ATH(4)                  NetBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual                 ATH(4)

NAME
     ath -- Atheros IEEE 802.11 driver

SYNOPSIS
     ath* at pci? dev ? function ?
     ath* at cardbus? function ?

DESCRIPTION
     The ath driver provides support for wireless network adapters based on
     the Atheros AR5210, AR5211, AR5212, and AR5213 chips.  Chip-specific sup-
     port is provided by the Atheros Hardware Access Layer (HAL), which is
     currently available only in binary form for selected architectures.

     Supported features include 802.11 and 802.3 frames, power management,
     BSS, IBSS, and host-based access point operation modes.  All host/device
     interaction is via DMA.

     The ath driver encapsulates all IP and ARP traffic as 802.11 frames, how-
     ever it can receive either 802.11 or 802.3 frames.  Transmit speed and
     operating mode is selectable depending on your hardware.

     AR5210-based devices support 802.11a operation with transmit speeds of 6
     Mbps, 9 Mbps, 12 Mbps, 18 Mbps, 24 Mbps, 36 Mbps, 48 Mbps, and 54 Mbps.

     AR5211-based devices support 802.11a and 802.11b operation with transmit
     speeds as above for 802.11a operation and 1Mbps, 2Mbps, 5.5 Mbps and
     11Mbps for 802.11b operation.

     AR5212-based and AR5213-based devices support 802.11a, 802.11b, and
     802.11g operation with transmit speeds appropriate to each.

     All chips also support an Atheros Turbo Mode (TM) that operates in the
     802.11a frequency range with 2x the transmit speeds.  (This mode is, how-
     ever, only interoperable with other Atheros-based devices.)

     The actual transmit speed used is dependent on signal quality and the
     ``rate control'' algorithm employed by the driver.  All chips support WEP
     encryption.  AR5211 and AR5212 support the AES, TKIP, and Michael crypto-
     graphic operations required for WPA but at this time the driver does not
     support them.  To enable encryption, use ifconfig(8).

     By default, the ath driver configures the card for BSS operation (aka in-
     frastructure mode).  This mode requires the use of an access point (base
     station).

     The ath driver also supports the standard IBSS point-to-point mode where
     stations can communicate amongst themselves without the aid of an access
     point.

     The driver may also be configured to operate in hostap mode.  In this
     mode a host may function as an access point (base station).  Access
     points are different than operating in IBSS mode.  They operate in BSS
     mode.  They allow for easier roaming and bridge all Ethernet traffic such
     that machines connected via an access point appear to be on the local
     Ethernet segment.

     The mode of operation is chosen by specifying the appropriate mediaopt
     value to ifconfig.  The -m flag to ifconfig will list the available
     options.

     For more information on configuring this device, see ifconfig(8).

     Devices supported by the ath driver come in either CardBus or mini-PCI
     packages.  Wireless cards in CardBus slots may be inserted and ejected on
     the fly.

     The following cards are among those supported by the ath driver:

     Card                 Chip      Bus        Standard
     3Com 3CRPAG175       AR5212    CardBus    a/b/g
     Airlink AWLH4030     AR5212    PCI        b/g
     Aztech WL830PC       AR5212    CardBus    b/g
     Belkin F6D3000       AR5212    PCI        a/b/g
     D-Link DWL-A520      AR5210    PCI        a
     D-Link DWL-A650      AR5210    CardBus    a
     D-Link DWL-AB650     AR5211    CardBus    a/b
     D-Link DWL-AG520     AR5212    PCI        a/b/g
     D-Link DWL-AG650     AR5212    CardBus    a/b/g
     D-Link DWL-AG660     AR521?    CardBus    a/b/g
     D-Link DWL-G520      AR5212    PCI        b/g
     D-Link DWL-G650B     AR5212    CardBus    b/g
     Elecom LD-WL54       AR5211    CardBus    a
     Elecom LD-WL54AG     AR5212    CardBus    a/b/g
     Fujitsu E5454        AR5212    CardBus    a/b/g
     Fujitsu E5454        AR5212    CardBus    a/b/g
     Fujitsu FMV-JW481    AR5212    CardBus    a/b/g
     HP NC4000            AR5212    PCI        a/b/g
     I/O Data WN-A54      AR5212    CardBus    a
     I/O Data WN-AB       AR5212    CardBus    a/b
     I/O Data WN-AG       AR5212    CardBus    a/b/g
     Linksys WMP55AG      AR5212    PCI        a/b/g
     Linksys WPC51AB      AR5211    CardBus    a/b
     Linksys WPC55AG      AR5212    CardBus    a/b/g
     NEC PA-WL/54AG       AR5212    CardBus    a/b/g
     Netgear WAB501       AR5211    CardBus    a/b
     Netgear WAG311       AR5212    PCI        a/b/g
     Netgear WAG511       AR5212    CardBus    a/b/g
     Netgear WG311        AR5212    PCI        b/g
     Netgear WG511T       AR5212    CardBus    b/g
     Orinoco 8470WD       AR5212    CardBus    a/b/g
     Orinoco 8480         AR5212    CardBus    a/b/g
     Planex GW-NS54AG     AR5212    CardBus    a/b/g
     Proxim Skyline 4030  AR5210    CardBus    a
     Proxim Skyline 4032  AR5210    PCI        a
     Samsung SWL-5200N    AR5212    CardBus    a/b/g
     SMC SMC2735W         AR5210    CardBus    a
     Sony PCWA-C300S      AR5212    CardBus    b/g
     Sony PCWA-C500       AR5210    CardBus    a
     Sony PCWA-C700       AR5212    CardBus    a/b
     Ubiquiti SRC         AR5213    CardBus    a/b/g

     An up to date list can be found at
     http://customerproducts.atheros.com/customerproducts.

