ALTQ.CONF(5)              NetBSD File Formats Manual              ALTQ.CONF(5)

NAME
     altq.conf -- ALTQ configuration file

DESCRIPTION
     The altq.conf file contains a number of lines specifying the behavior of
     queueing disciplines.  Comments start with a # and extend to the end of
     the line.

     The altqd(8) program reads /etc/altq.conf at startup and sets up queueing
     disciplines.  BLUE, CBQ (Class-Based Queueing), FIFOQ (First-In First-Out
     Queue), HFSC (Hierarchical Fair Service Curve), PRIQ (Priority Queueing),
     RED (Random Early Detection), RIO (RED with IN/OUT), WFQ (Weighted Fair
     Queueing), JoBS (Joint Buffer Management and Scheduling) and CDNR (Diff-
     serv Traffic Conditioner) can be configured in this file.

   Interface Commands
           interface  if_name [bandwidth bps] [tbrsize bytes] [sched_type]
                      [discipline-specific-options]

     The interface command specifies a network interface to be under control
     of ALTQ.  One interface specification is provided for each network inter-
     face under control of ALTQ.  A system configured as a router may have
     multiple interface specifications.

           if_name   specifies the name of a network interface (e.g., fxp0).

           bandwidth
                     specifies the interface bandwidth in bits per second.
                     This is the maximum rate that the queueing discipline
                     will allow on this interface.

           tbrsize   specifies the bucket size of a token bucket regulator in
                     bytes.  When tbrsize is omitted, the system automatically
                     sets the bucket size using heuristics.  The token rate is
                     set to the interface bandwidth specified by the interface
                     command.

           sched_type
                     Type of a queueing discipline.  It must be either blue,
                     cbq, fifoq, hfsc, jobs, priq, red, rio, or wfq.  If the
                     interface has only traffic conditioners and no queueing
                     discipline, sched_type can be omitted.

   Class Command
           class  sched_type if_name class_name parent_name [red|rio] [ecn]
                  [cleardscp] [discipline-specific-options]

     The class command specifies a packet scheduling class for CBQ, HFSC, JoBS
     or PRIQ.  A class specifier must be provided for each packet scheduling
     class.

           sched_type
                     Type of queueing discipline.  Must correspond to the dis-
                     cipline name in interface specification.

           if_name   Interface name.  Must correspond to name in interface
                     specification.

           class_name
                     Arbitrary name for this class.  Must be unique for this
                     interface.

           parent_name
                     The name of the parent class for this class (for CBQ or
                     HFSC).  Parent class must have been previously defined.
                     PRIQ and JoBS do not have class hierarchy and parent_name
                     must be NULL for PRIQ and JoBS classes.

           red       Use RED (Random Early Detection) on this class queue.
                     RED drops packets with the probability proportional to
                     the average queue length.

           rio       Use RIO (RED with In/Out bit) on this class queue.  RIO
                     runs triple RED algorithms at the same time.

           ecn       Use RED/ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification) on this
                     class queue (experimental implementation).  ECN implies
                     RED.

           cleardscp
                     Clear diffserv codepoint in the IP header.

   Filter Commands
           filter  if_name class_name [name fltr_name] [ruleno num]
                   filter_values

     The filter command specifies a filter to classify packets into a schedul-
     ing class.  A filter specifier determines any statically-defined packet
     classification rules.

           if_name     Name of a network interface (e.g., fxp0).

           class_name  Name of a class or a conditioner to which matching
                       packets are directed.

           name        Add an arbitrary name to the filter for a future refer-
                       ence.

           ruleno      Specifies explicit order of filter matching.  Filter
                       matching is performed from a filter with a larger
                       ruleno.  Default is 0.

     filter_value should be in the following format:
           filter_values: dst_addr [netmask mask] dport src_addr [netmask
           mask] sport proto [tos value [tosmask value]] [gpi value]

Here dst_addr and src_addr are dotted-decimal addresses of the destination and
the source respectively.  An address may be followed by netmask keyword.
dport and sport are port numbers of the destination and the source respec-
tively.  proto is a protocol number defined for IP packets (e.g. 6 for TCP).
tos keyword can be used to specify the type of service field value.  gpi key-
word can be used to specify the Security Parameter Index value for IPsec.

