DHCPCD(8)               NetBSD System Manager's Manual               DHCPCD(8)

     dhcpcd -- a DHCP client

     dhcpcd [-46ABbDdEGgHJKLMpqTV] [-C, --nohook hook] [-c, --script script]
            [-e, --env value] [-F, --fqdn FQDN] [-f, --config file]
            [-h, --hostname hostname] [-I, --clientid clientid]
            [-i, --vendorclassid vendorclassid] [-l, --leasetime seconds]
            [-m, --metric metric] [-O, --nooption option]
            [-o, --option option] [-Q, --require option]
            [-r, --request address] [-S, --static value]
            [-s, --inform address[/cidr]] [-t, --timeout seconds]
            [-u, --userclass class] [-v, --vendor code, value]
            [-W, --whitelist address[/cidr]] [-w, --waitip [4 | 6]]
            [-y, --reboot seconds] [-X, --blacklist address[/cidr]]
            [-Z, --denyinterfaces pattern] [-z, --allowinterfaces pattern]
            [interface] [...]
     dhcpcd -n, --rebind [interface]
     dhcpcd -k, --release [interface]
     dhcpcd -U, --dumplease interface
     dhcpcd --version
     dhcpcd -x, --exit [interface]

     dhcpcd is an implementation of the DHCP client specified in RFC 2131.
     dhcpcd gets the host information (IP address, routes, etc) from a DHCP
     server and configures the network interface of the machine on which it is
     running.  dhcpcd then runs the configuration script which writes DNS
     information to resolvconf(8), if available, otherwise directly to
     /etc/resolv.conf.  If the hostname is currently blank, (null) or local-
     host, or force_hostname is YES or TRUE or 1 then dhcpcd sets the hostname
     to the one supplied by the DHCP server.  dhcpcd then daemonises and waits
     for the lease renewal time to lapse.  It will then attempt to renew its
     lease and reconfigure if the new lease changes when the lease beings to
     expire or the DHCP server sends message to renew early.

     dhcpcd is also an implementation of the BOOTP client specified in RFC

     dhcpcd is also an implementation of the IPv6 Router Solicitor as speci-
     fied in RFC 4861 and RFC 6106.  dhcpcd can optionally handle address and
     route management itself, and will do so by default if Router Solicitation
     is disabled in the kernel.  If dhcpcd is managing routes, dhcpcd sends
     Neighbor Solicitions to each advertising router periodically and will
     expire the ones that do not respond.

     dhcpcd is also an implemenation of the DHCPv6 client as specified in RFC
     3315.  By default, dhcpcd only starts DHCPv6 when instructed to do so by
     an IPV6 Router Advertisement.  If no Identity Association is configured,
     then a Non-temporary Address is requested.

   Local Link configuration
     If dhcpcd failed to obtain a lease, it probes for a valid IPv4LL address
     (aka ZeroConf, aka APIPA).  Once obtained it restarts the process of
     looking for a DHCP server to get a proper address.

     When using IPv4LL, dhcpcd nearly always succeeds and returns an exit code
     of 0.  In the rare case it fails, it normally means that there is a
     reverse ARP proxy installed which always defeats IPv4LL probing.  To dis-
     able this behaviour, you can use the -L, --noipv4ll option.

   Multiple interfaces
     If a list of interfaces are given on the command line, then dhcpcd only
     works with those interfaces, otherwise dhcpcd discovers available Ether-
     net interfaces.  If any interface reports a working carrier then dhcpcd
     will try and obtain a lease before forking to the background, otherwise
     it will fork right away.  This behaviour can be modified with the -b,
     --background and -w, --waitip options.

     If a single interface is given then dhcpcd only works for that interface
     and runs as a separate instance.  The -w, --waitip option is enabled in
     this instance to maintain compatibility with older versions.

     Interfaces are preferred by carrier, DHCP lease/IPv4LL and then lowest
     metric.  For systems that support route metrics, each route will be
     tagged with the metric, otherwise dhcpcd changes the routes to use the
     interface with the same route and the lowest metric.  See options below
     for controlling which interfaces we allow and deny through the use of

   Hooking into events
     dhcpcd runs /libexec/dhcpcd-run-hooks, or the script specified by the -c,
     --script option.  This script runs each script found in
     /libexec/dhcpcd-hooks in a lexical order.  The default installation sup-
     plies the scripts 01-test, 10-mtu, 10-wpa_supplicant, 15-timezone,
     20-resolv.conf and 30-hostname.  You can disable each script by using the
     -C, --nohook option.  See dhcpcd-run-hooks(8) for details on how these
     scripts work.  dhcpcd currently ignores the exit code of the script.

