DDB(4)                  NetBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual                 DDB(4)

NAME
     ddb -- in-kernel debugger

SYNOPSIS
     options DDB

     To enable history editing:
     options DDB_HISTORY_SIZE=integer

     To disable entering ddb upon kernel panic:
     options DDB_ONPANIC=0

     To enable teeing all ddb output to the kernel msgbuf:
     options DDB_TEE_MSGBUF=1

     To specify commands which will be executed on each entry to ddb:
     options DDB_COMMANDONENTER="trace;show registers"
     In this case, "trace" and then "show registers" will be executed automat-
     ically.

     To enable extended online help:
     options DDB_VERBOSE_HELP.

DESCRIPTION
     ddb is the in-kernel debugger.  It may be entered at any time via a spe-
     cial key sequence, and optionally may be invoked when the kernel panics.

ENTERING THE DEBUGGER
     Unless DDB_ONPANIC is set to 0, ddb will be activated whenever the kernel
     would otherwise panic.

     ddb may also be activated from the console.  In general, sending a break
     on a serial console will activate ddb.  There are also key sequences for
     each port that will activate ddb from the keyboard:
           alpha     <Ctrl>-<Alt>-<Esc> on PC style keyboards.
           amd64     <Ctrl>-<Alt>-<Esc>
                     <Break> on serial console.
           amiga     <LAlt>-<LAmiga>-<F10>
           atari     <Alt>-<LeftShift>-<F9>
           hp300     <Shift>-<Reset>
           hpcarm    <Ctrl>-<Alt>-<Esc>
           hpcmips   <Ctrl>-<Alt>-<Esc>
           hpcsh     <Ctrl>-<Alt>-<Esc>
           hppa      <Ctrl>-<Alt>-<Esc> on PC style keyboards.
                     +++++ (five plus signs) on PDC console
                     <Break> on serial console.
           i386      <Ctrl>-<Alt>-<Esc>
                     <Break> on serial console.
           mac68k    <Command>-<Power>, or the Interrupt switch.
           macppc    Some models: <Command>-<Option>-<Power>
           mvme68k   Abort switch on CPU card.
           pmax      <Do> on LK-201 rcons console.
                     <Break> on serial console.
           sparc     <L1>-A, or <Stop>-A on a Sun keyboard.
                     <Break> on serial console.
           sparc64   <L1>-A, or <Stop>-A on a Sun keyboard.
                     <Break> on serial console.
           sun3      <L1>-A, or <Stop>-A on a Sun keyboard.
                     <Break> on serial console.
           vax       <Esc>-<Shift>-D on serial console.
           x68k      Interrupt switch on the body.
           xen dom0  <Ctrl>-<Alt>-<Esc> on PC style keyboards.
                     +++++ (five plus signs) on serial console.
           xen domU  +++++ (five plus signs) on serial console.
           zaurus    <Ctrl>-<Alt>-<Esc>

     The key sequence to activate ddb can be changed by modifying
     ``hw.cnmagic'' with sysctl(8).  If the console is not dedicated to ddb
     the sequence should not be easily typed by accident.  In addition, ddb
     may be explicitly activated by the debugging code in the kernel if DDB is
     configured.

     Commands can be automatically run when ddb is entered by using options
     DDB_COMMANDONENTER or by setting ddb.commandonenter with sysctl(8).  Mul-
     tiple commands can be separated by a semi-colon.


COMMAND SYNTAX
     The general command syntax is:

           command[/modifier] address [,count]

     The current memory location being edited is referred to as dot, and the
     next location is next.  They are displayed as hexadecimal numbers.

     Commands that examine and/or modify memory update dot to the address of
     the last line examined or the last location modified, and set next to the
     next location to be examined or modified.  Other commands don't change
     dot, and set next to be the same as dot.

     A blank line repeats the previous command from the address next with the
     previous count and no modifiers.  Specifying address sets dot to the
     address.  If address is omitted, dot is used.  A missing count is taken
     to be 1 for printing commands, and infinity for stack traces.

     The syntax:

           ,count

     repeats the previous command, just as a blank line does, but with the
     specified count.

     ddb has a more(1)-like functionality; if a number of lines in a command's
     output exceeds the number defined in the lines variable, then ddb dis-
     plays ``--db more--'' and waits for a response, which may be one of:

           <return>  one more line.

           <space>   one more page.

           q         abort the current command, and return to the command
                     input mode.

     You can set lines variable to zero to disable this feature.

