ATF-TEST-CASE(4)        NetBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual       ATF-TEST-CASE(4)

NAME
     atf-test-case -- generic description of test cases

DESCRIPTION
     A test case is a piece of code that stress-tests a specific feature of
     the software.  This feature is typically self-contained enough, either in
     the amount of code that implements it or in the general idea that
     describes it, to warrant its independent testing.  Given this, test cases
     are very fine-grained, but they attempt to group similar smaller tests
     which are semantically related.

     A test case is defined by three components regardless of the language it
     is implemented in: a header, a body and a cleanup routine.  The header
     is, basically, a declarative piece of code that defines several proper-
     ties to describe what the test case does and how it behaves.  In other
     words: it defines the test case's meta-data, further described in the
     Meta-data section.  The body is the test case itself.  It executes all
     actions needed to reproduce the test, and checks for failures.  This body
     is only executed if the abstract conditions specified by the header are
     met.  The cleanup routine is a piece of code always executed after the
     body, regardless of the exit status of the test case.  It can be used to
     undo side-effects of the test case.  Note that almost all side-effects of
     a test case are automatically cleaned up by the library; this is
     explained in more detail in the rest of this document.

     It is extremely important to keep the separation between a test case's
     header and body well-defined, because the header is always parsed,
     whereas the body is only executed when the conditions defined in the
     header are met and when the user specifies that test case.

     At last, test cases are always contained into test programs.  The test
     programs act as a front-end to them, providing a consistent interface to
     the user and several APIs to ease their implementation.

   Results
     Upon termination, a test case reports a status and, optionally, a textual
     reason describing why the test reported such status.  The caller must
     ensure that the test case really performed the task that its status
     describes, as the test program may be bogus and therefore providing a
     misleading result (e.g. providing a result that indicates success but the
     error code of the program says otherwise).

     The possible exit status of a test case are one of the following:

     expected_death      The test case expects to terminate abruptly.

     expected_exit       The test case expects to exit cleanly.

     expected_failure    The test case expects to exit with a controller
                         fatal/non-fatal failure.  If this happens, the test
                         program exits with a success error code.

     expected_signal     The test case expects to receive a signal that makes
                         it terminate.

     expected_timeout    The test case expects to execute for longer than its
                         timeout.

     passed              The test case was executed successfully.  The test
                         program exits with a success error code.

     skipped             The test case could not be executed because some pre-
                         conditions were not met.  This is not a failure
                         because it can typically be resolved by adjusting the
                         system to meet the necessary conditions.  This is
                         always accompanied by a reason, a message describing
                         why the test was skipped.  The test program exits
                         with a success error code.

     failed              An error appeared during the execution of the test
                         case.  This is always accompanied by a reason, a mes-
                         sage describing why the test failed.  The test pro-
                         gram exits with a failure error code.

     The usefulness of the `expected_*' results comes when writing test cases
     that verify known failures caused, in general, due to programming errors
     (aka bugs).  Whenever the faulty condition that the `expected_*' result
     is trying to cover is fixed, then the test case will be reported as
     `failed' and the developer will have to adjust it to match its new condi-
     tion.

     It is important to note that all `expected_*' results are only provided
     as a hint to the caller; the caller must verify that the test case did
     actually terminate as the expected condition says.

   Input/output
     Test cases are free to print whatever they want to their stdout(4) and
     stderr(4) file descriptors.  They are, in fact, encouraged to print sta-
     tus information as they execute to keep the user informed of their
     actions.  This is specially important for long test cases.

     Test cases will log their results to an auxiliary file, which is then
     collected by the test program they are contained in.  The developer need
     not care about this as long as he uses the correct APIs to implement the
     test cases.

     The standard input of the test cases is unconditionally connected to
     `/dev/zero'.

   Meta-data
     The following list describes all meta-data properties interpreted inter-
     nally by ATF.  You are free to define new properties in your test cases
     and use them as you wish, but non-standard properties must be prefixed by
     `X-'.

     descr              Type: textual.  Required.

