CVS(1)                                                                  CVS(1)



NAME
       cvs - Concurrent Versions System

SYNOPSIS
       cvs [ cvs_options ]
              cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

NOTE
       This  manpage is a summary of some of the features of cvs.  It is auto-
       generated from an appendix of the CVS manual.  For more in-depth  docu-
       mentation,  please consult the Cederqvist manual (via the info CVS com-
       mand or otherwise, as described in the SEE ALSO section  of  this  man-
       page).  Cross-references in this man page refer to nodes in the same.

CVS commands
   Guide to CVS commands
       This  appendix  describes  the  overall  structure of cvs commands, and
       describes some commands in detail (others are described elsewhere;  for
       a  quick  reference to cvs commands, see node `Invoking CVS' in the CVS
       manual).


Structure
   Overall structure of CVS commands
       The overall format of all cvs commands is:


         cvs [ cvs_options ] cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]






       cvs

         The name of the cvs program.



       cvs_options

         Some  options  that  affect  all  sub-commands  of  cvs.   These  are
         described below.



       cvs_command

         One  of  several  different  sub-commands.  Some of the commands have
         aliases that can be used instead; those aliases are noted in the ref-
         erence  manual for that command.  There are only two situations where
         you may omit cvs_command: cvs -H elicits a  list  of  available  com-
         mands, and cvs -v displays version information on cvs itself.



       command_options

         Options that are specific for the command.



       command_args

         Arguments to the commands.

         There  is  unfortunately  some confusion between cvs_options and com-
         mand_options.  When given as a cvs_option, some options  only  affect
         some  of  the commands.  When given as a command_option it may have a
         different meaning, and be accepted by more commands.  In other words,
         do not take the above categorization too seriously.  Look at the doc-
         umentation instead.


Exit status
   CVS's exit status
       cvs can indicate to the calling environment  whether  it  succeeded  or
       failed  by  setting its exit status.  The exact way of testing the exit
       status will vary from one operating system to another.  For example  in
       a  unix  shell  script  the  $?  variable will be 0 if the last command
       returned a successful exit status, or greater than 0 if the exit status
       indicated failure.

       If  cvs  is  successful, it returns a successful status; if there is an
       error, it prints an error message and returns a  failure  status.   The
       one  exception  to this is the cvs diff command.  It will return a suc-
       cessful status if it found no differences, or a failure status if there
       were  differences or if there was an error.  Because this behavior pro-
       vides no good way to detect errors, in the future it is  possible  that
       cvs diff will be changed to behave like the other cvs commands.


~/.cvsrc
   Default options and the ~/.cvsrc file
       There  are  some  command_options that are used so often that you might
       have set up an alias or some other means to make sure you always  spec-
       ify that option.  One example (the one that drove the implementation of
       the .cvsrc support, actually) is that many people find the default out-
       put  of  the diff command to be very hard to read, and that either con-
       text diffs or unidiffs are much easier to understand.

       The ~/.cvsrc file is a way that you can add default options to cvs_com-
       mands within cvs, instead of relying on aliases or other shell scripts.

       The format of the ~/.cvsrc file is simple.  The file is searched for  a
       line  that begins with the same name as the cvs_command being executed.
       If a match is found, then the remainder of the line  is  split  up  (at
       whitespace  characters)  into separate options and added to the command
       arguments before any options from the command line.

       If a command has two names (e.g., checkout and co), the official  name,
       not necessarily the one used on the command line, will be used to match
       against the file.  So if this is the contents of  the  user's  ~/.cvsrc
       file:


         log -N
         diff -uN
         rdiff -u
         update -Pd
         checkout -P
         release -d




       the  command  cvs  checkout  foo  would have the -P option added to the
       arguments, as well as cvs co foo.

       With the example file above, the output from cvs diff foobar will be in
       unidiff  format.   cvs  diff  -c  foobar will provide context diffs, as
       usual.  Getting "old" format diffs would be slightly more  complicated,
       because diff doesn't have an option to specify use of the "old" format,
       so you would need cvs -f diff foobar.

       In place of the command name you can use cvs to specify global  options
       (see node `Global options' in the CVS manual).  For example the follow-
       ing line in .cvsrc


         cvs -z6




       causes cvs to use compression level 6.


Global options
       The available cvs_options (that are given to the left  of  cvs_command)
       are:



       --allow-root=rootdir

         Specify  legal cvsroot directory.  See see node `Password authentica-
         tion server' in the CVS manual.



       -a

         Authenticate all communication between the  client  and  the  server.
         Only  has  an  effect on the cvs client.  As of this writing, this is
         only implemented when using a GSSAPI  connection  (see  node  `GSSAPI
         authenticated'  in  the CVS manual).  Authentication prevents certain
         sorts of attacks  involving  hijacking  the  active  tcp  connection.
         Enabling authentication does not enable encryption.



       -b bindir

         In  cvs 1.9.18 and older, this specified that rcs programs are in the
         bindir directory.  Current versions of cvs do not run  rcs  programs;
         for compatibility this option is accepted, but it does nothing.



       -T tempdir

         Use  tempdir  as  the  directory  where  temporary files are located.
         Overrides the setting of the $TMPDIR  environment  variable  and  any
         precompiled  directory.   This  parameter  should  be specified as an
         absolute pathname.  (When running client/server, -T affects only  the
         local  process;  specifying  -T  for  the client has no effect on the
         server and vice versa.)



       -d cvs_root_directory

         Use cvs_root_directory as the root directory pathname of the  reposi-
         tory.   Overrides  the  setting of the $CVSROOT environment variable.
         see node `Repository' in the CVS manual.



       -e editor

         Use editor to enter revision log information.  Overrides the  setting
         of the $CVSEDITOR and $EDITOR environment variables.  For more infor-
         mation, see see node `Committing your changes' in the CVS manual.



       -f

         Do not read the ~/.cvsrc  file.   This  option  is  most  often  used
         because of the non-orthogonality of the cvs option set.  For example,
         the cvs log option -N (turn off display of tag names) does not have a
         corresponding  option  to  turn the display on.  So if you have -N in
         the ~/.cvsrc entry for log, you may need to use -f to  show  the  tag
         names.



       -H




       --help

         Display usage information about the specified cvs_command (but do not
         actually execute the command).  If you don't specify a command  name,
         cvs  -H displays overall help for cvs, including a list of other help
         options.



       -n

         Do not change any files.  Attempt to  execute  the  cvs_command,  but
         only  to  issue reports; do not remove, update, or merge any existing
         files, or create any new files.

         Note that cvs will not necessarily produce exactly the same output as
         without  -n.  In some cases the output will be the same, but in other
         cases cvs will skip some of  the  processing  that  would  have  been
         required to produce the exact same output.



       -Q

         Cause  the command to be really quiet; the command will only generate
         output for serious problems.



       -q

         Cause the command to be somewhat quiet; informational messages,  such
         as reports of recursion through subdirectories, are suppressed.



       -r

         Make  new  working  files  read-only.  Same effect as if the $CVSREAD
         environment variable is set (see node `Environment variables' in  the
         CVS  manual).   The default is to make working files writable, unless
         watches are on (see node `Watches' in the CVS manual).



       -s variable=value

         Set a user variable (see node `Variables' in the CVS manual).



       -t

         Trace program execution; display messages showing the  steps  of  cvs
         activity.   Particularly  useful  with  -n  to  explore the potential
         impact of an unfamiliar command.



       -v




       --version

         Display version and copyright information for cvs.



       -w

         Make new working files read-write.   Overrides  the  setting  of  the
         $CVSREAD  environment  variable.   Files  are  created  read-write by
         default, unless $CVSREAD is set or -r is given.



       -x

         Encrypt all communication between the client and  the  server.   Only
         has  an  effect  on the cvs client.  As of this writing, this is only
         implemented when using a GSSAPI connection (see node `GSSAPI  authen-
         ticated'  in the CVS manual) or a Kerberos connection (see node `Ker-
         beros authenticated' in the CVS manual).  Enabling encryption implies
         that  message  traffic  is also authenticated.  Encryption support is
         not available by default; it must be enabled using a special  config-
         ure option, --enable-encryption, when you build cvs.



       -z gzip-level

         Set  the compression level.  Valid levels are 1 (high speed, low com-
         pression) to 9 (low speed, high compression), or 0  to  disable  com-
         pression (the default).  Only has an effect on the cvs client.



Common options
   Common command options
       This  section  describes  the command_options that are available across
       several cvs commands.  These options are always given to the  right  of
       cvs_command. Not all commands support all of these options; each option
       is only supported for commands where it makes sense.  However,  when  a
       command  has  one  of  these options you can almost always count on the
       same behavior of the option  as  in  other  commands.   (Other  command
       options,  which  are listed with the individual commands, may have dif-
       ferent behavior from one cvs command to the other).

       The history command is an exception; it supports many options that con-
       flict even with these standard options.



       -D date_spec

         Use the most recent revision no later than date_spec.  date_spec is a
         single argument, a date description specifying a date in the past.

         The specification is sticky when you use it to make a private copy of
         a  source  file;  that  is, when you get a working file using -D, cvs
         records the date you specified, so that further updates in  the  same
         directory  will  use  the  same  date (for more information on sticky
         tags/dates, see node `Sticky tags' in the CVS manual).

         -D is available with the annotate, checkout, diff,  export,  history,
         rdiff,  rtag,  and  update  commands.  (The history command uses this
         option in a slightly different way; see node `history options' in the
         CVS manual).

         A  wide variety of date formats are supported by cvs.  The most stan-
         dard ones are ISO8601 (from the International Standards Organization)
         and  the  Internet e-mail standard (specified in RFC822 as amended by
         RFC1123).