   Fine tuning
     You can fine-tune the behaviour of dhcpcd with the following options:

     -b, --background
             Background immediately.  This is useful for startup scripts which
             don't disable link messages for carrier status.

     -c, --script script
             Use this script instead of the default /libexec/dhcpcd-run-hooks.

     -D, --duid
             Generate an RFC 4361 compliant clientid.  This requires persis-
             tent storage and not all DHCP servers work with it so it is not
             enabled by default.  dhcpcd generates the DUID and stores it in
             /etc/dhcpcd.duid.  This file should not be copied to other hosts.

     -d, --debug
             Echo debug messages to the stderr and syslog.

     -E, --lastlease
             If dhcpcd cannot obtain a lease, then try to use the last lease
             acquired for the interface.  If the -p, --persistent option is
             not given then the lease is used if it hasn't expired.

     -e, --env value
             Push value to the environment for use in dhcpcd-run-hooks(8).
             For example, you can force the hostname hook to always set the
             hostname with -e force_hostname=YES.

     -g, --reconfigure
             dhcpcd will re-apply IP address, routing and run
             dhcpcd-run-hooks(8) for each interface.  This is useful so that a
             3rd party such as PPP or VPN can change the routing table and /
             or DNS, etc and then instruct dhcpcd to put things back after-
             wards.  dhcpcd does not read a new configuration when this hap-
             pens - you should rebind if you need that functionality.

     -F, --fqdn fqdn
             Requests that the DHCP server updates DNS using FQDN instead of
             just a hostname.  Valid values for fqdn are disable, none, ptr
             and both.  dhcpcd itself never does any DNS updates.  dhcpcd
             encodes the FQDN hostname as specified in RFC1035.

     -f, --config file
             Specify a config to load instead of /etc/dhcpcd.conf.  dhcpcd
             always processes the config file before any command line options.

     -h, --hostname hostname
             Sends hostname to the DHCP server so it can be registered in DNS.
             If hostname is an empty string then the current system hostname
             is sent.  If hostname is a FQDN (ie, contains a .) then it will
             be encoded as such.

     -I, --clientid clientid
             Send the clientid.  If the string is of the format 01:02:03 then
             it is encoded as hex.  For interfaces whose hardware address is
             longer than 8 bytes, or if the clientid is an empty string then
             dhcpcd sends a default clientid of the hardware family and the
             hardware address.

     -i, --vendorclassid vendorclassid
             Override the DHCPv4 vendorclassid field sent.  The default is
             dhcpcd-<version>:<os>:<machine>:<platform>.  For example
             If not set then none is sent.  Some badly configured DHCP servers
             reject unknown vendorclassids.  To work around it, try and imper-
             sonate Windows by using the MSFT vendorclassid.

     -k, --release [interface]
             This causes an existing dhcpcd process running on the interface
             to release its lease and de-configure the interface.  If no
             interface is specified then this applies to all interfaces.  If
             no interfaces are left running, dhcpcd will exit.

     -l, --leasetime seconds
             Request a specific lease time in seconds.  By default dhcpcd does
             not request any lease time and leaves it in the hands of the DHCP

     -M, --master
             Start dhcpcd in master mode even if only one interface specified
             on the command line.

     -m, --metric metric
             Metrics are used to prefer an interface over another one, lowest
             wins.  dhcpcd will supply a default metic of 200 +
             if_nametoindex(3).  An extra 100 will be added for wireless

     -n, --rebind [interface]
             Notifies dhcpcd to reload its configuration and rebind the speci-
             fied interface.  If no interface is specified then this applies
             to all interfaces.  If dhcpcd is not running, then it starts up
             as normal.  This may also cause wpa_supplicant(8) to reload its
             configuration for each interface as well.

     -o, --option option
             Request the DHCP option variable for use in

     -p, --persistent
             dhcpcd normally de-configures the interface and configuration
             when it exits.  Sometimes, this isn't desirable if, for example,
             you have root mounted over NFS or SSH clients connect to this
             host and they need to be notified of the host shutting down.  You
             can use this option to stop this from happening.

     -r, --request [address]
             Request the address in the DHCP DISCOVER message.  There is no
             guarantee this is the address the DHCP server will actually give.
             If no address is given then the first address currently assigned
             to the interface is used.