                        A brief textual description of the test case's pur-
                        pose.  Will be shown to the user in reports.  Also
                        good for documentation purposes.

     has.cleanup        Type: boolean.  Optional.

                        If set to true, specifies that the test case has a
                        cleanup routine that has to be executed by atf-run(1)
                        during the cleanup phase of the execution.  This prop-
                        erty is automatically set by the framework when defin-
                        ing a test case with a cleanup routine, so it should
                        never be set by hand.

     ident              Type: textual.  Required.

                        The test case's identifier.  Must be unique inside the
                        test program and should be short but descriptive.

     require.arch       Type: textual.  Optional.

                        A whitespace separated list of architectures that the
                        test case can be run under without causing errors due
                        to an architecture mismatch.

     require.config     Type: textual.  Optional.

                        A whitespace separated list of configuration variables
                        that must be defined to execute the test case.  If any
                        of the required variables is not defined, the test
                        case is skipped.

     require.files      Type: textual.  Optional.

                        A whitespace separated list of files that must be
                        present to execute the test case.  The names of these
                        files must be absolute paths.  If any of the required
                        files is not found, the test case is skipped.

     require.machine    Type: textual.  Optional.

                        A whitespace separated list of machine types that the
                        test case can be run under without causing errors due
                        to a machine type mismatch.

     require.memory     Type: integer.  Optional.  Specifies the minimum
                        amount of physical memory needed by the test.  The
                        value can have a size suffix such as `K', `M', `G' or
                        `T' to make the amount of bytes easier to type and
                        read.

     require.progs      Type: textual.  Optional.

                        A whitespace separated list of programs that must be
                        present to execute the test case.  These can be given
                        as plain names, in which case they are looked in the
                        user's PATH, or as absolute paths.  If any of the
                        required programs is not found, the test case is
                        skipped.

     require.user       Type: textual.  Optional.

                        The required privileges to execute the test case.  Can
                        be one of `root' or `unprivileged'.

                        If the test case is running as a regular user and this
                        property is `root', the test case is skipped.

                        If the test case is running as root and this property
                        is `unprivileged', atf-run(1) will automatically drop
                        the privileges if the `unprivileged-user' configura-
                        tion property is set; otherwise the test case is
                        skipped.

     timeout            Type: integral.  Optional; defaults to `300'.

                        Specifies the maximum amount of time the test case can
                        run.  This is particularly useful because some tests
                        can stall either because they are incorrectly coded or
                        because they trigger an anomalous behavior of the pro-
                        gram.  It is not acceptable for these tests to stall
                        the whole execution of the test program.

                        Can optionally be set to zero, in which case the test
                        case has no run-time limit.  This is discouraged.

   Environment
     Every time a test case is executed, several environment variables are
     cleared or reseted to sane values to ensure they do not make the test
     fail due to unexpected conditions.  These variables are:

     HOME           Set to the work directory's path.

     LANG           Undefined.

     LC_ALL         Undefined.

     LC_COLLATE     Undefined.

     LC_CTYPE       Undefined.

     LC_MESSAGES    Undefined.

     LC_MONETARY    Undefined.

     LC_NUMERIC     Undefined.

     LC_TIME        Undefined.

     TZ             Hardcoded to `UTC'.

   Work directories
     The test program always creates a temporary directory and switches to it
     before running the test case's body.  This way the test case is free to
     modify its current directory as it wishes, and the runtime engine will be
     able to clean it up later on in a safe way, removing any traces of its
     execution from the system.  To do so, the runtime engine will perform a
     recursive removal of the work directory without crossing mount points; if
     a mount point is found, the file system will be unmounted (if possible).

   File creation mode mask (umask)
     Test cases are always executed with a file creation mode mask (umask) of
     `0022'.  The test case's code is free to change this during execution.

SEE ALSO
     atf-run(1), atf-test-program(1), atf-formats(5), atf(7)

NetBSD 7.0                     January 13, 2011                     NetBSD 7.0

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