CHAT(8)                                                                CHAT(8)

       chat - Automated conversational script with a modem

       chat [ options ] script

       The chat program defines a conversational exchange between the computer
       and the modem. Its primary  purpose  is  to  establish  the  connection
       between the Point-to-Point Protocol Daemon (pppd) and the remote's pppd

       -f <chat file>
              Read the chat script from the chat file. The use of this  option
              is  mutually exclusive with the chat script parameters. The user
              must have read access to the file. Multiple lines are  permitted
              in  the  file. Space or horizontal tab characters should be used
              to separate the strings.

       -t <timeout>
              Set the timeout for the expected string to be received.  If  the
              string  is  not  received  within  the time limit then the reply
              string is not sent. An alternate reply may be sent or the script
              will fail if there is no alternate reply string. A failed script
              will cause the chat program to terminate with a  non-zero  error

       -r <report file>
              Set  the  file  for output of the report strings. If you use the
              keyword REPORT, the resulting strings are written to this  file.
              If  this  option  is not used and you still use REPORT keywords,
              the stderr file is used for the report strings.

       -e     Start with the echo option turned on. Echoing may also be turned
              on  or  off  at  specific points in the chat script by using the
              ECHO keyword. When echoing is enabled, all output from the modem
              is echoed to stderr.

       -E     Enables  environment  variable  substitution within chat scripts
              using the standard $xxx syntax.

       -v     Request that the chat script be executed in a verbose mode.  The
              chat  program  will  then  log  the  execution state of the chat
              script as well as all text received from the modem and the  out-
              put  strings  sent  to the modem.  The default is to log through
              the SYSLOG; the logging method may be altered with the -S and -s
              flags. SYSLOGs are logged to facility LOG_LOCAL2.

       -V     Request  that  the  chat  script be executed in a stderr verbose
              mode. The chat program will then log all text received from  the
              modem  and  the  output  strings sent to the modem to the stderr
              device. This device is usually the local console at the  station
              running the chat or pppd program.

       -s     Use  stderr.   All log messages from '-v' and all error messages
              will be sent to stderr.

       -S     Do not use the SYSLOG.  By default, error messages are  sent  to
              the  SYSLOG.   The use of -S will prevent both log messages from
              '-v' and error messages from being sent to the SYSLOG (to facil-
              ity LOG_LOCAL2).

       -T <phone number>
              Pass  in  an arbitrary string, usually a phone number, that will
              be substituted for the \T substitution metacharacter in  a  send

       -U <phone number 2>
              Pass  in  a  second string, usually a phone number, that will be
              substituted for the \U  substitution  metacharacter  in  a  send
              string.   This  is  useful when dialing an ISDN terminal adapter
              that requires two numbers.

       script If the script is not specified in a file with the -f option then
              the script is included as parameters to the chat program.

       The chat script defines the communications.

       A  script consists of one or more "expect-send" pairs of strings, sepa-
       rated by spaces, with an optional "subexpect-subsend" string pair, sep-
       arated by a dash as in the following example:

              ogin:-BREAK-ogin: ppp ssword: hello2u2

       This  line  indicates  that  the  chat program should expect the string
       "ogin:". If it fails to receive a login prompt within the time interval
       allotted,  it is to send a break sequence to the remote and then expect
       the string "ogin:". If the first "ogin:" is  received  then  the  break
       sequence is not generated.

       Once it received the login prompt the chat program will send the string
       ppp and then expect the prompt "ssword:". When it receives  the  prompt
       for the password, it will send the password hello2u2.

       A  carriage  return  is normally sent following the reply string. It is
       not expected in the "expect" string unless it is specifically requested
       by using the \r character sequence.

       The  expect sequence should contain only what is needed to identify the
       string. Since it is normally stored on a disk file, it should not  con-
       tain  variable  information. It is generally not acceptable to look for
       time strings, network identification strings, or other variable  pieces
       of data as an expect string.