         ISO8601 dates have many variants but a few examples are:


           1972-09-24
           1972-09-24 20:05




         There are a lot more ISO8601 date formats, and cvs  accepts  many  of
         them, but you probably don't want to hear the whole long story :-).

         In  addition to the dates allowed in Internet e-mail itself, cvs also
         allows some of the fields to be omitted.  For example:


           24 Sep 1972 20:05
           24 Sep




         The date is interpreted as being in the local timezone, unless a spe-
         cific timezone is specified.

         These two date formats are preferred.  However, cvs currently accepts
         a wide variety of other date formats.   They  are  intentionally  not
         documented  here  in any detail, and future versions of cvs might not
         accept all of them.

         One such format is month/day/year.  This may confuse people  who  are
         accustomed  to having the month and day in the other order; 1/4/96 is
         January 4, not April 1.

         Remember to quote the argument to the -D  flag  so  that  your  shell
         doesn't interpret spaces as argument separators.  A command using the
         -D flag can look like this:


           $ cvs diff -D "1 hour ago" cvs.texinfo






       -f

         When you specify a particular date or tag to cvs commands, they  nor-
         mally  ignore  files  that  do  not contain the tag (or did not exist
         prior to the date) that you specified.  Use the -f option if you want
         files  retrieved  even  when  there  is no match for the tag or date.
         (The most recent revision of the file will be used).

         Note that even with -f, a tag that you specify must exist  (that  is,
         in some file, not necessary in every file).  This is so that cvs will
         continue to give an error if you mistype a tag name.

         -f is available with  these  commands:  annotate,  checkout,  export,
         rdiff, rtag, and update.

         WARNING:   The  commit and remove commands also have a -f option, but
         it has a different behavior for those commands.  See see node `commit
         options'  in the CVS manual, and see node `Removing files' in the CVS
         manual.



       -k kflag

         Alter the default processing of keywords.  see node `Keyword  substi-
         tution'  in  the  CVS  manual,  for the meaning of kflag.  Your kflag
         specification is sticky when you use it to create a private copy of a
         source  file;  that is, when you use this option with the checkout or
         update commands, cvs associates your selected kflag  with  the  file,
         and  continues to use it with future update commands on the same file
         until you specify otherwise.

         The -k option is available  with  the  add,  checkout,  diff,  rdiff,
         import and update commands.



       -l

         Local;  run  only in current working directory, rather than recursing
         through subdirectories.

         Available with the following commands:  annotate,  checkout,  commit,
         diff,  edit,  editors, export, log, rdiff, remove, rtag, status, tag,
         unedit, update, watch, and watchers.



       -m message

         Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor.

         Available with the following commands: add, commit and import.



       -n

         Do not run any tag program.  (A program can be specified  to  run  in
         the  modules  database  (see  node `modules' in the CVS manual); this
         option bypasses it).

         This is not the same as the cvs -n  program  option,  which  you  can
         specify to the left of a cvs command!

         Available with the checkout, export, and rtag commands.



       -P

         Prune  empty directories.  See see node `Removing directories' in the
         CVS manual.



       -p

         Pipe the files retrieved from  the  repository  to  standard  output,
         rather  than  writing  them in the current directory.  Available with
         the checkout and update commands.



       -R

         Process directories recursively.  This is on by default.

         Available with the following commands:  annotate,  checkout,  commit,
         diff,  edit,  editors,  export,  rdiff,  remove,  rtag,  status, tag,
         unedit, update, watch, and watchers.



       -r tag

         Use the revision specified by the tag argument instead of the default
         head  revision.   As  well  as arbitrary tags defined with the tag or
         rtag command, two special tags are always available: HEAD  refers  to
         the  most recent version available in the repository, and BASE refers
         to the revision you last checked out into the current working  direc-
         tory.

         The  tag  specification  is sticky when you use this with checkout or
         update to make your own copy of a file: cvs  remembers  the  tag  and
         continues to use it on future update commands, until you specify oth-
         erwise (for more information on sticky tags/dates, see  node  `Sticky
         tags' in the CVS manual).

         The  tag can be either a symbolic or numeric tag, as described in see
         node `Tags' in the CVS manual, or the name of a branch, as  described
         in  see  node `Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.  When a com-
         mand expects a specific revision, the name of a branch is interpreted
         as the most recent revision on that branch.

         Specifying  the  -q global option along with the -r command option is
         often useful, to suppress the warning messages when the rcs file does
         not contain the specified tag.

         This  is  not  the  same  as the overall cvs -r option, which you can
         specify to the left of a cvs command!

         -r is available with the annotate, checkout, commit,  diff,  history,
         export, rdiff, rtag, and update commands.



       -W

         Specify  file names that should be filtered.  You can use this option
         repeatedly.  The spec can be a file name pattern  of  the  same  type
         that  you  can  specify in the .cvswrappers file.  Available with the
         following commands: import, and update.



admin
   Administration
       o Requires: repository, working directory.

       o Changes: repository.

       o Synonym: rcs

         This is the cvs  interface  to  assorted  administrative  facilities.
         Some  of them have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist for his-
         torical purposes.  Some of the questionable  options  are  likely  to
         disappear  in  the  future.   This  command does work recursively, so
         extreme care should be used.

         On unix, if there is a group named cvsadmin,  only  members  of  that
         group  can  run cvs admin (except for the cvs admin -k command, which
         can be run by anybody).  This group should exist on  the  server,  or
         any  system running the non-client/server cvs.  To disallow cvs admin
         for all users, create a group with no users in it.  On NT, the cvsad-
         min feature does not exist and all users can run cvs admin.


admin options
       Some  of  these  options have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist
       for historical purposes.  Some even make it impossible to use cvs until
       you undo the effect!



       -Aoldfile

         Might  not work together with cvs.  Append the access list of oldfile
         to the access list of the rcs file.



       -alogins

         Might not work together with cvs.  Append the login  names  appearing
         in  the  comma-separated  list  logins  to the access list of the rcs
         file.



       -b[rev]

         Set the default branch to rev.  In cvs, you normally do  not  manipu-
         late default branches; sticky tags (see node `Sticky tags' in the CVS
         manual) are a better way to decide which branch you want to work  on.
         There  is  one  reason to run cvs admin -b: to revert to the vendor's
         version  when  using  vendor  branches  (see  node  `Reverting  local
         changes'  in  the  CVS manual).  There can be no space between -b and
         its argument.



       -cstring

         Sets the comment leader to string.  The comment leader is not used by
         current versions of cvs or rcs 5.7.  Therefore, you can almost surely
         not worry about it.  see node `Keyword substitution' in the CVS  man-
         ual.



       -e[logins]

         Might not work together with cvs.  Erase the login names appearing in
         the comma-separated list logins from the access list of the RCS file.
         If  logins is omitted, erase the entire access list.  There can be no
         space between -e and its argument.



       -I

         Run interactively, even if the standard  input  is  not  a  terminal.
         This option does not work with the client/server cvs and is likely to
         disappear in a future release of cvs.



       -i

         Useless with cvs.  This creates and initializes a new rcs file, with-
         out depositing a revision.  With cvs, add files with the cvs add com-
         mand (see node `Adding files' in the CVS manual).



       -ksubst

         Set the default keyword substitution to  subst.   see  node  `Keyword
         substitution' in the CVS manual.  Giving an explicit -k option to cvs
         update, cvs export, or cvs checkout overrides this default.



       -l[rev]

         Lock the revision with number rev.  If a branch is  given,  lock  the
         latest  revision  on that branch.  If rev is omitted, lock the latest
         revision on the default branch.  There can be no space between -l and
         its argument.

         This  can  be  used  in conjunction with the rcslock.pl script in the
         contrib directory of the cvs source distribution to provide  reserved
         checkouts  (where  only  one  user  can  be editing a given file at a
         time).  See the comments in that file for details (and see the README
         file  in  that directory for disclaimers about the unsupported nature
         of contrib).  According to comments in that file, locking must set to
         strict (which is the default).



       -L

         Set locking to strict.  Strict locking means that the owner of an RCS
         file is not exempt from locking  for  checkin.   For  use  with  cvs,
         strict  locking  must  be set; see the discussion under the -l option
         above.



       -mrev:msg

         Replace the log message of revision rev with msg.



       -Nname[:[rev]]

         Act like -n, except override any previous assignment  of  name.   For
         use  with  magic branches, see see node `Magic branch numbers' in the
         CVS manual.



       -nname[:[rev]]

         Associate the symbolic name name with the branch or revision rev.  It
         is  normally  better  to use cvs tag or cvs rtag instead.  Delete the
         symbolic name if both : and rev  are  omitted;  otherwise,  print  an
         error  message if name is already associated with another number.  If
         rev is symbolic, it is expanded before association.  A rev consisting
         of  a  branch  number  followed  by a . stands for the current latest
         revision in the branch.  A : with an empty rev stands for the current
         latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk.  For exam-
         ple, cvs admin -nname: associates name with the current latest  revi-
         sion  of  all  the  RCS files; this contrasts with cvs admin -nname:$
         which associates name with the revision numbers extracted  from  key-
         word strings in the corresponding working files.



       -orange

         Deletes (outdates) the revisions given by range.

         Note that this command can be quite dangerous unless you know exactly
         what you are doing (for example see the warnings below about how  the
         rev1:rev2 syntax is confusing).

         If you are short on disc this option might help you.  But think twice
         before using it--there is no way short of restoring the latest backup
         to  undo  this  command!   If you delete different revisions than you
         planned, either due to carelessness or (heaven  forbid)  a  cvs  bug,
         there is no opportunity to correct the error before the revisions are
         deleted.  It probably would be a good idea to experiment on a copy of
         the repository first.

