd whether or
         not to look up the domain name corresponding to  the  IP  address  of
         each  address  in  the  lease  pool and use that address for the DHCP
         hostname option.  If flag is true, then this lookup is done  for  all
         addresses in the current scope.   By default, or if flag is false, no
         lookups are done.

       The hardware statement

         hardware hardware-type hardware-address;

         In order for a BOOTP client to be recognized,  its  network  hardware
         address  must  be declared using a hardware clause in the host state-
         ment.  hardware-type must be the name of a physical  hardware  inter-
         face  type.    Currently,  only the ethernet and token-ring types are
         recognized, although support for a fddi hardware  type  (and  others)
         would  also  be  desirable.   The hardware-address should be a set of
         hexadecimal octets (numbers from 0 through ff) separated  by  colons.
         The hardware statement may also be used for DHCP clients.

       The lease-file-name statement

         lease-file-name name;

         Name  should  be  the  name  of  the  DHCP  server's lease file.   By
         default, this is DBDIR/dhcpd.leases.   This statement must appear  in
         the  outer  scope  of  the configuration file - if it appears in some
         other scope, it will have no effect.

       The local-port statement

         local-port port;

         This statement causes the DHCP server to listen for DHCP requests  on
         the UDP port specified in port, rather than on port 67.

       The local-address statement

         local-address address;

         This  statement  causes  the  DHCP server to listen for DHCP requests
         sent to the specified address,  rather  than  requests  sent  to  all
         addresses.  Since serving directly attached DHCP clients implies that
         the server must respond to requests sent to the all-ones IP  address,
         this  option  cannot be used if clients are on directly attached net-
         works...it is only realistically  useful  for  a  server  whose  only
         clients are reached via unicasts, such as via DHCP relay agents.

         Note:   This  statement  is only effective if the server was compiled
         using the USE_SOCKETS #define statement, which is default on a  small
         number  of  operating  systems, and must be explicitly chosen at com-
         pile-time for all others.  You can be sure if your server is compiled
         with USE_SOCKETS if you see lines of this format at startup:

          Listening on Socket/eth0

         Note  also  that since this bind()s all DHCP sockets to the specified
         address, that only one address may be supported  in  a  daemon  at  a
         given time.

       The log-facility statement

         log-facility facility;

         This statement causes the DHCP server to do all of its logging on the
         specified log facility once the dhcpd.conf file has been  read.    By
         default  the  DHCP server logs to the daemon facility.   Possible log
         facilities include auth, authpriv,  cron,  daemon,  ftp,  kern,  lpr,
         mail,  mark,  news,  ntp,  security,  syslog,  user, uucp, and local0
         through local7.   Not all of these facilities are  available  on  all
         systems,  and  there  may be other facilities available on other sys-

         In addition to setting this value, you may need to modify  your  sys-
         log.conf file to configure logging of the DHCP server.   For example,
         you might add a line like this:

              local7.debug /var/log/dhcpd.log

         The syntax of the syslog.conf file may be different on some operating
         systems  -  consult  the  syslog.conf manual page to be sure.  To get
         syslog to start logging to the new file, you must  first  create  the
         file  with correct ownership and permissions (usually, the same owner
         and permissions of your /var/log/messages or  /usr/adm/messages  file
         should  be  fine) and send a SIGHUP to syslogd.  Some systems support
         log rollover using a shell script  or  program  called  newsyslog  or
         logrotate, and you may be able to configure this as well so that your
         log file doesn't grow uncontrollably.

         Because the log-facility setting  is  controlled  by  the  dhcpd.conf
         file,  log  messages  printed  while  parsing  the dhcpd.conf file or
         before parsing it are logged to the default log facility.  To prevent
         this,  see  the  README  file  included with this distribution, which
         describes how to change the default log facility.  When this  parame-
         ter is used, the DHCP server prints its startup message a second time
         after parsing the configuration file, so that the log will be as com-
         plete as possible.

       The max-lease-time statement

         max-lease-time time;

         Time should be the maximum length in seconds that will be assigned to
         a lease.   The only exception to this is  that  Dynamic  BOOTP  lease
         lengths,  which  are  not specified by the client, are not limited by
         this maximum.

       The min-lease-time statement

         min-lease-time time;

         Time should be the minimum length in seconds that will be assigned to
         a lease.

       The min-secs statement

         min-secs seconds;

         Seconds  should be the minimum number of seconds since a client began
         trying to acquire a new lease before the DHCP server will respond  to
         its  request.   The  number  of  seconds  is based on what the client
         reports, and the maximum value that the client can report is 255 sec-
         onds.   Generally, setting this to one will result in the DHCP server
         not responding to the client's first request, but  always  responding
         to its second request.