DIAGNOSTICS
     ath%d: unable to attach hardware; HAL status %u  The Atheros Hardware
     Access Layer was unable to configure the hardware as requested.  The sta-
     tus code is explained in the HAL include file
     contrib/sys/dev/ic/athhal.h.

     ath%d: failed to allocate descriptors: %d  The driver was unable to allo-
     cate contiguous memory for the transmit and receive descriptors.  This
     usually indicates system memory is scarce and/or fragmented.

     ath%d: unable to setup a data xmit queue!  The request to the HAL to set-
     up the transmit queue for normal data frames failed.  This should not
     happen.

     ath%d: unable to setup a beacon xmit queue!  The request to the HAL to
     setup the transmit queue for 802.11 beacon frames failed.  This should
     not happen.

     ath%d: 802.11 address: %s  The MAC address programmed in the EEPROM is
     displayed.

     ath%d: hardware error; resetting  An unrecoverable error in the hardware
     occurred.  Errors of this sort include unrecoverable DMA errors.  The
     driver will reset the hardware and continue.

     ath%d: rx FIFO overrun; resetting  The receive FIFO in the hardware over-
     flowed before the data could be transferred to the host.  This typically
     occurs because the hardware ran short of receive descriptors and had no
     place to transfer received data.  The driver will reset the hardware and
     continue.

     ath%d: unable to reset hardware; hal status %u  The Atheros Hardware
     Access Layer was unable to reset the hardware as requested.  The status
     code is explained in the HAL include file contrib/sys/dev/ic/athhal.h.
     This should not happen.

     ath%d: unable to start recv logic  The driver was unable to restart frame
     reception.  This should not happen.

     ath%d: device timeout  A frame dispatched to the hardware for transmis-
     sion did not complete in time.  The driver will reset the hardware and
     continue.  This should not happen.

     ath%d: bogus xmit rate 0x%x  An invalid transmit rate was specified for
     an outgoing frame.  The frame is discarded.  This should not happen.

     ath%d: ath_chan_set: unable to reset channel %u (%u MHz)  The Atheros
     Hardware Access Layer was unable to reset the hardware when switching
     channels during scanning.  This should not happen.

     ath%d: unable to allocate channel table  The driver was unable to allo-
     cate memory for the table used to hold the set of available channels.

     ath%d: unable to collect channel list from hal  A problem occurred while
     querying the HAL to find the set of available channels for the device.
     This should not happen.

     ath%d: %s: %dM -> %dM (%d ok, %d err, %d retr)  The driver's rate control
     algorithm changed the current rate for transmitting frames.  This message
     is temporarily enabled for normal use to help in diagnosing and improving
     the rate control algorithm.  The message indicates the new and old trans-
     mit rates and the statistics it used to decide on this change.

     ath%d: failed to enable memory mapping  The driver was unable to enable
     memory-mapped I/O to the PCI device registers.  This should not happen.

     ath%d: failed to enable bus mastering  The driver was unable to enable
     the device as a PCI bus master for doing DMA.  This should not happen.

     ath%d: cannot map register space  The driver was unable to map the device
     registers into the host address space.  This should not happen.

     ath%d: could not map interrupt  The driver was unable to allocate an IRQ
     for the device interrupt.  This should not happen.

     ath%d: could not establish interrupt  The driver was unable to install
     the device interrupt handler.  This should not happen.

SEE ALSO
     arp(4), cardbus(4), ifmedia(4), netintro(4), pci(4), ifconfig(8)

HISTORY
     The ath device driver first appeared in FreeBSD 5.2.  It was ported to
     NetBSD 2.0.

AUTHORS
     The ath driver was originally written by Sam Leffler, and was ported to
     NetBSD by David Young.

CAVEATS
     Different regulatory domains have different default channels for adhoc
     mode.  See ifconfig(8) for information on how to change the channel.
     Different regulatory domains may not be able to communicate with each
     other with 802.11a as different regulatory domains do not necessarily
     have overlapping channels.

     Revision A1 of the D-LINK DWL-G520 and DWL-G650 are based on an Intersil
     PrismGT chip and are not supported by this driver.

     Revision v2 of the Netgear WG311 is based on a Texas Instruments ACX111
     and is not supported by this driver.

     Revision v3 of the Netgear WG311 is based on a Marvell Libertas 88W8335
     and is not supported by this driver.

     The HAL module is constructed from a binary component and operating sys-
     tem-dependent source code.  Redistribution and use in source and binary
     forms, without modification, are permitted provided that the conditions
     set forth in src/contrib/sys/dev/ic/athhal-COPYRIGHT are observed.

BUGS
     Performance in lossy environments is suboptimal.  The algorithm used to
     select the rate for transmitted packets is very simplistic.  There is no
     software retransmit; only hardware retransmit is used.  Contributors are
     encouraged to replace the existing rate control algorithm with a better
     one (hint: all the information needed is available to the driver).

     The driver does not fully enable power-save operation of the chip; conse-
     quently power use is suboptimal.

NetBSD 5.0.1                   October 14, 2006                   NetBSD 5.0.1

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