       To  help  correct for characters which may be corrupted during the ini-
       tial sequence, look for the string "ogin:" rather than "login:". It  is
       possible  that  the  leading "l" character may be received in error and
       you may never find the string even though it was sent  by  the  system.
       For  this  reason,  scripts  look  for "ogin:" rather than "login:" and
       "ssword:" rather than "password:".

       A very simple script might look like this:

              ogin: ppp ssword: hello2u2

       In other words, expect ....ogin:, send  ppp,  expect  ...ssword:,  send

       In  actual  practice,  simple  scripts are rare. At the vary least, you
       should include sub-expect sequences should the original string  not  be
       received. For example, consider the following script:

              ogin:--ogin: ppp ssword: hello2u2

       This  would  be  a better script than the simple one used earlier. This
       would look for  the  same  login:  prompt,  however,  if  one  was  not
       received,  a  single  return sequence is sent and then it will look for
       login: again. Should line noise obscure the  first  login  prompt  then
       sending the empty line will usually generate a login prompt again.

       Comments  can be embedded in the chat script. A comment is a line which
       starts with the # (hash) character in column 1. Such comment lines  are
       just  ignored by the chat program. If a '#' character is to be expected
       as the first character of the expect sequence,  you  should  quote  the
       expect  string.   If you want to wait for a prompt that starts with a #
       (hash) character, you would have to write something like this:

              # Now wait for the prompt and send logout string
              '# ' logout

       If the string to send starts with an at  sign  (@),  the  rest  of  the
       string  is  taken to be the name of a file to read to get the string to
       send.  If the last character of the data  read  is  a  newline,  it  is
       removed.   The  file can be a named pipe (or fifo) instead of a regular
       file.  This provides a way for chat to communicate  with  another  pro-
       gram,  for example, a program to prompt the user and receive a password
       typed in.

       Many modems will report the status of  the  call  as  a  string.  These
       strings  may  be CONNECTED or NO CARRIER or BUSY. It is often desirable
       to terminate the script should the modem fail to connect to the remote.
       The  difficulty  is  that  a  script would not know exactly which modem
       string it may receive. On one attempt, it may receive  BUSY  while  the
       next time it may receive NO CARRIER.

       These  "abort"  strings  may be specified in the script using the ABORT
       sequence. It is written in the script as in the following example:


       This sequence will expect nothing; and then send the  string  ATZ.  The
       expected  response  to  this is the string OK. When it receives OK, the
       string ATDT5551212 to dial the telephone. The expected string  is  CON-
       NECT.  If the string CONNECT is received the remainder of the script is
       executed. However, should the modem find a busy telephone, it will send
       the  string BUSY. This will cause the string to match the abort charac-
       ter sequence. The script will then fail because it found a match to the
       abort  string.  If it received the string NO CARRIER, it will abort for
       the same reason. Either string may be received. Either string will ter-
       minate the chat script.

       This  sequence allows for clearing previously set ABORT strings.  ABORT
       strings are kept in an array of a pre-determined size  (at  compilation
       time); CLR_ABORT will reclaim the space for cleared entries so that new
       strings can use that space.

       The SAY directive allows the script to send strings to the user at  the
       terminal via standard error.  If chat is being run by pppd, and pppd is
       running as a daemon (detached from its controlling terminal),  standard
       error  will normally be redirected to the file /etc/ppp/connect-errors.

       SAY strings must be enclosed in single or double  quotes.  If  carriage
       return  and  line  feed are needed in the string to be output, you must
       explicitly add them to your string.

       The SAY strings could be used to give progress messages in sections  of
       the  script  where  you  want to have 'ECHO OFF' but still let the user
       know what is happening.  An example is:

              ABORT BUSY
              ECHO OFF
              SAY "Dialing your ISP...\n"
              '' ATDT5551212
              TIMEOUT 120
              SAY "Waiting up to 2 minutes for connection ... "
              CONNECT ''
              SAY "Connected, now logging in ...\n"
              ogin: account
              ssword: pass
              $ SAY "Logged in OK ...\n" etc ...