When filter value 0 is used, it is taken as a wildcard.

      filter6  if_name class_name [name fltr_name] [ruleno num] filter6_values

The filter6 command is for IPv6.  filter6_value should be in the following
format:

      filter6_values:
               dst_addr[/prefix_len] dport src_addr[/prefix_len] sport proto
               [flowlabel value] [tclass value [tclassmask value]] [gpi value]

Here dst_addr and src_addr are IPv6 addresses of the destination and the
source respectively.  An address may be followed by an optional address prefix
length.  dport and sport are port numbers of the destination and the source
respectively.  proto is a protocol number defined for IPv6 packets (e.g. 6 for
TCP).  flowlabel keyword can be used to specify the flowlabel field value.
tclass keyword can be used to specify the traffic class field value.  gpi key-
word can be used to specify the Security Parameter Index value for IPsec.

When filter value 0 is used, it is taken as a wildcard.

CBQ Commands
CBQ (Class Based Queueing) achieves both partitioning and sharing of link
bandwidth by hierarchically structured classes.  Each class has its own queue
and is assigned its share of bandwidth.  A child class can borrow bandwidth
from its parent class as long as excess bandwidth is available.

      interface  if_name [bandwidth bps] [tbrsize bytes] [sched_type]
                 [efficient]

      if_name   specifies the name of a network interface (e.g., fxp0).

      bandwidth
                specifies the interface bandwidth in bits per second.

      tbrsize   specifies the bucket size of a token bucket regulator in
                bytes.

      sched_type
                must be either cbq, cbq-wrr (weighted-round robin) or cbq-prr
                (packet-by-packet round robin).  cbq is equivalent to cbq-wrr.

      efficient
                Enables CBQ's link efficiency mode.  This means that the
                scheduler will send a packet from the first overlimit class it
                encounters of all classes of the link-sharing structure when
                all classes are overlimit.  This will also cause the scheduler
                to use greater than its assigned bandwidth, if the link is
                capable of more than the assigned bandwidth.  By default, this
                mode is turned off.  By adding the keyword efficient to the
                interface specification line, enables this mode.

      class  sched_type if_name class_name parent_name [admission
             cntlload|none] [priority pri] [pbandwidth percent]
             [exactbandwidth bps] [borrow] [default] [control] [maxburst
             count] [minburst count] [maxdelay msec] [packetsize bytes]
             [maxpacketsize bytes] [red|rio] [ecn] [flowvalve] [cleardscp]

The class command specifies a CBQ class.  The classes are organized as a hier-
archy, and every class, except for the root class, has a parent.

      sched_type
                must be cbq for a CBQ class.

      if_name   Interface name.  Must correspond to name in interface specifi-
                cation.

      class_name
                Arbitrary name for this class.  Must be unique within the
                class hierarchy for this interface.  The name ctl_class is a
                reserved class name.

      parent_name
                The name of the parent class for this class or NULL if this is
                the root class.  Parent class must have been previously
                defined.

      admission
                The type of admission control and QoS type.  cntlload is con-
                trolled load service for RSVP, otherwise, it should be none.
                The default is none.

      priority  High numbers are higher priority.  Max value is 7 and Min
                value is 0.  Default is 1.

      pbandwidth
                The percentage of the interface bandwidth allocated to this
                class.  Generally should add up to 100 percent at each level
                of the class hierarchy, although other amounts can be speci-
                fied for purposes of experimentation.

      exactbandwidth
                Specify the bandwidth in bits-per-second instead of
                pbandwidth.  Note that the bandwidth allocation of CBQ is not
                so precise but this is just a way to pass a parameter to CBQ;
                the user is supposed to know the detailed internals of CBQ.
                pbandwidth is a preferred way to specify the bandwidth of a
                class.

      borrow    The class can borrow bandwidth from its parent class when this
                class is overlimit.  If this keyword is not present, then no
                borrowing is done, and the packet is delayed or dropped when
                the class is overlimit.

      default   Specify the default class.  When this keyword is present, all
                packets that do not match some classification criteria are
                assigned to this class.  Must be exactly one class on each
                interface defined as the default class.

      control   Specify the control class.  When this keyword is present, the
                predefined control class packets (RSVP, IGMP, and ICMP) are
                assigned to this class.  Note that when the control class is
                not specified by the time the default class is created, one is
                automatically created with default parameters.  Thus, if the
                control class is specified, it must be listed before the
                default class.  Must be exactly one class on each interface
                defined as the control class.

      maxburst  The maximum burst of back-to-back packets allowed in this
                class.  Default is 16 but the default value is automatically
                reduced to 4 when the class bandwidth is small (about less
                than 1Mbps).

      minburst  The minimum burst is used to obtain the steady state burst
                size.  It's the parameter to help compute offtime for the
                class.  Offtime is the amount of time a class is to wait
                between packets.  Default is 2.

      maxdelay  The maxdelay is specified in milliseconds and used to obtain
                the max queue size of the class.  If not specified, the
                default max queue size (30 packets) is used.

      packetsize
                The average packet size in bytes to be used in CBQ
                over-/under-limit computations.  Default value is MTU of the
                interface.

      maxpacketsize
                The maximum packet size in bytes for the class.  Default value
                is MTU of the interface.

      red       enables RED on this class queue.

      rio       enables RIO on this class queue.

      ecn       enables RED/ECN on this class queue.

      flowvalve
                enables RED/flow-valve (a.k.a. red-penalty-box) on this class
                queue.

      cleardscp
                clears diffserv codepoint in the IP header.