     If ddb history editing is enabled (by defining the
           options DDB_HISTORY_SIZE=num
     kernel option), then a history of the last num commands is kept.  The
     history can be manipulated with the following key sequences:

           <Ctrl>-P  retrieve previous command in history (if any).

           <Ctrl>-N  retrieve next command in history (if any).

COMMANDS
     ddb supports the following commands:

     !address[(expression[,...])]
            A synonym for call.

     break[/u] address[,count]
            Set a breakpoint at address.  If count is supplied, continues
            (count-1) times before stopping at the breakpoint.  If the break-
            point is set, a breakpoint number is printed with `#'.  This num-
            ber can be used to delete the breakpoint, or to add conditions to
            it.

            If /u is specified, set a breakpoint at a user-space address.
            Without /u, address is considered to be in the kernel-space, and
            an address in the wrong space will be rejected, and an error mes-
            sage will be emitted.  This modifier may only be used if it is
            supported by machine dependent routines.

            Warning: if a user text is shadowed by a normal user-space debug-
            ger, user-space breakpoints may not work correctly.  Setting a
            breakpoint at the low-level code paths may also cause strange
            behavior.

     bt[/ul] [frame-address][,count]
            A synonym for trace.

     bt/t[/ul] [pid][,count]
            A synonym for trace/t.

     bt/a[/ul] [lwpaddr][,count]
            A synonym for trace/a.

     call address[(expression[,...])]
            Call the function specified by address with the argument(s) listed
            in parentheses.  Parentheses may be omitted if the function takes
            no arguments.  The number of arguments is currently limited to 10.

     continue[/c]
            Continue execution until a breakpoint or watchpoint.  If /c is
            specified, count instructions while executing.  Some machines
            (e.g., pmax) also count loads and stores.

            Warning: when counting, the debugger is really silently single-
            stepping.  This means that single-stepping on low-level may cause
            strange behavior.

     delete address | #number
            Delete a breakpoint.  The target breakpoint may be specified by
            address, as per break, or by the breakpoint number returned by
            break if it's prefixed with `#'.

     dmesg [count]
            Prints the contents of the kernel message buffer.  The optional
            count argument will limit printing to at most the last count bytes
            of the message buffer.

     dwatch address
            Delete the watchpoint at address that was previously set with
            watch command.

     examine[/modifier] address[,count]
            Display the address locations according to the format in modifier.
            Multiple modifier formats display multiple locations.  If modifier
            isn't specified, the modifier from the last use of examine is
            used.

            The valid format characters for modifier are:
                  b   examine bytes (8 bits).
                  h   examine half-words (16 bits).
                  l   examine words (legacy ``long'', 32 bits).
                  L   examine long words (implementation dependent)
                  a   print the location being examined.
                  A   print the location with a line number if possible.
                  x   display in unsigned hex.
                  z   display in signed hex.
                  o   display in unsigned octal.
                  d   display in signed decimal.
                  u   display in unsigned decimal.
                  r   display in current radix, signed.
                  c   display low 8 bits as a character.  Non-printing charac-
                      ters as displayed as an octal escape code (e.g.,
                      `\000').
                  s   display the NUL terminated string at the location.  Non-
                      printing characters are displayed as octal escapes.
                  m   display in unsigned hex with a character dump at the end
                      of each line.  The location is displayed as hex at the
                      beginning of each line.
                  i   display as a machine instruction.
                  I   display as a machine instruction, with possible alterna-
                      tive formats depending upon the machine:
                            alpha  print register operands
                            m68k   use Motorola syntax
                            vax    don't assume that each external label is a
                                   procedure entry mask

     kill pid[,signal_number]
            Send a signal to the process specified by the pid.  Note that pid
            is interpreted using the current radix (see trace/t command for
            details).  If signal_number isn't specified, the SIGTERM signal is
            sent.

     match[/p]
            A synonym for next.

     next[/p]
            Stop at the matching return instruction.  If /p is specified,
            print the call nesting depth and the cumulative instruction count
            at each call or return.  Otherwise, only print when the matching
            return is hit.

     print[/axzodurc] address [address ...]
            Print addresses address according to the modifier character, as
            per examine.  Valid modifiers are: /a, /x, /z, /o, /d, /u, /r, and
            /c (as per examine).  If no modifier is specified, the most recent
            one specified is used.  address may be a string, and is printed
            ``as-is''.  For example:

                  print/x "eax = " $eax "\necx = " $ecx "\n"

            will produce:

                  eax = xxxxxx
                  ecx = yyyyyy

     ps[/a][/n][/w][/l]
            A synonym for show all procs.