         Specify range in one of the following ways:


         rev1::rev2

           Collapse  all  revisions  between  rev1  and rev2, so that cvs only
           stores the differences associated with going from rev1 to rev2, not
           intermediate  steps.   For  example,  after  -o  1.3::1.5  one  can
           retrieve revision 1.3, revision 1.5, or the differences to get from
           1.3  to  1.5,  but not the revision 1.4, or the differences between
           1.3 and 1.4.  Other examples: -o 1.3::1.4 and -o 1.3::1.3  have  no
           effect, because there are no intermediate revisions to remove.


         ::rev

           Collapse  revisions  between the beginning of the branch containing
           rev and rev itself.  The branchpoint and rev are left intact.   For
           example,  -o  ::1.3.2.6 deletes revision 1.3.2.1, revision 1.3.2.5,
           and everything in between, but leaves 1.3 and 1.3.2.6 intact.


         rev::

           Collapse revisions between rev and the end of the branch containing
           rev.  Revision rev is left intact but the head revision is deleted.


         rev

           Delete the revision rev.  For example, -o 1.3 is equivalent  to  -o
           1.2::1.4.


         rev1:rev2

           Delete  the  revisions  from  rev1  to rev2, inclusive, on the same
           branch.  One will not be able to retrieve rev1 or rev2  or  any  of
           the  revisions  in  between.   For  example,  the command cvs admin
           -oR_1_01:R_1_02 . is rarely useful.  It means to  delete  revisions
           up  to,  and  including, the tag R_1_02.  But beware!  If there are
           files that have not changed between R_1_02 and R_1_03 the file will
           have the same numerical revision number assigned to the tags R_1_02
           and R_1_03.  So not only will it be impossible to retrieve  R_1_02;
           R_1_03 will also have to be restored from the tapes!  In most cases
           you want to specify rev1::rev2 instead.


         :rev

           Delete revisions from the beginning of the branch containing rev up
           to and including rev.


         rev:

           Delete  revisions  from  revision rev, including rev itself, to the
           end of the branch containing rev.

           None of the revisions to be deleted may have branches or locks.

           If any of the revisions to be deleted have symbolic names, and  one
           specifies  one  of the :: syntaxes, then cvs will give an error and
           not delete any revisions.  If you really want to  delete  both  the
           symbolic  names  and the revisions, first delete the symbolic names
           with cvs tag -d, then run cvs  admin  -o.   If  one  specifies  the
           non-::  syntaxes,  then cvs will delete the revisions but leave the
           symbolic names pointing to nonexistent revisions.  This behavior is
           preserved  for  compatibility  with  previous  versions of cvs, but
           because it isn't very useful, in the future it  may  change  to  be
           like the :: case.

           Due to the way cvs handles branches rev cannot be specified symbol-
           ically if it is a branch.  see node `Magic branch numbers'  in  the
           CVS manual, for an explanation.

           Make  sure  that  no-one has checked out a copy of the revision you
           outdate.  Strange things will happen if he starts to  edit  it  and
           tries  to  check it back in.  For this reason, this option is not a
           good way to take back a bogus commit; commit a new revision undoing
           the  bogus  change instead (see node `Merging two revisions' in the
           CVS manual).



       -q

         Run quietly; do not print diagnostics.



       -sstate[:rev]

         Useful with cvs.  Set the state attribute  of  the  revision  rev  to
         state.  If rev is a branch number, assume the latest revision on that
         branch.  If rev is omitted, assume the latest revision on the default
         branch.   Any  identifier  is  acceptable for state.  A useful set of
         states is Exp (for experimental), Stab (for  stable),  and  Rel  (for
         released).   By  default,  the  state of a new revision is set to Exp
         when it is created.  The state is visible in the output from cvs  log
         (see node `log' in the CVS manual), and in the $Log$ and $State$ key-
         words (see node `Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual).  Note that
         cvs uses the dead state for its own purposes (see node `Attic' in the
         CVS manual); to take a file to or from the dead  state  use  commands
         like  cvs  remove  and cvs add (see node `Adding and removing' in the
         CVS manual), not cvs admin -s.



       -t[file]

         Useful with cvs.  Write descriptive text from  the  contents  of  the
         named  file  into the RCS file, deleting the existing text.  The file
         pathname may not begin with -.  The descriptive text can be  seen  in
         the  output  from  cvs log (see node `log' in the CVS manual).  There
         can be no space between -t and its argument.

         If file is omitted, obtain the text from standard  input,  terminated
         by  end-of-file  or by a line containing . by itself.  Prompt for the
         text if interaction is possible; see -I.



       -t-string

         Similar to -tfile. Write descriptive text from the  string  into  the
         rcs  file, deleting the existing text.  There can be no space between
         -t and its argument.



       -U

         Set locking to non-strict.  Non-strict locking means that  the  owner
         of  a  file  need not lock a revision for checkin.  For use with cvs,
         strict locking must be set; see the discussion under  the  -l  option
         above.



       -u[rev]

         See  the  option -l above, for a discussion of using this option with
         cvs.  Unlock the revision with number rev.  If  a  branch  is  given,
         unlock the latest revision on that branch.  If rev is omitted, remove
         the latest lock held by the caller.  Normally, only the locker  of  a
         revision may unlock it; somebody else unlocking a revision breaks the
         lock.  This causes the original locker to be sent a commit  notifica-
         tion  (see  node `Getting Notified' in the CVS manual).  There can be
         no space between -u and its argument.



       -Vn

         In previous versions of cvs, this option meant to write an  rcs  file
         which  would  be  acceptable to rcs version n, but it is now obsolete
         and specifying it will produce an error.



       -xsuffixes

         In previous versions of cvs, this was documented as a way of specify-
         ing  the  names  of  the rcs files.  However, cvs has always required
         that the rcs files used by cvs end in ,v, so this  option  has  never
         done anything useful.



annotate
   What revision modified each line of a file?
       o Synopsis: annotate [options] files...

       o Requires: repository.

       o Changes: nothing.

         For  each  file  in  files,  print  the  head  revision of the trunk,
         together with information on the last modification for each line.


annotate options
       These standard options are supported  by  annotate  (see  node  `Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -l

         Local directory only, no recursion.



       -R

         Process directories recursively.



       -f

         Use head revision if tag/date not found.



       -F

         Annotate binary files.



       -r revision

         Annotate file as of specified revision/tag.



       -D date

         Annotate file as of specified date.


annotate example
       For example:


         $ cvs annotate ssfile
         Annotations for ssfile
         ***************
         1.1          (mary     27-Mar-96): ssfile line 1
         1.2          (joe      28-Mar-96): ssfile line 2




       The  file  ssfile currently contains two lines.  The ssfile line 1 line
       was checked in by mary on March 27.  Then, on March  28,  joe  added  a
       line  ssfile  line  2,  without modifying the ssfile line 1 line.  This
       report doesn't tell you anything about lines which have been deleted or
       replaced; you need to use cvs diff for that (see node `diff' in the CVS
       manual).

       The options to cvs annotate are listed in see node  `Invoking  CVS'  in
       the  CVS  manual,  and can be used to select the files and revisions to
       annotate.  The options are described in more detail there  and  in  see
       node `Common options' in the CVS manual.


checkout
   Check out sources for editing
       o Synopsis: checkout [options] modules...

       o Requires: repository.

       o Changes: working directory.

       o Synonyms: co, get

         Create  or update a working directory containing copies of the source
         files specified by modules.  You must execute checkout  before  using
         most  of  the  other cvs commands, since most of them operate on your
         working directory.

         The modules are either symbolic names for some collection  of  source
         directories and files, or paths to directories or files in the repos-
         itory.  The symbolic names are defined in the modules file.  see node
         `modules' in the CVS manual.

         Depending on the modules you specify, checkout may recursively create
         directories and populate them with the appropriate source files.  You
         can  then  edit these source files at any time (regardless of whether
         other software  developers  are  editing  their  own  copies  of  the
         sources); update them to include new changes applied by others to the
         source repository; or commit your work as a permanent change  to  the
         source repository.

         Note  that  checkout  is  used  to create directories.  The top-level
         directory created is always added to the directory where checkout  is
         invoked,  and  usually has the same name as the specified module.  In
         the case of a module alias, the created sub-directory may have a dif-
         ferent name, but you can be sure that it will be a sub-directory, and
         that checkout will show the relative path leading to each file as  it
         is  extracted  into your private work area (unless you specify the -Q
         global option).

         The files created by checkout are created read-write, unless  the  -r
         option to cvs (see node `Global options' in the CVS manual) is speci-
         fied, the CVSREAD environment variable is specified (see node  `Envi-
         ronment  variables'  in  the CVS manual), or a watch is in effect for
         that file (see node `Watches' in the CVS manual).

         Note that running checkout on a directory that was already built by a
         prior  checkout is also permitted.  This is similar to specifying the
         -d option to the update command in the  sense  that  new  directories
         that  have  been  created  in the repository will appear in your work
         area.  However, checkout takes a module name whereas update  takes  a
         directory  name.   Also  to use checkout this way it must be run from
         the top level directory (where you originally ran checkout from),  so
         before you run checkout to update an existing directory, don't forget
         to change your directory to the top level directory.

         For the output produced by the checkout command see see node  `update
         output' in the CVS manual.


checkout options
       These  standard  options  are  supported  by checkout (see node `Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -D date

         Use the most recent revision no later  than  date.   This  option  is
         sticky,  and  implies -P.  See see node `Sticky tags' in the CVS man-
         ual, for more information on sticky tags/dates.



       -f

         Only useful with the -D date or -r tag flags.  If no  matching  revi-
         sion is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring
         the file).