       This sequence will only present the SAY strings to the user and all the
       details  of  the  script  will remain hidden. For example, if the above
       script works, the user will see:

              Dialing your ISP...
              Waiting up to 2 minutes for connection ... Connected,  now  log-
              ging in ...
              Logged in OK ...

       A  report string is similar to the ABORT string. The difference is that
       the strings, and all characters to the next control character such as a
       carriage return, are written to the report file.

       The  report strings may be used to isolate the transmission rate of the
       modem's connect string and return the value to the chat user. The anal-
       ysis  of  the  report string logic occurs in conjunction with the other
       string processing such as looking for the expect string. The use of the
       same  string  for a report and abort sequence is probably not very use-
       ful, however, it is possible.

       The report strings to no change the completion code of the program.

       These "report" strings may be specified in the script using the  REPORT
       sequence. It is written in the script as in the following example:

              REPORT  CONNECT  ABORT  BUSY  ''  ATDT5551212  CONNECT  '' ogin:

       This sequence will expect nothing; and then send the string ATDT5551212
       to  dial  the  telephone. The expected string is CONNECT. If the string
       CONNECT is received the remainder of the script is executed.  In  addi-
       tion  the  program  will  write to the expect-file the string "CONNECT"
       plus any characters which follow it such as the connection rate.

       This sequence  allows  for  clearing  previously  set  REPORT  strings.
       REPORT strings are kept in an array of a pre-determined size (at compi-
       lation time); CLR_REPORT will reclaim the space for cleared entries  so
       that new strings can use that space.

       The  echo  options controls whether the output from the modem is echoed
       to stderr. This option may be set with the -e option, but it  can  also
       be  controlled  by  the  ECHO  keyword.  The "expect-send" pair ECHO ON
       enables echoing, and ECHO OFF disables it. With this  keyword  you  can
       select which parts of the conversation should be visible. For instance,
       with the following script:

              ABORT   'BUSY'
              ABORT   'NO CARRIER'
              OK\r\n  ATD1234567
              \r\n    \c
              ECHO    ON
              CONNECT \c
              ogin:   account

       all output resulting from modem configuration and dialing is not  visi-
       ble,  but  starting with the CONNECT (or BUSY) message, everything will
       be echoed.

       The HANGUP options control whether a modem hangup should be  considered
       as  an error or not.  This option is useful in scripts for dialing sys-
       tems which will hang up and call your system back.  The HANGUP  options
       can be ON or OFF.
       When  HANGUP  is  set OFF and the modem hangs up (e.g., after the first
       stage of logging in to a callback system), chat will  continue  running
       the  script (e.g., waiting for the incoming call and second stage login
       prompt). As soon as the incoming call is connected, you should use  the
       HANGUP  ON directive to reinstall normal hang up signal behavior.  Here
       is an (simple) example script:

              ABORT   'BUSY'
              OK\r\n  ATD1234567
              \r\n    \c
              CONNECT \c
              'Callback login:' call_back_ID
              HANGUP OFF
              ABORT "Bad Login"
              'Callback Password:' Call_back_password
              TIMEOUT 120
              CONNECT \c
              HANGUP ON
              ABORT "NO CARRIER"
              ogin:--BREAK--ogin: real_account
              etc ...

       The initial timeout value is 45 seconds. This may be changed using  the
       -t parameter.

       To  change  the timeout value for the next expect string, the following
       example may be used:

              ATZ OK ATDT5551212 CONNECT TIMEOUT  10  ogin:--ogin:  TIMEOUT  5
              assword: hello2u2

       This  will  change the timeout to 10 seconds when it expects the login:
       prompt. The timeout is then changed to 5 seconds when it looks for  the
       password prompt.

       The timeout, once changed, remains in effect until it is changed again.

       The special reply string of EOT indicates that the chat program  should
       send  an  EOT character to the remote. This is normally the End-of-file
       character sequence. A return character is not sent following  the  EOT.
       The  EOT  sequence  may  be  embedded  into  the  send string using the
       sequence ^D.