     reboot [flags]
            Reboot, using the optionally supplied boot flags, which is a bit-
            mask supporting the same values as for reboot(2).  Some of the
            more useful flags:

            Value    Name            Description
            0x1      RB_ASKNAME      Ask for file name to reboot from
            0x2      RB_SINGLE       Reboot to single user mode
            0x4      RB_NOSYNC       Don't sync before reboot
            0x8      RB_HALT         Halt instead of reboot
            0x40     RB_KDB          Boot into kernel debugger
            0x100    RB_DUMP         Dump unconditionally before reboot
            0x808    RB_POWERDOWN    Power off (or at least halt)

            Note: Limitations of the command line interface preclude specifi-
            cation of a boot string.

     search[/bhl] address value [mask] [,count]
            Search memory from address for value.  The unit size is specified
            with a modifier character, as per examine.  Valid modifiers are:
            /b, /h, and /l.  If no modifier is specified, /l is used.

            This command might fail in interesting ways if it doesn't find
            value.  This is because ddb doesn't always recover from touching
            bad memory.  The optional count limits the search.

     set $variable [=] expression
            Set the named variable or register to the value of expression.
            Valid variable names are described in VARIABLES.

     show all callout
            Display information about callouts in the system.  See callout(9)
            for more information on callouts.

     show all pages
            Display basic information about all physical pages managed by the
            VM system.  For more detailed information about a single page, use
            show page.

     show all pools[/clp]
            Display all pool information.  Modifiers are the same as show
            pool.

     show all procs[/a][/n][/w][/l]
            Display all process information.  Valid modifiers:

            /n   show process information in a ps(1) style format.  Informa-
                 tion printed includes: process ID, parent process ID, process
                 group, UID, process status, process flags, number of LWPs,
                 command name, and process wait channel message.

            /a   show each process ID, command name, kernel virtual addresses
                 of each process' proc structure, u-area, and vmspace struc-
                 ture.  The vmspace address is also the address of the
                 process' vm_map structure, and can be used in the show map
                 command.

            /w   show each LWP ID, process ID, command name, system call emu-
                 lation, priority, wait channel message and wait channel
                 address.  LWPs currently running on a CPU are marked with the
                 '>' sign.

            /l   show each LWP ID, process ID, process status, CPU ID the LWP
                 runs on, process flags, kernel virtual address of LWP struc-
                 ture, LWP name and wait channel message.  LWPs currently run-
                 ning on a CPU are marked with the '>' sign.  This is the
                 default.

     show arptab
            Dump the entire AF_INET routing table.  This command is available
            only on systems which support inet and ARP.

     show breaks
            Display all breakpoints.

     show buf[/f] address
            Print the struct buf at address.  The /f does nothing at this
            time.

     show event[/f][/i][/m][/t]
            Print all the non-zero evcnt(9) event counters.  Valid modifiers:

            /f   event counters with a count of zero are printed as well.

            /i   interrupted counters will be displayed.

            /m   misc counters will be displayed.

            /t   trap counters will be displayed.

            If none of /i, /m or /t are specified, all are shown.  You can
            combine any of these.  For example, the modifier /itf will select
            both interrupt and trap events, including those that are non-zero.

     show files address
            Display information about the vnodes of the files that are cur-
            rently open by the process associated with the proc structure at
            address.  This address can be found using the show all procs /a
            command.  If the kernel is compiled with options LOCKDEBUG then
            details about the locking of the underlying uvm object will also
            be displayed.

     show lock address
            Display information about a lock at address.  This command is use-
            ful only if a kernel is compiled with options LOCKDEBUG.

     show map[/f] address
            Print the vm_map at address.  If /f is specified, the complete map
            is printed.

     show mount[/f] address
            Print the mount structure at address.  If /f is specified, the
            complete vnode list is printed.

     show mbuf[/c] address
            Print the mbuf structure at address.  If /c is specified, the
            mbufs in the chain are followed.

     show ncache address
            Dump the namecache list associated with vnode at address.

     show object[/f] address
            Print the vm_object at address.  If /f is specified, the complete
            object is printed.

     show page[/f] address
            Print the vm_page at address.  If /f is specified, the complete
            page is printed.

     show panic
            Print the current "panic" string.

     show pool[/clp] address
            Print the pool at address.  Valid modifiers:
            /c    Print the cachelist and its statistics for this pool.
            /l    Print the log entries for this pool.
            /p    Print the pagelist for this pool.

     show proc[/ap] address | pid
            Show information about a process and its LWPs.  LWPs currently
            running on a CPU are marked with the '>' sign.
            /a    The argument passed is the kernel virtual address of LWP
                  structure.
            /p    The argument passed is a PID.  Note that pid is interpreted
                  using the current radix (see trace/t command for details).
                  This is the default.

     show registers[/u]
            Display the register set.  If /u is specified, display user regis-
            ters instead of kernel registers or the currently save one.