       -k kflag

         Process keywords according to kflag.  See see node `Keyword substitu-
         tion'  in  the  CVS manual.  This option is sticky; future updates of
         this file in this working directory will use  the  same  kflag.   The
         status command can be viewed to see the sticky options.  See see node
         `Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual, for more information on the  status
         command.



       -l

         Local; run only in current working directory.



       -n

         Do  not  run any checkout program (as specified with the -o option in
         the modules file; see node `modules' in the CVS manual).



       -P

         Prune empty directories.  See see node `Moving  directories'  in  the
         CVS manual.



       -p

         Pipe files to the standard output.



       -R

         Checkout directories recursively.  This option is on by default.



       -r tag

         Use  revision  tag.   This option is sticky, and implies -P.  See see
         node `Sticky tags' in the CVS manual, for more information on  sticky
         tags/dates.

         In  addition to those, you can use these special command options with
         checkout:



       -A

         Reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k options.  Does not  reset  sticky
         -k  options on modified files.  See see node `Sticky tags' in the CVS
         manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates.



       -c

         Copy the module file, sorted, to the standard output, instead of cre-
         ating  or  modifying  any files or directories in your working direc-
         tory.



       -d dir

         Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using
         the  module name.  In general, using this flag is equivalent to using
         mkdir dir; cd dir followed by the checkout  command  without  the  -d
         flag.

         There is an important exception, however.  It is very convenient when
         checking out a single item to have the output appear in  a  directory
         that  doesn't  contain  empty intermediate directories.  In this case
         only, cvs tries to ``shorten'' pathnames to avoid those empty  direc-
         tories.

         For  example,  given  a  module foo that contains the file bar.c, the
         command cvs co -d dir foo will create directory dir and  place  bar.c
         inside.   Similarly,  given  a  module bar which has subdirectory baz
         wherein there is a file quux.c, the command cvs  co  -d  dir  bar/baz
         will create directory dir and place quux.c inside.

         Using  the  -N flag will defeat this behavior.  Given the same module
         definitions above, cvs co -N  -d  dir  foo  will  create  directories
         dir/foo  and  place bar.c inside, while cvs co -N -d dir bar/baz will
         create directories dir/bar/baz and place quux.c inside.



       -j tag

         With two -j options, merge changes from the revision  specified  with
         the  first  -j  option  to  the  revision specified with the second j
         option, into the working directory.

         With one -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revision  to  the
         revision  specified  with  the -j option, into the working directory.
         The ancestor revision is the common ancestor of  the  revision  which
         the  working directory is based on, and the revision specified in the
         -j option.

         In addition, each -j option can contain an optional  date  specifica-
         tion which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen revision to
         one within a specific date.  An optional date is specified by  adding
         a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

         see node `Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.



       -N

         Only  useful  together  with  -d dir.  With this option, cvs will not
         ``shorten'' module paths in your working directory when you check out
         a single module.  See the -d flag for examples and a discussion.



       -s

         Like  -c,  but  include the status of all modules, and sort it by the
         status string.  see node `modules' in the CVS manual, for info  about
         the  -s option that is used inside the modules file to set the module
         status.


checkout examples
       Get a copy of the module tc:


         $ cvs checkout tc




       Get a copy of the module tc as it looked one day ago:


         $ cvs checkout -D yesterday tc





commit
   Check files into the repository
       o Synopsis: commit [-lRf] [-m 'log_message' | -F  file]  [-r  revision]
         [files...]

       o Requires: working directory, repository.

       o Changes: repository.

       o Synonym: ci

         Use  commit  when  you  want to incorporate changes from your working
         source files into the source repository.

         If you don't specify particular files to commit, all of the files  in
         your  working  current  directory are examined.  commit is careful to
         change in the repository  only  those  files  that  you  have  really
         changed.   By  default  (or if you explicitly specify the -R option),
         files in subdirectories are also examined and committed if they  have
         changed;  you  can  use  the -l option to limit commit to the current
         directory only.

         commit verifies that the selected files are up to date with the  cur-
         rent revisions in the source repository; it will notify you, and exit
         without committing, if any of the specified files must be  made  cur-
         rent first with update (see node `update' in the CVS manual).  commit
         does not call the update command for you, but rather leaves that  for
         you to do when the time is right.

         When  all  is  well, an editor is invoked to allow you to enter a log
         message that will be written to one or  more  logging  programs  (see
         node  `modules'  in the CVS manual, and see node `loginfo' in the CVS
         manual) and placed in the rcs file inside the repository.   This  log
         message  can be retrieved with the log command; see see node `log' in
         the CVS manual.  You can specify the log message on the command  line
         with  the -m message option, and thus avoid the editor invocation, or
         use the -F file option to specify that the argument file contains the
         log message.


commit options
       These  standard  options  are  supported  by  commit  (see node `Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -l

         Local; run only in current working directory.



       -R

         Commit directories recursively.  This is on by default.



       -r revision

         Commit to revision.  revision must be either a branch, or a  revision
         on  the  main  trunk that is higher than any existing revision number
         (see node `Assigning revisions' in the CVS manual).  You cannot  com-
         mit to a specific revision on a branch.

         commit also supports these options:



       -F file

         Read the log message from file, instead of invoking an editor.



       -f

         Note  that  this  is  not  the  standard behavior of the -f option as
         defined in see node `Common options' in the CVS manual.

         Force cvs to commit a new revision  even  if  you  haven't  made  any
         changes  to  the  file.  If the current revision of file is 1.7, then
         the following two commands are equivalent:


           $ cvs commit -f file
           $ cvs commit -r 1.8 file




         The -f option disables recursion (i.e., it implies -l).  To force cvs
         to  commit  a  new  revision for all files in all subdirectories, you
         must use -f -R.



       -m message

         Use message as the log message, instead of invoking an editor.


commit examples
   Committing to a branch
       You can commit to a branch revision (one that has  an  even  number  of
       dots)  with  the  -r  option.   To create a branch revision, use the -b
       option of the rtag or tag commands (see node `Branching and merging' in
       the  CVS  manual).  Then, either checkout or update can be used to base
       your sources on the newly created branch.  From that point on, all com-
       mit  changes  made  within  these working sources will be automatically
       added to a branch revision, thereby not disturbing  main-line  develop-
       ment  in any way.  For example, if you had to create a patch to the 1.2
       version of the product, even though the 2.0 version  is  already  under
       development, you might do:


         $ cvs rtag -b -r FCS1_2 FCS1_2_Patch product_module
         $ cvs checkout -r FCS1_2_Patch product_module
         $ cd product_module
         [[ hack away ]]
         $ cvs commit




       This works automatically since the -r option is sticky.


   Creating the branch after editing
       Say  you  have  been  working  on some extremely experimental software,
       based on whatever revision you happened to checkout last week.  If oth-
       ers  in  your  group  would like to work on this software with you, but
       without disturbing main-line development, you could commit your  change
       to  a new branch.  Others can then checkout your experimental stuff and
       utilize the full benefit of  cvs  conflict  resolution.   The  scenario
       might look like:


         [[ hacked sources are present ]]
         $ cvs tag -b EXPR1
         $ cvs update -r EXPR1
         $ cvs commit




       The  update  command will make the -r EXPR1 option sticky on all files.
       Note that your changes to the files will never be removed by the update
       command.   The  commit will automatically commit to the correct branch,
       because the -r is sticky.  You could also do like this:


         [[ hacked sources are present ]]
         $ cvs tag -b EXPR1
         $ cvs commit -r EXPR1




       but then, only those files that were changed by you will  have  the  -r
       EXPR1 sticky flag.  If you hack away, and commit without specifying the
       -r EXPR1 flag, some files may accidentally end up on the main trunk.

       To work with you on the experimental change, others would simply do


         $ cvs checkout -r EXPR1 whatever_module





diff
   Show differences between revisions
       o Synopsis: diff [-lR] [-k  kflag]  [format_options]  [[-r  rev1  |  -D
         date1] [-r rev2 |  -D date2]] [files...]

       o Requires: working directory, repository.

       o Changes: nothing.

         The  diff  command  is  used to compare different revisions of files.
         The default action is to compare your working files  with  the  revi-
         sions  they were based on, and report any differences that are found.

         If any file names are given, only those files are compared.   If  any
         directories are given, all files under them will be compared.

         The  exit  status  for diff is different than for other cvs commands;
         for details see node `Exit status' in the CVS manual.


diff options
       These standard options are supported by diff (see node `Common options'
       in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -D date

         Use the most recent revision no later than date.  See -r for how this
         affects the comparison.



       -k kflag

         Process keywords according to kflag.  See see node `Keyword substitu-
         tion' in the CVS manual.



       -l

         Local; run only in current working directory.



       -R

         Examine directories recursively.  This option is on by default.



       -r tag

         Compare  with  revision  tag.   Zero,  one  or  two -r options can be
         present.  With no -r option, the working file will be  compared  with
         the  revision  it  was  based on.  With one -r, that revision will be
         compared to your current working file.  With two -r options those two
         revisions will be compared (and your working file will not affect the
         outcome in any way).

         One or both -r options can be replaced by a -D date option, described
         above.

         The  following  options  specify the format of the output.  They have
         the same meaning as in GNU diff.  Most options  have  two  equivalent
         names,  one  of which is a single letter preceded by -, and the other
         of which is a long name preceded by --.



       -lines

         Show lines (an integer) lines of context.  This option does not spec-
         ify  an  output  format by itself; it has no effect unless it is com-
         bined with -c or -u.  This option is obsolete.  For proper operation,
         patch typically needs at least two lines of context.



       -a

         Treat  all  files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they
         do not seem to be text.



       -b

         Ignore trailing white space and consider all other sequences  of  one
         or more white space characters to be equivalent.



       -B

         Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.



       --binary

         Read and write data in binary mode.