     -s, --inform [address[/cidr]]
             Behaves like -r, --request as above, but sends a DHCP INFORM
             instead of DISCOVER/REQUEST.  This does not get a lease as such,
             just notifies the DHCP server of the address in use.  You should
             also include the optional cidr network number in case the address
             is not already configured on the interface.  dhcpcd remains run-
             ning and pretends it has an infinite lease.  dhcpcd will not de-
             configure the interface when it exits.  If dhcpcd fails to con-
             tact a DHCP server then it returns a failure instead of falling
             back on IPv4LL.

     -S, --static value
             Configures a static value.  If you set ip_address then dhcpcd
             will not attempt to obtain a lease and just use the value for the
             address with an infinite lease time.

             Here is an example which configures a static address, routes and
                   dhcpcd -S ip_address= \
                   -S routers= \
                   -S domain_name_servers= \

     -t, --timeout seconds
             Timeout after seconds, instead of the default 30.  A setting of 0
             seconds causes dhcpcd to wait forever to get a lease.  If dhcpcd
             is working on a single interface then dhcpcd will exit when a
             timeout occurs, otherwise dhcpcd will fork into the background.
             If using IPv4LL then dhcpcd start the IPv4LL process after the
             timeout and then wait a little longer before really timing out.

     -u, --userclass class
             Tags the DHCPv4 message with the userclass class.  DHCP servers
             use this to give members of the class DHCP options other than the
             default, without having to know things like hardware address or

     -v, --vendor code,value
             Add an encapsulated vendor option.  code should be between 1 and
             254 inclusive.  To add a raw vendor string, omit code but keep
             the comma.  Examples.

             Set the vendor option 01 with an IP address.
                   dhcpcd -v 01, eth0
             Set the vendor option 02 with a hex code.
                   dhcpcd -v 02,01:02:03:04:05 eth0
             Set the vendor option 03 with an IP address as a string.
                   dhcpcd -v 03,\"\" eth0
             Set un-encapsulated vendor option to hello world.
                   dhcpcd -v ,"hello world" eth0

             Display both program version and copyright information.  dhcpcd
             then exits before doing any configuration.

     -w, --waitip [4 | 6]
             Wait for an address to be assigned before forking to the back-
             ground.  4 means wait for an IPv4 address to be assigned.  6
             means wait for an IPv6 address to be assigned.  If no argument is
             given, dhcpcd will wait for any address protocol to be assigned.
             It is possible to wait for more than one address protocol and
             dhcpcd will only fork to the background when all waiting condi-
             tions are satisfied.

     -x, --exit [interface]
             This will signal an existing dhcpcd process running on the
             interface to de-configure the interface and exit.  If no inter-
             face is specified, then the above is applied to all interfaces.
             dhcpcd then waits until this process has exited.

     -y, --reboot seconds
             Allow reboot seconds before moving to the discover phase if we
             have an old lease to use.  The default is 5 seconds.  A setting
             of 0 seconds causes dhcpcd to skip the reboot phase and go
             straight into discover.

   Restricting behaviour
     dhcpcd will try to do as much as it can by default.  However, there are
     sometimes situations where you don't want the things to be configured
     exactly how the the DHCP server wants.  Here are some options that deal
     with turning these bits off.

     -4, --ipv4only
             Only configure IPv4.

     -6, --ipv6only
             Only confgiure IPv6.

     -A, --noarp
             Don't request or claim the address by ARP.  This also disables

     -B, --nobackground
             Don't run in the background when we acquire a lease.  This is
             mainly useful for running under the control of another process,
             such as a debugger or a network manager.

     -C, --nohook script
             Don't run this hook script.  Matches full name, or prefixed with
             2 numbers optionally ending with .sh.

             So to stop dhcpcd from touching your DNS or MTU settings you
             would do:-
                   dhcpcd -C resolv.conf -C mtu eth0

     -G, --nogateway
             Don't set any default routes.

     -H, --xidhwaddr
             Use the last four bytes of the hardware address as the DHCP xid
             instead of a randomly generated number.

     -J, --broadcast
             Instructs the DHCP server to broadcast replies back to the
             client.  Normally this is only set for non Ethernet interfaces,
             such as FireWire and InfiniBand.  In most instances, dhcpcd will
             set this automatically.

     -K, --nolink
             Don't receive link messages for carrier status.  You should only
             have to use this with buggy device drivers or running dhcpcd
             through a network manager.