         This can be used to set up a secondary DHCP server which never offers
         an address to a client until the primary  server  has  been  given  a
         chance  to  do  so.    If the primary server is down, the client will
         bind to the secondary server, but  otherwise  clients  should  always
         bind  to  the primary.   Note that this does not, by itself, permit a
         primary server and a secondary server to share a pool of dynamically-
         allocatable addresses.

       The next-server statement

         next-server server-name;

         The  next-server statement is used to specify the host address of the
         server from which the initial boot file (specified  in  the  filename
         statement)  is  to  be  loaded.    Server-name should be a numeric IP
         address or a domain name.

       The omapi-port statement

         omapi-port port;

         The omapi-port statement causes the DHCP server to listen  for  OMAPI
         connections  on  the  specified port.   This statement is required to
         enable the OMAPI protocol, which is used to examine  and  modify  the
         state of the DHCP server as it is running.

       The one-lease-per-client statement

         one-lease-per-client flag;

         If  this flag is enabled, whenever a client sends a DHCPREQUEST for a
         particular lease, the server will automatically free any other leases
         the  client  holds.    This  presumes  that  when  the client sends a
         DHCPREQUEST, it has forgotten any lease not mentioned in the  DHCPRE-
         QUEST  -  i.e., the client has only a single network interface and it
         does not remember leases it's holding on networks to which it is  not
         currently  attached.   Neither of these assumptions are guaranteed or
         provable, so we urge caution in the use of this statement.

       The pid-file-name statement

         pid-file-name name;

         Name should be the name of the DHCP server's process ID file.    This
         is  the file in which the DHCP server's process ID is stored when the
         server starts.   By default, this  is  RUNDIR/dhcpd.pid.    Like  the
         lease-file-name  statement,  this  statement must appear in the outer
         scope of the configuration file.

       The ping-check statement

         ping-check flag;

         When the DHCP server is  considering  dynamically  allocating  an  IP
         address  to a client, it first sends an ICMP Echo request (a ping) to
         the address being assigned.   It waits for a second, and if  no  ICMP
         Echo response has been heard, it assigns the address.   If a response
         is heard, the lease is abandoned, and the server does not respond  to
         the client.

         This  ping  check introduces a default one-second delay in responding
         to DHCPDISCOVER messages, which can be a problem  for  some  clients.
         The  default  delay  of  one second may be configured using the ping-
         timeout parameter.  The ping-check  configuration  parameter  can  be
         used  to  control  checking - if its value is false, no ping check is

       The ping-timeout statement

         ping-timeout seconds;

         If the DHCP server determined it should send an ICMP echo request  (a
         ping)  because  the ping-check statement is true, ping-timeout allows
         you to configure how many seconds the DHCP server should wait for  an
         ICMP  Echo  response  to  be heard, if no ICMP Echo response has been
         received before the timeout expires, it assigns the  address.   If  a
         response  is  heard,  the lease is abandoned, and the server does not
         respond to the client.  If no value is set, ping-timeout defaults  to
         1 second.

       The server-identifier statement

         server-identifier hostname;

         The  server-identifier statement can be used to define the value that
         is sent in the DHCP Server Identifier option for a given scope.   The
         value  specified  must be an IP address for the DHCP server, and must
         be reachable by all clients served by a particular scope.

         The use of the server-identifier statement is not recommended  -  the
         only  reason  to  use  it  is to force a value other than the default
         value to be sent on occasions where the default value would be incor-
         rect.   The default value is the first IP address associated with the
         physical network interface on which the request arrived.

         The usual case where the server-identifier statement needs to be sent
         is  when  a  physical interface has more than one IP address, and the
         one being sent by default isn't appropriate for some or  all  clients
         served  by  that  interface.  Another common case is when an alias is
         defined for the purpose of having a consistent  IP  address  for  the
         DHCP  server,  and it is desired that the clients use this IP address
         when contacting the server.

         Supplying a value for the dhcp-server-identifier option is equivalent
         to using the server-identifier statement.

       The server-name statement

         server-name name ;

         The  server-name  statement  can  be used to inform the client of the
         name of the server from which it is booting.    Name  should  be  the
         name that will be provided to the client.

       The site-option-space statement

         site-option-space name ;

         The  site-option-space  statement  can be used to determine from what
         option space site-local options will be taken.   This can be used  in
         much  the  same way as the vendor-option-space statement.  Site-local
         options in DHCP are those options whose  numeric  codes  are  greater
         than  128.    These  options are intended for site-specific uses, but
         are frequently used by vendors of  embedded  hardware  that  contains
         DHCP  clients.   Because site-specific options are allocated on an ad
         hoc basis, it is quite possible that one vendor's DHCP  client  might
         use  the same option code that another vendor's client uses, for dif-
         ferent purposes.   The site-option-space option can be used to assign
         a  different set of site-specific options for each such vendor, using
         conditional evaluation (see dhcp-eval (5) for details).