            Warning: support for /u is machine dependent.  If not supported,
            incorrect information will be displayed.

     show sched_qs
            Print the state of the scheduler's run queues.  For each run queue
            that has an LWP, the run queue index and the list of LWPs will be
            shown.  If the run queue has LWPs, but the sched_whichqs bit is
            not set for that queue, the queue index will be prefixed with a
            `!'.

     show uvmexp
            Print a selection of UVM counters and statistics.

     show kernhist
            Dumps the kernel histories.  This command is available only if a
            kernel is compiled with options KERNHIST or options UVMHIST.

     show vnode[/f] address
            Print the vnode at address.  If /f is specified, the complete
            vnode is printed.

     show watches
            Display all watchpoints.

     sifting[/F] string
            Search the symbol tables for all symbols of which string is a sub-
            string, and display them.  If /F is specified, a character is dis-
            played immediately after each symbol name indicating the type of
            symbol.

            For a.out(5)-format symbol tables, absolute symbols display @,
            text segment symbols display *, data segment symbols display +,
            BSS segment symbols display -, and filename symbols display /.
            For ELF-format symbol tables, object symbols display +, function
            symbols display *, section symbols display &, and file symbols
            display /.

            To sift for a string beginning with a number, escape the first
            character with a backslash as:

                  sifting \386

     step[/p] [,count]
            Single-step count times.  If /p is specified, print each instruc-
            tion at each step.  Otherwise, only print the last instruction.

            Warning: depending on the machine type, it may not be possible to
            single-step through some low-level code paths or user-space code.
            On machines with software-emulated single-stepping (e.g., pmax),
            stepping through code executed by interrupt handlers will probably
            do the wrong thing.

     sync   Sync the disks, force a crash dump, and then reboot.

     trace[/u[l]] [frame-address][,count]
            Stack trace from frame-address.  If /u is specified, trace user-
            space, otherwise trace kernel-space.  count is the number of
            frames to be traced.  If count is omitted, all frames are printed.
            If /l is specified, the trace is printed and also stored in the
            kernel message buffer.

            Warning: user-space stack trace is valid only if the machine
            dependent code supports it.

     trace/t[l] [pid][,count]
            Stack trace by ``thread'' (process, on NetBSD) rather than by
            stack frame address.  Note that pid is interpreted using the cur-
            rent radix, whilst ps displays pids in decimal; prefix pid with
            `0t' to force it to be interpreted as decimal (see VARIABLES sec-
            tion for radix).  If /l is specified, the trace is printed and
            also stored in the kernel message buffer.

            Warning: trace by pid is valid only if the machine dependent code
            supports it.

     trace/a[l] [lwpaddr][,count]
            Stack trace by light weight process (LWP) address rather than by
            stack frame address.  If /l is specified, the trace is printed and
            also stored in the kernel message buffer.

            Warning: trace by LWP address is valid only if the machine depen-
            dent code supports it.

     until[/p]
            Stop at the next call or return instruction.  If /p is specified,
            print the call nesting depth and the cumulative instruction count
            at each call or return.  Otherwise, only print when the matching
            return is hit.

     watch address[,size]
            Set a watchpoint for a region.  Execution stops when an attempt to
            modify the region occurs.  size defaults to 4.

            If you specify a wrong space address, the request is rejected with
            an error message.

            Warning: attempts to watch wired kernel memory may cause an unre-
            coverable error in some systems such as i386.  Watchpoints on user
            addresses work the best.

     whatis address
            Describe what an address is.

     write[/bhlBHL] address expression [expression ...]
            Write the expressions at succeeding locations.  The unit size is
            specified with a modifier character, as per examine.  Valid modi-
            fiers are: /b, /h, and /l.  If no modifier is specified, /l is
            used.