       The special reply string of BREAK will cause a break  condition  to  be
       sent. The break is a special signal on the transmitter. The normal pro-
       cessing on the receiver is to change the transmission rate.  It may  be
       used  to  cycle  through the available transmission rates on the remote
       until you are able to receive a valid login prompt.

       The break sequence may be embedded into the send string  using  the  \K

       The  expect  and reply strings may contain escape sequences. All of the
       sequences are legal in the reply string. Many are legal in the  expect.
       Those which are not valid in the expect sequence are so indicated.

       ''     Expects  or  sends a null string. If you send a null string then
              it will still send  the  return  character.  This  sequence  may
              either be a pair of apostrophe or quote characters.

       \b     represents a backspace character.

       \c     Suppresses  the  newline at the end of the reply string. This is
              the only method to send a string without a trailing return char-
              acter.  It  must  be at the end of the send string. For example,
              the sequence hello\c will simply send the characters h, e, l, l,
              o.  (not valid in expect.)

       \d     Delay for one second. The program uses sleep(1) which will delay
              to a maximum of one second.  (not valid in expect.)

       \K     Insert a BREAK (not valid in expect.)

       \n     Send a newline or linefeed character.

       \N     Send a null character. The same sequence may be  represented  by
              \0.  (not valid in expect.)

       \p     Pause  for a fraction of a second. The delay is 1/10th of a sec-
              ond.  (not valid in expect.)

       \q     Suppress writing the string to the SYSLOG. The string ??????  is
              written to the log in its place.  (not valid in expect.)

       \r     Send or expect a carriage return.

       \s     Represents  a  space  character  in the string. This may be used
              when it is not desirable to quote  the  strings  which  contains
              spaces. The sequence 'HI TIM' and HI\sTIM are the same.

       \t     Send or expect a tab character.

       \T     Send  the  phone  number  string as specified with the -T option
              (not valid in expect.)

       \U     Send the phone number 2 string as specified with the  -U  option
              (not valid in expect.)

       \\     Send or expect a backslash character.

       \ddd   Collapse  the  octal  digits (ddd) into a single ASCII character
              and send that character.  (some  characters  are  not  valid  in

       ^C     Substitute  the  sequence with the control character represented
              by C.  For example, the character  DC1  (17)  is  shown  as  ^Q.
              (some characters are not valid in expect.)

       Environment  variables  are  available  within chat scripts, if  the -E
       option was specified in the command line. The metacharacter $  is  used
       to introduce the name of the environment variable to substitute. If the
       substitution fails, because the requested environment variable  is  not
       set, nothing is replaced for the variable.

       The chat program will terminate with the following completion codes.

       0      The  normal  termination of the program. This indicates that the
              script was executed without error to the normal conclusion.

       1      One or more of the parameters are invalid or  an  expect  string
              was  too large for the internal buffers. This indicates that the
              program as not properly executed.

       2      An error occurred during the execution of the program. This  may
              be  due  to a read or write operation failing for some reason or
              chat receiving a signal such as SIGINT.

       3      A timeout event occurred when there was an expect string without
              having  a "-subsend" string. This may mean that you did not pro-
              gram the script correctly for the condition or that  some  unex-
              pected  event  has occurred and the expected string could not be

       4      The first string marked as an ABORT condition occurred.

       5      The second string marked as an ABORT condition occurred.

       6      The third string marked as an ABORT condition occurred.

       7      The fourth string marked as an ABORT condition occurred.

       ...    The other termination codes are also strings marked as an  ABORT

       Using  the  termination  code,  it is possible to determine which event
       terminated the script. It is possible to decide if  the  string  "BUSY"
       was  received  from  the  modem as opposed to "NO DIAL TONE". While the
       first event may be retried, the second will probably have little chance
       of succeeding during a retry.

       The  chat  program  is  in  public  domain.  This is not the GNU public
       license. If it breaks then you get to keep both pieces.

Chat Version 1.22                 22 May 1999                          CHAT(8)

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