     -L, --noipv4ll
             Don't use IPv4LL (aka APIPA, aka Bonjour, aka ZeroConf).

     -O, --nooption option
             Don't request the specified option.  If no option given, then
             don't request any options other than those to configure the
             interface and routing.

     -Q, --require option
             Requires the option to be present in all DHCP messages, otherwise
             the message is ignored.  To enforce that dhcpcd only responds to
             DHCP servers and not BOOTP servers, you can -Q dhcp_message_type.

     -q, --quiet
             Quiet dhcpcd on the command line, only warnings and errors will
             be displayed.  The messages are still logged though.

     -T, --test
             On receipt of DHCP messages just call /libexec/dhcpcd-run-hooks
             with the reason of TEST which echos the DHCP variables found in
             the message to the console.  The interface configuration isn't
             touched and neither are any configuration files.  To test INFORM
             the interface needs to be configured with the desired address
             before starting dhcpcd.

     -U, --dumplease interface
             Dumps the last lease for the interface to stdout.  interface
             could also be a path to a DHCP wire formatted file.

     -V, --variables
             Display a list of option codes and the associated variable for
             use in dhcpcd-run-hooks(8).  Variables are prefixed with new_ and
             old_ unless the option number is -.  Variables without an option
             are part of the DHCP message and cannot be directly requested.

     -W, --whitelist address[/cidr]
             Only accept packets from address[/cidr].  -X, --blacklist is
             ignored if -W, --whitelist is set.

     -X, --blacklist address[/cidr]
             Ignore all packets from address[/cidr].

     -Z, --denyinterfaces pattern
             When discovering interfaces, the interface name must not match
             pattern which is a space or comma separated list of patterns
             passed to fnmatch(3).

     -z, --allowinterfaces pattern
             When discovering interfaces, the interface name must match
             pattern which is a space or comma separated list of patterns
             passed to fnmatch(3).  If the same interface is matched in -Z,
             --denyinterfaces then it is still denied.

             Don't load any /dev management modules.

     Some interfaces require configuration by 3rd parties, such as PPP or VPN.
     When an interface configuration in dhcpcd is marked as STATIC or INFORM
     without an address then dhcpcd will monitor the interface until an
     address is added or removed from it and act accordingly.  For point to
     point interfaces (like PPP), a default route to its destination is auto-
     matically added to the configuration.  If the point to point interface is
     configured for INFORM, then dhcpcd unicasts INFORM to the destination,
     otherwise it defaults to STATIC.

     dhcpcd requires a Berkley Packet Filter, or BPF device on BSD based sys-
     tems and a Linux Socket Filter, or LPF device on Linux based systems for
     all IPv4 configuration.

     Configuration file for dhcpcd.  If you always use the same options, put
     them here.

     Text file that holds the DUID used to identify the host.

     Bourne shell script that is run to configure or de-configure an inter-

     /dev management modules.

     A directory containing bourne shell scripts that are run by the above
     script.  Each script can be disabled by using the -C, --nohook option
     described above.

     The actual DHCP message sent by the server.  We use this when reading the
     last lease and use the files mtime as when it was issued.

     The actual DHCPv6 message sent by the server.  We use this when reading
     the last lease and use the files mtime as when it was issued.

     Stores the monotonic counter used in the replay field in Authentication

     Stores the PID of dhcpcd running on all interfaces.

     Stores the PID of dhcpcd running on the interface.

     Control socket to the master daemon.

     Control socket to per interface daemon.

     fnmatch(3), if_nametoindex(3), dhcpcd.conf(5), resolv.conf(5),
     dhcpcd-run-hooks(8), resolvconf(8)

     RFC 951, RFC 1534, RFC 2104, RFC 2131, RFC 2132, RFC 2563, RFC 2855,
     RFC 3004, RFC 3118, RFC 3203, RFC 3315, RFC 3361, RFC 3633, RFC 3396,
     RFC 3397, RFC 3442, RFC 3495, RFC 3925, RFC 3927, RFC 4039, RFC 4075,
     RFC 4242, RFC 4361, RFC 4390, RFC 4702, RFC 4074, RFC 4861, RFC 4833,
     RFC 5227, RFC 5942, RFC 5969, RFC 6106, RFC 6334, RFC 6704.

     Roy Marples <roy@marples.name>

     Please report them to

NetBSD 6.0                       March 7, 2014                      NetBSD 6.0

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