            Specifying the modifiers in upper case, /B, /H, /L, will prevent
            ddb from reading the memory location first, which is useful for
            avoiding side effects when writing to I/O memory regions.

            Warning: since there is no delimiter between expressions, strange
            things may occur.  It's best to enclose each expression in paren-
            theses.

     x[/modifier] address[,count]
            A synonym for examine.

MACHINE-SPECIFIC COMMANDS
     The "glue" code that hooks ddb into the NetBSD kernel for any given port
     can also add machine specific commands to the ddb command parser.  All of
     these commands are preceded by the command word machine to indicate that
     they are part of the machine-specific command set (e.g.  machine reboot).
     Some of these commands are:

   ACORN26
     bsw        Writes one or two bytes to the IObus.  Takes an address and a
                value.  Use the ``b'' modifier to write a single byte and the
                ``h'' modifier to write two bytes.
     frame      Given a trap frame address, print out the trap frame.
     irqstat    Display the IRQ statistics

   ALPHA
     cpu        Switch to another cpu.

   AMD64
     cpu        Switch to another cpu.

   ARM32
     frame      Given a trap frame address, print out the trap frame.

   HPPA
     frame      Without an address the default trap frame is printed.  Other-
                wise, the trap frame address can be given, or, when the ``l''
                modifier is used, an LWP address.

   I386
     cpu        Switch to another cpu.

   IA64
     vector     Without a vector, information about all 256 vectors is shown.
                Otherwise, the given vector is shown.

   MIPS
     cp0        Dump CP0 (coprocessor 0) register values.
     kvtop      Print the physical address for a given kernel virtual address.
     tlb        Print out the Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB).  Only works
                in NetBSD kernels compiled with DEBUG option.

   POWERPC 4xx
     ctx        Print process MMU context information.
     pv         Print PA->VA mapping information.
     reset      Reset the system.
     tf         Display the contents of the trapframe.
     tlb        Display instruction translation storage buffer information.
     dcr        Set the DCR register.  Must be between 0x00 and 0x3ff.
     user       Display user memory.  Use the ``i'' modifier to get instruc-
                tion decoding.

   POWERPC OEA
     bat        Print BAT registers and translations.
     mmu        Print MMU registers.

   SH3
     tlb        Print TLB entries.
     cache      Print cache entries.
     frame      Print switch frame and trap frames.
     stack      Print kernel stack usage.  Only works in NetBSD kernels com-
                piled with the KSTACK_DEBUG option.

   SPARC
     cpu        Switch to another cpu.
     prom       Enter the Sun PROM monitor.
     proc       Display some information about the LWP pointed to, or curlwp.
     pcb        Display information about the ``struct pcb'' listed.
     page       Display the pointer to the ``struct vm_page'' for this physi-
                cal address.

   SPARC64
     ctx        Print process context information.
     cpu        Switch to another cpu.
     dtlb       Print data translation look-aside buffer context information.
     dtsb       Display data translation storage buffer information.
     kmap       Display information about the listed mapping in the kernel
                pmap.  Use the ``f'' modifier to get a full listing.
     extract    Extract the physical address for a given virtual address from
                the kernel pmap.
     fpstate    Dump the FPU state.
     itlb       Print instruction translation look-aside buffer context infor-
                mation.
     itsb       Display instruction translation storage buffer information.
     lwp        Display a struct lwp
     pcb        Display information about the ``struct pcb'' listed.
     pctx       Attempt to change process context.
     page       Display the pointer to the ``struct vm_page'' for this physi-
                cal address.
     phys       Display physical memory.
     pmap       Display the pmap.  Use the ``f'' modifier to get a fuller
                listing.
     proc       Display some information about the process pointed to, or cur-
                proc.
     prom       Enter the OFW PROM.
     pv         Display the ``struct pv_entry'' pointed to.
     sir        Reset the machine and enter prom (do a Software Initiated
                Reset).
     stack      Dump the window stack.  Use the ``u'' modifier to get userland
                information.
     tf         Display full trap frame state.  This is most useful for inclu-
                sion with bug reports.
     ts         Display trap state.
     traptrace  Display or set trap trace information.  Use the ``r'' and
                ``f'' modifiers to get reversed and full information, respec-
                tively.
     watch      Set or clear a physical or virtual hardware watchpoint.  Pass
                the address to be watched, or ``0'' (or omit the address) to
                clear the watchpoint.  Optional modifiers are ``p'' for physi-
                cal address, ``r'' for trap on read access (default: trap on
                write access only), ``b'' for 8 bit width, ``h'' for 16 bit,
                ``l'' for 32 bit or ``L'' for 64 bit.
     window     Print register window information.  Argument is a stack frame
                number (0 is top of stack, which is used when no index is
                given).