HFSC Commands
HFSC (Hierarchical Fair Service Curve) supports both link-sharing and guaran-
teed real-time services.  H-FSC employs a service curve based QoS model, and
its unique feature is an ability to decouple delay and bandwidth allocation.
HFSC has 2 independent scheduling mechanisms.  Real-time scheduling is used to
guarantee the delay and the bandwidth allocation at the same time.  Hierarchi-
cal link-sharing is used to distribute the excess bandwidth.  When dequeueing
a packet, HFSC always tries real-time scheduling first.  If no packet is eli-
gible for real-time scheduling, link-sharing scheduling is performed.  HFSC
does not use class hierarchy for real-time scheduling.  Additionally, an
upper-limit service curve can be specified for link-sharing to set the upper
limit allowed for the class.

      interface  if_name [bandwidth bps] [tbrsize bytes] [sched_type]

      if_name   specifies the name of a network interface (e.g., fxp0).

      bandwidth
                specifies the interface bandwidth in bits per second.

      tbrsize   specifies the bucket size of a token bucket regulator in
                bytes.

      sched_type
                must be hfsc for HFSC.

      class  sched_type if_name class_name parent_name [admission
             cntlload|none] [[sc m1 d m2]] [[rt m1 d m2]] [[ls m1 d m2]] [[ul
             m1 d m2]] [pshare percent] [grate bps] [bandwidth bps] [ulimit
             bps] [default] [qlimit count] [red|rio] [ecn] [cleardscp]

The class command specifies a HFSC class.  The classes are organized as a
hierarchy, and every class, except for the root class, has a parent.

Each HFSC class has 2 service curves, the real-time service curve and the
link-sharing service curve.  Service curves are specified by [type m1 d m2].
type should be either sc, rt, ls, or ul.  sc (service curve) is used to set
the same values to both real-time and link-sharing service curves.  rt (real-
time) is used to specify the real-time service curve.  ls (link-sharing) is
used to specify the link-sharing service curve.  ul (upper-limit) is used to
specify the upper-limit service curve for link-sharing.  m1 is the slope of
the first segment specified in bits-per-second.  d is the x-projection of the
intersection point of the 2 segments specified in milliseconds.  m2 is the
slope of the second segment specified in bits-per-second.

      sched_type
                must be hfsc for a HFSC class.

      if_name   Interface name.  Must correspond to name in interface specifi-
                cation.

      class_name
                Arbitrary name for this class.  Must be unique within the
                class hierarchy for this interface.  The name root is a
                reserved class name for the root class.  The root class for
                the interface is automatically created by the interface com-
                mand.

      parent_name
                The name of the parent class for this class.  Keyword root is
                used when the parent is the root class.  Parent class must
                have been previously defined.

      admission
                The type of admission control and QoS type.  cntlload is con-
                trolled load service for RSVP, otherwise, it should be none.
                The default is none.

      pshare    Percent of the link share.  This specifies a linear link-shar-
                ing service curve as a fraction of the link bandwidth.  It is
                a short hand of [ls 0 0 (link-bandwidth * percent / 100)].

      grate     Guaranteed rate.  This specifies a linear real-time service
                curve.  It is a short hand of [rt 0 0 bps].

      bandwidth
                This is a short hand of [sc 0 0 bps].

      ulimit    Upper limit rate.  This specifies a upper-limit service curve.
                It is a short hand of [ul 0 0 bps].

      default   Specify the default class.  When this keyword is present, all
                packets that do not match some classification criteria are
                assigned to this class.  Must be exactly one class on each
                interface defined as the default class.

      qlimit    The maximum queue size in number of packets.  Default value is
                50.

      red       enables RED on this class queue.

      rio       enables RIO on this class queue.

      ecn       enables RED/ECN on this class queue.

      cleardscp
                clears diffserv codepoint in the IP header.