       --brief

         Report  only whether the files differ, not the details of the differ-
         ences.



       -c

         Use the context output format.



       -C lines




       --context[=lines]

         Use the context output format, showing lines (an  integer)  lines  of
         context, or three if lines is not given.  For proper operation, patch
         typically needs at least two lines of context.



       --changed-group-format=format

         Use format to output a line group  containing  differing  lines  from
         both  files in if-then-else format.  see node `Line group formats' in
         the CVS manual.



       -d

         Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes.   This
         makes diff slower (sometimes much slower).



       -e




       --ed

         Make output that is a valid ed script.



       --expand-tabs

         Expand  tabs  to  spaces  in the output, to preserve the alignment of
         tabs in the input files.



       -f

         Make output that looks vaguely like an ed script but has  changes  in
         the order they appear in the file.



       -F regexp

         In  context  and  unified  format, for each hunk of differences, show
         some of the last preceding line that matches regexp.



       --forward-ed

         Make output that looks vaguely like an ed script but has  changes  in
         the order they appear in the file.



       -H

         Use  heuristics  to  speed handling of large files that have numerous
         scattered small changes.



       --horizon-lines=lines

         Do not discard the last lines lines of  the  common  prefix  and  the
         first lines lines of the common suffix.



       -i

         Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case letters equiv-
         alent.



       -I regexp

         Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.



       --ifdef=name

         Make merged if-then-else output using name.



       --ignore-all-space

         Ignore white space when comparing lines.



       --ignore-blank-lines

         Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.



       --ignore-case

         Ignore changes in case; consider upper-  and  lower-case  to  be  the
         same.



       --ignore-matching-lines=regexp

         Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.



       --ignore-space-change

         Ignore  trailing  white space and consider all other sequences of one
         or more white space characters to be equivalent.



       --initial-tab

         Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in  normal
         or  context format.  This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to
         look normal.



       -L label

         Use label instead of the file name in the context format and  unified
         format headers.



       --label=label

         Use  label instead of the file name in the context format and unified
         format headers.



       --left-column

         Print only the left column of two common lines in side by  side  for-
         mat.



       --line-format=format

         Use  format  to  output  all input lines in if-then-else format.  see
         node `Line formats' in the CVS manual.



       --minimal

         Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes.   This
         makes diff slower (sometimes much slower).



       -n

         Output  RCS-format  diffs; like -f except that each command specifies
         the number of lines affected.



       -N




       --new-file

         In directory comparison, if a file is found in  only  one  directory,
         treat it as present but empty in the other directory.



       --new-group-format=format

         Use format to output a group of lines taken from just the second file
         in if-then-else format.  see node `Line group  formats'  in  the  CVS
         manual.



       --new-line-format=format

         Use  format  to  output a line taken from just the second file in if-
         then-else format.  see node `Line formats' in the CVS manual.



       --old-group-format=format

         Use format to output a group of lines taken from just the first  file
         in  if-then-else  format.   see  node `Line group formats' in the CVS
         manual.



       --old-line-format=format

         Use format to output a line taken from just the  first  file  in  if-
         then-else format.  see node `Line formats' in the CVS manual.



       -p

         Show which C function each change is in.



       --rcs

         Output  RCS-format  diffs; like -f except that each command specifies
         the number of lines affected.



       --report-identical-files




       -s

         Report when two files are the same.



       --show-c-function

         Show which C function each change is in.



       --show-function-line=regexp

         In context and unified format, for each  hunk  of  differences,  show
         some of the last preceding line that matches regexp.



       --side-by-side

         Use the side by side output format.



       --speed-large-files

         Use  heuristics  to  speed handling of large files that have numerous
         scattered small changes.



       --suppress-common-lines

         Do not print common lines in side by side format.



       -t

         Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to  preserve  the  alignment  of
         tabs in the input files.



       -T

         Output  a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in normal
         or context format.  This causes the alignment of tabs in the line  to
         look normal.



       --text

         Treat  all  files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they
         do not appear to be text.



       -u

         Use the unified output format.



       --unchanged-group-format=format

         Use format to output a group of common lines taken from both files in
         if-then-else  format.   see node `Line group formats' in the CVS man-
         ual.



       --unchanged-line-format=format

         Use format to output a line common to both files in if-then-else for-
         mat.  see node `Line formats' in the CVS manual.



       -U lines




       --unified[=lines]

         Use  the  unified  output format, showing lines (an integer) lines of
         context, or three if lines is not given.  For proper operation, patch
         typically needs at least two lines of context.



       -w

         Ignore white space when comparing lines.



       -W columns




       --width=columns

         Use an output width of columns in side by side format.



       -y

         Use the side by side output format.


Line group formats
       Line  group  formats let you specify formats suitable for many applica-
       tions that allow if-then-else input,  including  programming  languages
       and  text formatting languages.  A line group format specifies the out-
       put format for a contiguous group of similar lines.

       For example, the following command compares the TeX  file  myfile  with
       the  original version from the repository, and outputs a merged file in
       which old regions are surrounded by \begin{em}-\end{em} lines, and  new
       regions are surrounded by \begin{bf}-\end{bf} lines.


         cvs diff \
            --old-group-format='\begin{em}
         %<\end{em}
         ' \
            --new-group-format='\begin{bf}
         %>\end{bf}
         ' \
            myfile




       The  following  command is equivalent to the above example, but it is a
       little more verbose, because it spells out the default line group  for-
       mats.


         cvs diff \
            --old-group-format='\begin{em}
         %<\end{em}
         ' \
            --new-group-format='\begin{bf}
         %>\end{bf}
         ' \
            --unchanged-group-format='%=' \
            --changed-group-format='\begin{em}
         %<\end{em}
         \begin{bf}
         %>\end{bf}
         ' \
            myfile




       Here  is  a  more  advanced  example, which outputs a diff listing with
       headers containing line numbers in a ``plain English'' style.


         cvs diff \
            --unchanged-group-format='' \
            --old-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) deleted at %df:
         %<' \
            --new-group-format='-------- %dN line%(N=1?:s) added after %de:
         %>' \
            --changed-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) changed at %df:
         %<-------- to:
         %>' \
            myfile




       To  specify  a  line group format, use one of the options listed below.
       You can specify up to four line group formats, one  for  each  kind  of
       line  group.   You  should  quote format, because it typically contains
       shell metacharacters.



       --old-group-format=format

         These line groups are hunks containing  only  lines  from  the  first
         file.   The default old group format is the same as the changed group
         format if it is specified; otherwise it is a format that outputs  the
         line group as-is.



       --new-group-format=format

         These  line  groups  are  hunks containing only lines from the second
         file.  The default new group format is same as the changed group for-
         mat  if  it  is  specified; otherwise it is a format that outputs the
         line group as-is.



       --changed-group-format=format

         These line groups are hunks containing lines from  both  files.   The
         default  changed group format is the concatenation of the old and new
         group formats.



       --unchanged-group-format=format

         These line groups contain lines common to both  files.   The  default
         unchanged group format is a format that outputs the line group as-is.

         In a line group format,  ordinary  characters  represent  themselves;
         conversion  specifications start with % and have one of the following
         forms.



       %<

         stands for the lines from the first file, including the trailing new-
         line.   Each  line is formatted according to the old line format (see
         node `Line formats' in the CVS manual).



       %>

         stands for the lines from the second  file,  including  the  trailing
         newline.  Each line is formatted according to the new line format.



       %=

         stands  for  the  lines  common to both files, including the trailing
         newline.  Each line is formatted according to the unchanged line for-
         mat.



       %%

         stands for %.



       %c'C'

         where  C  is  a single character, stands for C.  C may not be a back-
         slash or an apostrophe.  For example, %c':' stands for a colon,  even
         inside  the  then-part of an if-then-else format, which a colon would
         normally terminate.



       %c'\O'

         where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the  char-
         acter with octal code O.  For example, %c'\0' stands for a null char-
         acter.



       Fn

         where F is a printf conversion specification and n is one of the fol-
         lowing letters, stands for n's value formatted with F.


         e

           The  line number of the line just before the group in the old file.


         f

           The line number of the first line in the group  in  the  old  file;
           equals e + 1.


         l

           The line number of the last line in the group in the old file.


         m

           The  line  number of the line just after the group in the old file;
           equals l + 1.


         n

           The number of lines in the group in the old file; equals l - f + 1.


         E, F, L, M, N

           Likewise, for lines in the new file.


           The printf conversion specification can be %d, %o, %x, or %X, spec-
           ifying decimal, octal, lower case hexadecimal, or upper case  hexa-
           decimal output respectively.  After the % the following options can
           appear in sequence: a - specifying left-justification;  an  integer
           specifying  the  minimum  field  width; and a period followed by an
           optional integer specifying the  minimum  number  of  digits.   For
           example,  %5dN  prints  the  number  of new lines in the group in a
           field of width 5 characters, using the printf format "%5d".



       (A=B?T:E)

         If A equals B then T else E.  A and B are each either a decimal  con-
         stant  or  a single letter interpreted as above.  This format spec is
         equivalent to T if A's value equals B's; otherwise it  is  equivalent
         to E.

         For example, %(N=0?no:%dN) line%(N=1?:s) is equivalent to no lines if
         N (the number of lines in the group in the new file) is 0, to 1  line
         if N is 1, and to %dN lines otherwise.


Line formats
       Line  formats  control how each line taken from an input file is output
       as part of a line group in if-then-else format.

       For example, the following  command  outputs  text  with  a  one-column
       change  indicator  to the left of the text.  The first column of output
       is - for deleted lines, | for added lines, and a  space  for  unchanged
       lines.   The  formats  contain  newline  characters  where newlines are
       desired on output.


         cvs diff \
            --old-line-format='-%l
         ' \
            --new-line-format='|%l
         ' \
            --unchanged-line-format=' %l
         ' \
            myfile




       To specify a line format, use one of the following options.  You should
       quote format, since it often contains shell metacharacters.