   SUN2, SUN3 and SUN3X
     abort      Drop into monitor via abort (allows continue).
     halt       Exit to Sun PROM monitor as in halt(8).
     reboot     Reboot the machine as in reboot(8).
     pgmap      Given an address, print the address, segment map, page map,
                and Page Table Entry (PTE).

   VAX
     cpu        Switch to another cpu.

VARIABLES
     ddb accesses registers and variables as $name.  Register names are as per
     the show registers command.  Some variables are suffixed with numbers,
     and may have a modifier following a colon immediately after the variable
     name.  For example, register variables may have a `u' modifier to indi-
     cate user register (e.g., $eax:u).

     Built-in variables currently supported are:
           lines     The number of lines.  This is used by the more feature.
                     When this variable is set to zero the more feature is
                     disabled.
           maxoff    Addresses are printed as 'symbol'+offset unless offset is
                     greater than maxoff.
           maxwidth  The width of the displayed line.  ddb wraps the current
                     line by printing new line when maxwidth column is
                     reached.  When this variable is set to zero ddb doesn't
                     perform any wrapping.
           onpanic   If greater than zero (the default is 1), ddb will be
                     invoked when the kernel panics.  If the kernel configura-
                     tion option
                           options DDB_ONPANIC=0
                     is used, onpanic will be initialized to off, causing a
                     stack trace to be printed and the system to be rebooted
                     instead of ddb being entered.  Other useful settings are
                     -1, which suppresses the stack trace before reboot, and
                     2, which causes a stack trace to be printed and ddb to be
                     entered.
           fromconsole
                     If non-zero (the default), the kernel allows to enter ddb
                     from the console (by break signal or special key
                     sequence).  If the kernel configuration option
                           options DDB_FROMCONSOLE=0
                     is used, fromconsole will be initialized to off.
           radix     Input and output radix.
           tabstops  Tab stop width.
           tee_msgbuf
                     If explicitly set to non zero (zero is the default) all
                     ddb output will not only be displayed on screen but also
                     be fed to the msgbuf.  The default of the variable can be
                     set using the kernel configuration option
                           options DDB_TEE_MSGBUF=1
                     which will initialize tee_msgbuf to be 1.  This option is
                     especially handy for poor souls who don't have a serial
                     console but want to recall ddb output from a crash inves-
                     tigation.  This option is more generic than the /l com-
                     mand modifier possible for selected commands as discussed
                     above to log the output.  Mixing both /l and this setting
                     can give double loggings.

     All built-in variables are accessible via sysctl(3).

EXPRESSIONS
     Almost all expression operators in C are supported, except `~', `^', and
     unary `&'.  Special rules in ddb are:

           identifier  name of a symbol.  It is translated to the address (or
                       value) of it.  `.' and `:' can be used in the identi-
                       fier.  If supported by an object format dependent rou-
                       tine, [filename:]function[:line number],
                       [filename:]variable, and filename[:line number], can be
                       accepted as a symbol.  The symbol may be prefixed with
                       symbol_table_name:: (e.g., emulator::mach_msg_trap) to
                       specify other than kernel symbols.

           number      number.  Radix is determined by the first two charac-
                       ters: `0x' - hex, `0o' - octal, `0t' - decimal, other-
                       wise follow current radix.

           .           dot

           +           next

           ..          address of the start of the last line examined.  Unlike
                       dot or next, this is only changed by the examine or
                       write commands.

           "           last address explicitly specified.

           $name       register name or variable.  It is translated to the
                       value of it.  It may be followed by a `:' and modifiers
                       as described above.

           #           a binary operator which rounds up the left hand side to
                       the next multiple of right hand side.

           *expr       expression indirection.  It may be followed by a `:'
                       and modifiers as described above.

SEE ALSO
     reboot(2), options(4), crash(8), reboot(8), sysctl(8), cnmagic(9)

HISTORY
     The ddb kernel debugger was written as part of the MACH project at
     Carnegie-Mellon University.

NetBSD 6.0                       June 12, 2014                      NetBSD 6.0

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©1994 Man-cgi 1.15, Panagiotis Christias <christia@softlab.ntua.gr>
©1996-2014 Modified for NetBSD by Kimmo Suominen