CTYPE(3)                NetBSD Library Functions Manual               CTYPE(3)

NAME
     isalpha, isupper, islower, isdigit, isxdigit, isalnum, isspace, ispunct,
     isprint, isgraph, iscntrl, isblank, toupper, tolower, -- character clas-
     sification and mapping functions

LIBRARY
     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

SYNOPSIS
     #include <ctype.h>
     int c

     isalpha(c);

     isupper(c);

     islower(c);

     isdigit(c);

     isxdigit(c);

     isalnum(c);

     isspace(c);

     ispunct(c);

     isprint(c);

     isgraph(c);

     iscntrl(c);

     isblank(c);

     toupper(c);

     tolower(c);

DESCRIPTION
     The above functions perform character tests and conversions on the inte-
     ger c.

     See the specific manual pages for information about the test or conver-
     sion performed by each function.

EXAMPLES
     To print an upper-case version of a string on stdout, use the following
     code:

     const char *s = ...;
     while (*s != '\0') {
         putchar(toupper((int)(unsigned char)*s));
         s++;
     }

SEE ALSO
     isalnum(3), isalpha(3), isblank(3), iscntrl(3), isdigit(3), isgraph(3),
     islower(3), isprint(3), ispunct(3), isspace(3), isupper(3), isxdigit(3),
     tolower(3), toupper(3), ascii(7)

STANDARDS
     These functions, with the exception of isblank(), conform to ANSI
     X3.159-1989 (``ANSI C89'').

CAVEATS
     The first argument of these functions is of type int, but only a very
     restricted subset of values are actually valid.  The argument must either
     be the value of the macro EOF (which has a negative value), or must be a
     non-negative value within the range representable as unsigned char.
     Passing invalid values leads to undefined behavior.

     Values of type int that were returned by getc(3), fgetc(3), and similar
     functions or macros are already in the correct range, and may be safely
     passed to these ctype functions without any casts.

     Values of type char or signed char must first be cast to unsigned char,
     to ensure that the values are within the correct range.  The result
     should then be cast to int to avoid warnings from some compilers.  Cast-
     ing a negative-valued char or signed char directly to int will produce a
     negative-valued int, which will be outside the range of allowed values
     (unless it happens to be equal to EOF, but even that would not give the
     desired result).

NetBSD 5.1                      April 17, 2008                      NetBSD 5.1

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