       --old-line-format=format

         formats lines just from the first file.



       --new-line-format=format

         formats lines just from the second file.



       --unchanged-line-format=format

         formats lines common to both files.



       --line-format=format

         formats  all lines; in effect, it sets all three above options simul-
         taneously.

         In a line format, ordinary characters represent  themselves;  conver-
         sion specifications start with % and have one of the following forms.



       %l

         stands for the contents of the line, not counting its  trailing  new-
         line (if any).  This format ignores whether the line is incomplete.



       %L

         stands  for  the contents of the line, including its trailing newline
         (if any).  If a line is incomplete, this format preserves its  incom-
         pleteness.



       %%

         stands for %.



       %c'C'

         where  C  is  a single character, stands for C.  C may not be a back-
         slash or an apostrophe.  For example, %c':' stands for a colon.



       %c'\O'

         where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the  char-
         acter with octal code O.  For example, %c'\0' stands for a null char-
         acter.



       Fn

         where F is a printf conversion specification,  stands  for  the  line
         number  formatted  with F.  For example, %.5dn prints the line number
         using the printf format "%.5d".  see node `Line group formats' in the
         CVS manual, for more about printf conversion specifications.


         The default line format is %l followed by a newline character.

         If  the  input  contains tab characters and it is important that they
         line up on output, you should ensure that %l or %L in a  line  format
         is just after a tab stop (e.g. by preceding %l or %L with a tab char-
         acter), or you should use the -t or --expand-tabs option.

         Taken together, the line and line group formats let you specify  many
         different  formats.  For example, the following command uses a format
         similar to diff's normal format.  You can tailor this command to  get
         fine control over diff's output.


         cvs diff \
            --old-line-format='< %l
         ' \
            --new-line-format='> %l
         ' \
            --old-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)d%dE
         %<' \
            --new-group-format='%dea%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
         %>' \
            --changed-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)c%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
         %<--
         %>' \
            --unchanged-group-format='' \
            myfile





diff examples
       The  following  line produces a Unidiff (-u flag) between revision 1.14
       and 1.19 of backend.c.  Due to the -kk flag  no  keywords  are  substi-
       tuted,  so  differences  that  only  depend on keyword substitution are
       ignored.


         $ cvs diff -kk -u -r 1.14 -r 1.19 backend.c




       Suppose the experimental branch EXPR1 was  based  on  a  set  of  files
       tagged  RELEASE_1_0.  To see what has happened on that branch, the fol-
       lowing can be used:


         $ cvs diff -r RELEASE_1_0 -r EXPR1




       A command like this can be used to produce a context diff  between  two
       releases:


         $ cvs diff -c -r RELEASE_1_0 -r RELEASE_1_1 > diffs




       If  you  are  maintaining ChangeLogs, a command like the following just
       before you commit your changes may help you write the ChangeLog  entry.
       All  local  modifications  that  have  not  yet  been committed will be
       printed.


         $ cvs diff -u | less





export
   Export sources from CVS, similar to checkout
       o Synopsis: export [-flNnR] [-r rev|-D date] [-k subst] [-d  dir]  mod-
         ule...

       o Requires: repository.

       o Changes: current directory.

         This command is a variant of checkout; use it when you want a copy of
         the source for module without  the  cvs  administrative  directories.
         For example, you might use export to prepare source for shipment off-
         site.  This command requires that you specify a date or tag (with  -D
         or  -r),  so that you can count on reproducing the source you ship to
         others (and thus it always prunes empty directories).

         One often would like to use -kv with cvs  export.   This  causes  any
         keywords  to  be expanded such that an import done at some other site
         will not lose the keyword revision information.  But  be  aware  that
         doesn't  handle an export containing binary files correctly.  Also be
         aware that after having used -kv, one can no  longer  use  the  ident
         command  (which  is  part of the rcs suite--see ident(1)) which looks
         for keyword strings.  If you want to be able to use  ident  you  must
         not use -kv.


export options
       These  standard  options  are  supported  by  export  (see node `Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -D date

         Use the most recent revision no later than date.



       -f

         If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most  recent  revision
         (instead of ignoring the file).



       -l

         Local; run only in current working directory.



       -n

         Do not run any checkout program.



       -R

         Export directories recursively.  This is on by default.



       -r tag

         Use revision tag.

         In  addition,  these options (that are common to checkout and export)
         are also supported:



       -d dir

         Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using
         the  module name.  see node `checkout options' in the CVS manual, for
         complete details on how cvs handles this flag.



       -k subst

         Set keyword expansion mode (see node `Substitution modes' in the  CVS
         manual).



       -N

         Only useful together with -d dir.  see node `checkout options' in the
         CVS manual, for complete details on how cvs handles this flag.


history
   Show status of files and users
       o Synopsis:     history [-report] [-flags] [-options args] [files...]

       o Requires: the file $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history

       o Changes: nothing.

         cvs can keep a history file that tracks each  use  of  the  checkout,
         commit,  rtag,  update, and release commands.  You can use history to
         display this information in various formats.

         Logging must be enabled by creating  the  file  $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/his-
         tory.

         history uses -f, -l, -n, and -p in ways that conflict with the normal
         use inside cvs (see node `Common options' in the CVS manual).


history options
       Several options (shown above as -report)  control  what kind of  report
       is generated:



       -c

         Report  on  each time commit was used (i.e., each time the repository
         was modified).



       -e

         Everything (all record types).  Equivalent to specifying -x with  all
         record types.  Of course, -e will also include record types which are
         added in a future version of cvs; if you are writing a  script  which
         can only handle certain record types, you'll want to specify -x.



       -m module

         Report  on  a  particular  module.  (You can meaningfully use -m more
         than once on the command line.)



       -o

         Report on checked-out modules.  This is the default report type.



       -T

         Report on all tags.



       -x type

         Extract a particular set of record types type from the  cvs  history.
         The  types  are indicated by single letters, which you may specify in
         combination.

         Certain commands have a single record type:


         F

           release

         O

           checkout

         E

           export

         T

           rtag

           One of five record types may result from an update:


         C

           A merge was necessary but collisions were detected (requiring  man-
           ual merging).

         G

           A merge was necessary and it succeeded.

         U

           A working file was copied from the repository.

         P

           A working file was patched to match the repository.

         W

           The  working  copy  of a file was deleted during update (because it
           was gone from the repository).

           One of three record types results from commit:


         A

           A file was added for the first time.

         M

           A file was modified.

         R

           A file was removed.

           The options shown as -flags constrain or expand the report  without
           requiring option arguments:



       -a

         Show  data  for  all  users (the default is to show data only for the
         user executing history).



       -l

         Show last modification only.



       -w

         Show only the records for modifications done from  the  same  working
         directory where history is executing.

         The  options  shown as -options args constrain the report based on an
         argument:



       -b str

         Show data back to a record containing  the  string  str   in   either
         the module name, the file name, or the repository path.



       -D date

         Show data since date.  This is slightly different from the normal use
         of -D date, which selects the newest revision older than date.



       -f file

         Show data for a particular file (you can specify several  -f  options
         on the same command line).  This is equivalent to specifying the file
         on the command line.



       -n module

         Show data for a particular module (you can specify several -n options
         on the same command line).



       -p repository

         Show  data  for a particular source repository  (you can specify sev-
         eral -p options on the same command line).



       -r rev

         Show records referring to revisions since the revision or  tag  named
         rev  appears  in individual rcs files.  Each rcs file is searched for
         the revision or tag.



       -t tag

         Show records since tag tag was last added to the history file.   This
         differs  from  the  -r  flag  above in that it reads only the history
         file, not the rcs files, and is much faster.



       -u name

         Show records for user name.



       -z timezone

         Show times in the selected records  using  the  specified  time  zone
         instead of UTC.


import
   Import sources into CVS, using vendor branches
       o Synopsis: import [-options] repository vendortag releasetag...

       o Requires: Repository, source distribution directory.

       o Changes: repository.

         Use  import to incorporate an entire source distribution from an out-
         side source (e.g., a  source  vendor)  into  your  source  repository
         directory.   You  can use this command both for initial creation of a
         repository, and for wholesale updates to the module from the  outside
         source.  see node `Tracking sources' in the CVS manual, for a discus-
         sion on this subject.

         The repository argument gives a directory name (or a path to a direc-
         tory) under the cvs root directory for repositories; if the directory
         did not exist, import creates it.

         When you use import for updates to source that has been  modified  in
         your  source repository (since a prior import), it will notify you of
         any files that conflict in  the  two  branches  of  development;  use
         checkout  -j to reconcile the differences, as import instructs you to
         do.

         If cvs decides a file should be ignored (see node `cvsignore' in  the
         CVS  manual),  it  does  not  import it and prints I  followed by the
         filename (see node `import output' in the CVS manual, for a  complete
         description of the output).

         If the file $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/cvswrappers exists, any file whose names
         match the specifications in that file will be treated as packages and
         the  appropriate  filtering  will  be performed on the file/directory
         before being imported.  see node `Wrappers' in the CVS manual.

         The outside source is saved  in  a  first-level  branch,  by  default
         1.1.1.   Updates  are  leaves of this branch; for example, files from
         the first imported collection of source  will  be  revision  1.1.1.1,
         then  files  from the first imported update will be revision 1.1.1.2,
         and so on.