       The stash-agent-options statement

         stash-agent-options flag;

         If the stash-agent-options parameter is true for a given client,  the
         server  will  record  the relay agent information options sent during
         the client's initial DHCPREQUEST message when the client was  in  the
         SELECTING  state  and  behave as if those options are included in all
         subsequent DHCPREQUEST messages sent in the  RENEWING  state.    This
         works around a problem with relay agent information options, which is
         that they usually not appear in  DHCPREQUEST  messages  sent  by  the
         client  in  the  RENEWING  state,  because  such messages are unicast
         directly to the server and not sent through a relay agent.

       The update-optimization statement

         update-optimization flag;

         If the update-optimization parameter is false for a given client, the
         server will attempt a DNS update for that client each time the client
         renews its lease, rather than  only  attempting  an  update  when  it
         appears to be necessary.   This will allow the DNS to heal from data-
         base inconsistencies more easily, but  the  cost  is  that  the  DHCP
         server  must  do  many  more DNS updates.   We recommend leaving this
         option enabled, which is the default.  This option only  affects  the
         behavior  of  the interim DNS update scheme, and has no effect on the
         ad-hoc DNS update scheme.   If this parameter is not specified, or is
         true,  the  DHCP  server will only update when the client information
         changes, the client gets a different lease,  or  the  client's  lease

       The update-static-leases statement

         update-static-leases flag;

         The  update-static-leases flag, if enabled, causes the DHCP server to
         do DNS updates for clients even if those clients are  being  assigned
         their  IP  address  using  a  fixed-address  statement - that is, the
         client is being given a static assignment.   This can only work  with
         the  interim  DNS  update scheme.   It is not recommended because the
         DHCP server has no way to tell that the update  has  been  done,  and
         therefore  will  not delete the record when it is not in use.   Also,
         the server must attempt the update each time the  client  renews  its
         lease,  which could have a significant performance impact in environ-
         ments that place heavy demands on the DHCP server.

       The use-host-decl-names statement

         use-host-decl-names flag;

         If the use-host-decl-names parameter is true in a given  scope,  then
         for  every  host declaration within that scope, the name provided for
         the host declaration will be supplied to the client as its  hostname.
         So, for example,

             group {
               use-host-decl-names on;

               host joe {
                 hardware ethernet 08:00:2b:4c:29:32;
                 fixed-address joe.fugue.com;

         is equivalent to

               host joe {
                 hardware ethernet 08:00:2b:4c:29:32;
                 fixed-address joe.fugue.com;
                 option host-name "joe";

         An option host-name statement within a host declaration will override
         the use of the name in the host declaration.

         It should be noted here that most DHCP clients completely ignore  the
         host-name option sent by the DHCP server, and there is no way to con-
         figure them not to do this.   So  you  generally  have  a  choice  of
         either  not having any hostname to client IP address mapping that the
         client will recognize, or doing DNS updates.   It is beyond the scope
         of this document to describe how to make this determination.

       The use-lease-addr-for-default-route statement

         use-lease-addr-for-default-route flag;

         If  the use-lease-addr-for-default-route parameter is true in a given
         scope, then instead of sending the value  specified  in  the  routers
         option  (or  sending  no  value  at all), the IP address of the lease
         being assigned is sent to the client.   This supposedly causes  Win95
         machines  to  ARP  for all IP addresses, which can be helpful if your
         router is configured for proxy ARP.   The use of this feature is  not
         recommended, because it won't work for many DHCP clients.

       The vendor-option-space statement

         vendor-option-space string;

         The  vendor-option-space  parameter determines from what option space
         vendor options are taken.   The use of this  configuration  parameter
         is  illustrated  in  the  dhcp-options(5)  manual page, in the VENDOR
         ENCAPSULATED OPTIONS section.

       Sometimes it's helpful to be able to set the value  of  a  DHCP  server
       parameter  based  on some value that the client has sent.   To do this,
       you can use  expression  evaluation.    The  dhcp-eval(5)  manual  page
       describes how to write expressions.   To assign the result of an evalu-
       ation to an option, define the option as follows:

         my-parameter = expression ;

       For example:

         ddns-hostname = binary-to-ascii (16, 8, "-",
                                          substring (hardware, 1, 6));

       DHCP option statements are documented  in  the  dhcp-options(5)  manual

       Expressions used in DHCP option statements and elsewhere are documented
       in the dhcp-eval(5) manual page.

       dhcpd(8),  dhcpd.leases(5),  dhcp-options(5),  dhcp-eval(5),   RFC2132,

       dhcpd.conf(5)  was  written  by  Ted  Lemon under a contract with Vixie
       Labs.   Funding for this project was provided by Internet Systems  Con-
       sortium.  Information about Internet Systems Consortium can be found at


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