         At least three arguments are required.  repository is needed to iden-
         tify  the  collection  of  source.  vendortag is a tag for the entire
         branch (e.g., for  1.1.1).   You  must  also  specify  at  least  one
         releasetag  to uniquely identify the files at the leaves created each
         time you execute import.  The releasetag should be  new,  not  previ-
         ously  existing  in  the  repository  file, and uniquely identify the
         imported release,

         Note that import does not change the directory in  which  you  invoke
         it.   In particular, it does not set up that directory as a cvs work-
         ing directory; if you want to work with the sources import them first
         and then check them out into a different directory (see node `Getting
         the source' in the CVS manual).


import options
       This standard option is supported by import (see node `Common  options'
       in the CVS manual, for a complete description):



       -m message

         Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor.

         There are the following additional special options.



       -b branch

         See see node `Multiple vendor branches' in the CVS manual.



       -k subst

         Indicate the keyword expansion mode desired.  This setting will apply
         to all files created during the import, but not  to  any  files  that
         previously  existed  in  the  repository.  See see node `Substitution
         modes' in the CVS manual, for a list of valid -k settings.



       -I name

         Specify file names that should be ignored during import.  You can use
         this  option  repeatedly.   To  avoid ignoring any files at all (even
         those ignored by default), specify `-I !'.

         name can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify
         in the .cvsignore file.  see node `cvsignore' in the CVS manual.



       -W spec

         Specify  file  names  that should be filtered during import.  You can
         use this option repeatedly.

         spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify
         in the .cvswrappers file. see node `Wrappers' in the CVS manual.


import output
       import  keeps  you informed of its progress by printing a line for each
       file, preceded by one character indicating the status of the file:



       U file

         The file already exists in the repository and has  not  been  locally
         modified; a new revision has been created (if necessary).



       N file

         The file is a new file which has been added to the repository.



       C file

         The  file already exists in the repository but has been locally modi-
         fied; you will have to merge the changes.



       I file

         The file is being ignored (see node `cvsignore' in the CVS manual).



       L file

         The file is a symbolic link; cvs import ignores symbolic links.  Peo-
         ple periodically suggest that this behavior should be changed, but if
         there is a consensus on what it should be changed to, it doesn't seem
         to  be apparent.  (Various options in the modules file can be used to
         recreate symbolic links on checkout, update, etc.; see node `modules'
         in the CVS manual.)


import examples
       See  see  node `Tracking sources' in the CVS manual, and see node `From
       files' in the CVS manual.


log
   Print out log information for files
       o Synopsis: log [options] [files...]

       o Requires: repository, working directory.

       o Changes: nothing.

         Display log information for files.  log used to call the rcs  utility
         rlog.   Although  this is no longer true in the current sources, this
         history determines the format of the output and  the  options,  which
         are not quite in the style of the other cvs commands.

         The  output  includes the location of the rcs file, the head revision
         (the latest revision on the trunk), all  symbolic  names  (tags)  and
         some  other  things.   For  each  revision,  the revision number, the
         author, the number of lines added/deleted and  the  log  message  are
         printed.   All  times  are  displayed  in  Coordinated Universal Time
         (UTC).  (Other parts of cvs print times in the local timezone).

         log uses -R in a way that conflicts with the normal  use  inside  cvs
         (see node `Common options' in the CVS manual).


log options
       By  default,  log  prints all information that is available.  All other
       options restrict the output.  Note that the revision selection  options
       (-d,  -r,  -s,  and  -w)  have no effect, other than possibly causing a
       search for files in Attic directories, when used  in  conjunction  with
       the options that restrict the output to only log header fields (-b, -h,
       -R, and -t) unless the -S option is also specified.



       -b

         Print information about the revisions on the default branch, normally
         the highest branch on the trunk.



       -d dates

         Print  information  about  revisions  with a checkin date/time in the
         range given by the semicolon-separated list of dates.  The date  for-
         mats  accepted  are those accepted by the -D option to many other cvs
         commands (see node `Common options' in the CVS manual).  Dates can be
         combined into ranges as follows:


         d1<d2



         d2>d1

           Select the revisions that were deposited between d1 and d2.


         <d



         d>

           Select all revisions dated d or earlier.


         d<



         >d

           Select all revisions dated d or later.


         d

           Select the single, latest revision dated d or earlier.

           The > or < characters may be followed by = to indicate an inclusive
           range rather than an exclusive one.

           Note that the separator is a semicolon (;).



       -h

         Print only the name of the rcs file, name of the file in the  working
         directory,  head, default branch, access list, locks, symbolic names,
         and suffix.



       -l

         Local; run only in current working directory.   (Default  is  to  run
         recursively).



       -N

         Do not print the list of tags for this file.  This option can be very
         useful when your site uses a lot of tags, so rather  than  "more"'ing
         over  3  pages  of  tag information, the log information is presented
         without tags at all.



       -R

         Print only the name of the rcs file.



       -rrevisions

         Print information about revisions given in the  comma-separated  list
         revisions  of revisions and ranges.  The following table explains the
         available range formats:


         rev1:rev2

           Revisions rev1 to rev2 (which must be on the same branch).


         rev1::rev2

           The same, but excluding rev1.


         :rev



         ::rev

           Revisions from the beginning of the branch up to and including rev.


         rev:

           Revisions  starting  with  rev  to the end of the branch containing
           rev.


         rev::

           Revisions starting just after rev to the end of the branch contain-
           ing rev.


         branch

           An argument that is a branch means all revisions on that branch.


         branch1:branch2



         branch1::branch2

           A  range  of  branches  means all revisions on the branches in that
           range.


         branch.

           The latest revision in branch.

           A bare -r with no  revisions  means  the  latest  revision  on  the
           default  branch, normally the trunk.  There can be no space between
           the -r option and its argument.



       -S

         Suppress the header if no revisions are selected.



       -s states

         Print information about revisions whose state attributes match one of
         the  states  given  in  the  comma-separated list states.  Individual
         states may be any text string, though  cvs  commonly  only  uses  two
         states, Exp and dead.  See see node `admin options' in the CVS manual
         for more information.



       -t

         Print the same as -h, plus the descriptive text.



       -wlogins

         Print information about revisions checked  in  by  users  with  login
         names  appearing  in  the  comma-separated list logins.  If logins is
         omitted, the user's login is assumed.  There can be no space  between
         the -w option and its argument.

         log  prints  the  intersection  of  the  revisions  selected with the
         options -d, -s, and -w, intersected with the union of  the  revisions
         selected by -b and -r.


log examples
       Contributed examples are gratefully accepted.


rdiff
   'patch' format diffs between releases
       o rdiff [-flags] [-V vn] [-r t|-D d [-r t2|-D d2]] modules...

       o Requires: repository.

       o Changes: nothing.

       o Synonym: patch

         Builds  a  Larry Wall format patch(1) file between two releases, that
         can be fed directly into the patch program to bring  an  old  release
         up-to-date  with  the  new release.  (This is one of the few cvs com-
         mands that operates directly from the repository, and doesn't require
         a  prior  checkout.)  The  diff output is sent to the standard output
         device.

         You can specify (using the standard -r and -D options)  any  combina-
         tion  of one or two revisions or dates.  If only one revision or date
         is specified, the patch file reflects differences between that  revi-
         sion or date and the current head revisions in the rcs file.

         Note  that if the software release affected is contained in more than
         one directory, then it may be necessary to specify the -p  option  to
         the  patch  command  when  patching the old sources, so that patch is
         able to find the files that are located in other directories.


rdiff options
       These standard  options  are  supported  by  rdiff  (see  node  `Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -D date

         Use the most recent revision no later than date.



       -f

         If  no  matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision
         (instead of ignoring the file).



       -k kflag

         Process keywords according to kflag.  See see node `Keyword substitu-
         tion' in the CVS manual.



       -l

         Local; don't descend subdirectories.



       -R

         Examine directories recursively.  This option is on by default.



       -r tag

         Use revision tag.

         In addition to the above, these options are available:



       -c

         Use the context diff format.  This is the default format.



       -s

         Create  a  summary  change  report  instead  of a patch.  The summary
         includes information about files that were changed or  added  between
         the  releases.   It  is  sent to the standard output device.  This is
         useful for finding out, for example, which files have changed between
         two dates or revisions.



       -t

         A  diff  of  the  top  two  revisions  is sent to the standard output
         device.  This is most useful for seeing what the  last  change  to  a
         file was.



       -u

         Use the unidiff format for the context diffs.  Remember that old ver-
         sions of the patch program can't handle the unidiff format, so if you
         plan to post this patch to the net you should probably not use -u.



       -V vn

         Expand keywords according to the rules current in rcs version vn (the
         expansion format changed with rcs version 5).  Note that this  option
         is  no longer accepted.  cvs will always expand keywords the way that
         rcs version 5 does.


rdiff examples
       Suppose you receive mail from foo@example.net asking for an update from
       release  1.2  to  1.4  of the tc compiler.  You have no such patches on
       hand, but with cvs that can easily be fixed  with  a  command  such  as
       this:


         $ cvs rdiff -c -r FOO1_2 -r FOO1_4 tc | \
         $$ Mail -s 'The patches you asked for' foo@example.net




       Suppose  you have made release 1.3, and forked a branch called R_1_3fix
       for bug fixes.  R_1_3_1 corresponds to release 1.3.1,  which  was  made
       some time ago.  Now, you want to see how much development has been done
       on the branch.  This command can be used:


         $ cvs patch -s -r R_1_3_1 -r R_1_3fix module-name
         cvs rdiff: Diffing module-name
         File ChangeLog,v changed from revision 1.52.2.5 to 1.52.2.6
         File foo.c,v changed from revision 1.52.2.3 to 1.52.2.4
         File bar.h,v changed from revision 1.29.2.1 to 1.2





release
   Indicate that a Module is no longer in use
       o release [-d] directories...

       o Requires: Working directory.

       o Changes: Working directory, history log.

         This command is meant to safely cancel the effect  of  cvs  checkout.
         Since cvs doesn't lock files, it isn't strictly necessary to use this
         command.  You can always simply delete your working directory, if you
         like;  but  you  risk  losing changes you may have forgotten, and you
         leave no trace in the cvs history file (see node  `history  file'  in
         the CVS manual) that you've abandoned your checkout.

         Use cvs release to avoid these problems.  This command checks that no
         uncommitted changes are present; that you are executing it from imme-
         diately  above  a  cvs  working  directory;  and  that the repository
         recorded for your files is the same as the repository defined in  the
         module database.

         If  all these conditions are true, cvs release leaves a record of its
         execution (attesting to your intentionally abandoning your  checkout)
         in the cvs history log.


release options
       The release command supports one command option:



       -d

         Delete  your  working  copy  of the file if the release succeeds.  If
         this flag is not given your files will remain in your working  direc-
         tory.

         WARNING:   The  release  command  deletes  all  directories and files
         recursively.  This has the very serious side-effect that  any  direc-
         tory  that  you have created inside your checked-out sources, and not
         added to the repository (using the  add  command;  see  node  `Adding
         files'  in  the  CVS  manual) will be silently deleted--even if it is
         non-empty!


release output
       Before release releases your sources it will print a  one-line  message
       for any file that is not up-to-date.



       U file




       P file

         There exists a newer revision of this file in the repository, and you
         have not modified your local copy of the file (U and P mean the  same
         thing).



       A file

         The  file has been added to your private copy of the sources, but has
         not yet been committed to the repository.  If you delete your copy of
         the sources this file will be lost.



       R file

         The  file has been removed from your private copy of the sources, but
         has not yet been removed from the repository, since you have not  yet
         committed the removal.  see node `commit' in the CVS manual.



       M file

         The  file is modified in your working directory.  There might also be
         a newer revision inside the repository.



       ? file

         file is in your working directory, but does not  correspond  to  any-
         thing  in  the source repository, and is not in the list of files for
         cvs to ignore (see the description of the -I  option,  and  see  node
         `cvsignore'  in the CVS manual).  If you remove your working sources,
         this file will be lost.


release examples
       Release the tc directory, and delete your local  working  copy  of  the
       files.


         $ cd ..         # You must stand immediately above the
                         # sources when you issue cvs release.
         $ cvs release -d tc
         You have [0] altered files in this repository.
         Are you sure you want to release (and delete) directory `tc': y
         $





update
   Bring work tree in sync with repository
       o update  [-ACdflPpR] [-I name] [-j rev [-j rev]] [-k kflag] [-r tag|-D
         date] [-W spec] files...

       o Requires: repository, working directory.

       o Changes: working directory.

         After you've run checkout to create your private copy of source  from
         the  common  repository,  other developers will continue changing the
         central source.  From time to time, when it  is  convenient  in  your
         development  process, you can use the update command from within your
         working directory to reconcile your work with any  revisions  applied
         to the source repository since your last checkout or update.


update options
       These  standard  options  are  available  with update (see node `Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -D date

         Use the most recent revision no later  than  date.   This  option  is
         sticky,  and  implies -P.  See see node `Sticky tags' in the CVS man-
         ual, for more information on sticky tags/dates.



       -f

         Only useful with the -D date or -r tag flags.  If no  matching  revi-
         sion is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring
         the file).



       -k kflag

         Process keywords according to kflag.  See see node `Keyword substitu-
         tion'  in  the  CVS manual.  This option is sticky; future updates of
         this file in this working directory will use  the  same  kflag.   The
         status command can be viewed to see the sticky options.  See see node
         `Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual, for more information on the  status
         command.



       -l

         Local;  run  only  in current working directory.  see node `Recursive
         behavior' in the CVS manual.



       -P

         Prune empty directories.  See see node `Moving  directories'  in  the
         CVS manual.



       -p

         Pipe files to the standard output.



       -R

         Update directories recursively (default).  see node `Recursive behav-
         ior' in the CVS manual.



       -r rev

         Retrieve revision/tag rev.  This option is sticky,  and  implies  -P.
         See see node `Sticky tags' in the CVS manual, for more information on
         sticky tags/dates.

         These special options are also available with update.



       -A

         Reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k options.  Does not  reset  sticky
         -k  options on modified files.  See see node `Sticky tags' in the CVS
         manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates.



       -C

         Overwrite locally modified files with clean copies from  the  reposi-
         tory (the modified file is saved in .#file.revision, however).



       -d

         Create  any directories that exist in the repository if they're miss-
         ing from the working directory.  Normally, update acts only on direc-
         tories  and  files  that were already enrolled in your working direc-
         tory.

         This is useful for updating directories  that  were  created  in  the
         repository since the initial checkout; but it has an unfortunate side
         effect.  If you  deliberately  avoided  certain  directories  in  the
         repository  when  you  created your working directory (either through
         use of a module name or by listing explicitly the files and  directo-
         ries you wanted on the command line), then updating with -d will cre-
         ate those directories, which may not be what you want.



       -I name

         Ignore files whose names match name (in your working directory)  dur-
         ing  the  update.   You  can specify -I more than once on the command
         line to specify several files to ignore.  Use -I ! to avoid  ignoring
         any  files at all.  see node `cvsignore' in the CVS manual, for other
         ways to make cvs ignore some files.



       -Wspec

         Specify file names that should be filtered during  update.   You  can
         use this option repeatedly.

         spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify
         in the .cvswrappers file. see node `Wrappers' in the CVS manual.



       -jrevision

         With two -j options, merge changes from the revision  specified  with
         the  first  -j  option  to  the  revision specified with the second j
         option, into the working directory.

         With one -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revision  to  the
         revision  specified  with  the -j option, into the working directory.
         The ancestor revision is the common ancestor of  the  revision  which
         the  working directory is based on, and the revision specified in the
         -j option.

         Note that using a single -j tagname option rather than -j  branchname
         to merge changes from a branch will often not remove files which were
         removed on the branch.  see node `Merging adds and removals'  in  the
         CVS manual, for more.

         In  addition,  each -j option can contain an optional date specifica-
         tion which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen revision to
         one  within a specific date.  An optional date is specified by adding
         a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

         see node `Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.



update output
       update and checkout keep you informed of their progress by  printing  a
       line  for each file, preceded by one character indicating the status of
       the file:



       U file

         The file was brought up to date with respect to the repository.  This
         is  done  for  any file that exists in the repository but not in your
         working directory, and for files that you haven't changed but are not
         the most recent versions available in the repository.



       P file

         Like  U,  but the cvs server sends a patch instead of an entire file.
         This accomplishes the same thing as U using less bandwidth.



       A file

         The file has been added to your private copy of the sources, and will
         be  added  to  the source repository when you run commit on the file.
         This is a reminder to you that the file needs to be committed.



       R file

         The file has been removed from your private copy of the sources,  and
         will be removed from the source repository when you run commit on the
         file.  This is a reminder to you that the file needs to be committed.



       M file

         The file is modified in  your  working  directory.

         M can indicate one of two states for a file you're working on: either
         there were no modifications to the same file in  the  repository,  so
         that  your  file  remains as you last saw it; or there were modifica-
         tions in the repository as well as in your copy, but they were merged
         successfully, without conflict, in your working directory.

         cvs  will  print  some  messages if it merges your work, and a backup
         copy of your working file (as it looked before you ran  update)  will
         be made.  The exact name of that file is printed while update runs.



       C file

         A  conflict  was  detected while trying to merge your changes to file
         with changes from the source repository.   file  (the  copy  in  your
         working  directory)  is now the result of attempting to merge the two
         revisions; an unmodified copy of your file is also  in  your  working
         directory,  with the name .#file.revision where revision is the revi-
         sion that your modified file started from.  Resolve the  conflict  as
         described  in  see node `Conflicts example' in the CVS manual.  (Note
         that some systems automatically purge files that  begin  with  .#  if
         they  have not been accessed for a few days.  If you intend to keep a
         copy of your original file, it is a very good  idea  to  rename  it.)
         Under vms, the file name starts with __ rather than .#.



       ? file

         file  is  in  your working directory, but does not correspond to any-
         thing in the source repository, and is not in the list of  files  for
         cvs  to  ignore  (see  the description of the -I option, and see node
         `cvsignore' in the CVS manual).

AUTHORS
       Dick Grune
              Original author of  the  cvs  shell  script  version  posted  to
              comp.sources.unix  in  the  volume6  release  of December, 1986.
              Credited with much of the cvs conflict resolution algorithms.

       Brian Berliner
              Coder and designer of the cvs program  itself  in  April,  1989,
              based on the original work done by Dick.

       Jeff Polk
              Helped Brian with the design of the cvs module and vendor branch
              support and author of the checkin(1) shell script (the  ancestor
              of cvs import).

       Larry Jones, Derek R. Price, and Mark D. Baushke
              Have helped maintain cvs for many years.

       And many others too numerous to mention here.

SEE ALSO
       The most comprehensive manual for CVS is Version Management with CVS by
       Per Cederqvist et al.  Depending on your system, you may be able to get
       it  with the info CVS command or it may be available as cvs.pdf (Porta-
       ble  Document  Format),  cvs.ps  (PostScript),   cvs.texinfo   (Texinfo
       source), or cvs.html.

       For CVS updates, more information on documentation, software related to
       CVS, development of CVS, and more, see:

           http://cvs.nongnu.org

 ci(1), co(1), cvs(5), cvsbug(8), diff(1), grep(1),  patch(1),  rcs(1),  rcsd-
 iff(1), rcsmerge(1), rlog(1).



                                                                        CVS(1)

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