PRIQ Commands
PRIQ (Priority Queueing) implements a simple priority-based queueing.  A
higher priority class is always served first.  Up to 16 priorities can be used
with PRIQ.

      interface  if_name [bandwidth bps] [tbrsize bytes] [sched_type]

      if_name   specifies the name of a network interface (e.g., fxp0).

      bandwidth
                specifies the interface bandwidth in bits per second.

      tbrsize   specifies the bucket size of a token bucket regulator in
                bytes.

      sched_type
                must be priq for PRIQ.

      class  sched_type if_name class_name parent_name [priority pri]
             [default] [qlimit count] [red|rio] [ecn] [cleardscp]

      sched_type
                must be priq for a PRIQ class.

      if_name   Interface name.  Must correspond to name in interface specifi-
                cation.

      class_name
                Arbitrary name for this class.  Must be unique for this inter-
                face.

      parent_name
                Parent class must be NULL for PRIQ.

      priority  High numbers are higher priority.  Max value is 15 and Min
                value is 0.  Default is 0.  A higher priority class is always
                served first in PRIQ.  Priority must be unique for the inter-
                face.

      default   Specify the default class.  When this keyword is present, all
                packets that do not match some classification criteria are
                assigned to this class.  Must be exactly one class on each
                interface defined as the default class.

      qlimit    The maximum queue size in number of packets.  Default value is
                50.

      red       enables RED on this class queue.

      rio       enables RIO on this class queue.

      ecn       enables RED/ECN on this class queue.

      cleardscp
                clears diffserv codepoint in the IP header.

WFQ Commands
WFQ (Weighted Fair Queueing) implements a weighted-round robin scheduler for a
set of queue.  A weight can be assigned to each queue to give a different pro-
portion of the link capacity.  A hash function is used to map a flow to one of
a set of queues, and thus, it is possible for two different flows to be mapped
into the same queue.

      interface  if_name [bandwidth bps] [tbrsize bytes] [sched_type] [nqueues
                 count] [qsize bytes] [hash policy]

      if_name   specifies the name of a network interface (e.g., fxp0).

      bandwidth
                specifies the interface bandwidth in bits per second.

      tbrsize   specifies the bucket size of a token bucket regulator in
                bytes.

      sched_type
                must be wfq for WFQ.

      nqueues   The number of queues in WFQ.  Default value is 256.

      qsize     The size of each queue in number of bytes.  Default value is
                64K bytes.

      hash      Type of hash policy to select a queue.  dstaddr specifies a
                hashing policy by IP destination address.  full specifies a
                hashing policy by IP addresses and ports.  srcport specifies a
                hashing policy by IP source port number.  srcaddr specifies a
                hashing policy by IP source address.  Default is dstaddr

FIFOQ Commands
FIFOQ (First-In First-Out Queueing) is a simple tail-drop FIFO queue.  FIFOQ
is the simplest possible implementation of a queueing discipline in ALTQ, and
can be used to compare with other queueing disciplines.  FIFOQ can be also
used as a template for those who want to write their own queueing disciplines.

      interface  if_name [bandwidth bps] [tbrsize bytes] [sched_type] [qlimit
                 count]

      if_name   specifies the name of a network interface (e.g., fxp0).

      bandwidth
                specifies the interface bandwidth in bits per second.

      tbrsize   specifies the bucket size of a token bucket regulator in
                bytes.

      sched_type
                must be fifoq for FIFOQ.

      qlimit    The maximum queue size in number of packets.  Default value is
                50.

RED Commands
RED (Random Early Detection) is an implicit congestion notification mechanism
that exercises packet dropping or packet marking stochastically according to
the average queue length.  RED can be viewed as a buffer management mechanism
and can be integrated into other packet scheduling schemes.

      red  min_th max_th inv_pmax

The red command sets the default RED parameters.  min_th and max_th are the
minimum and the maximum threshold values.  inv_pmax is the inverse (recipro-
cal) of the maximum drop probability.  For example, 10 means the maximum drop
probability of 1/10.

      interface  if_name [bandwidth bps] [tbrsize bytes] [sched_type] [qlimit
                 count] [packetsize bytes] [weight n] [thmin n] [thmax n]
                 [invpmax n] [ecn] [flowvalve]

      if_name   specifies the name of a network interface (e.g., fxp0).

      bandwidth
                specifies the interface bandwidth in bits per second.

      tbrsize   specifies the bucket size of a token bucket regulator in
                bytes.

      sched_type
                must be red for RED.

      qlimit    The maximum queue size in number of packets.  Default value is
                60.

      packetsize
                The average packet size in number of bytes.  This parameter is
                used to calibrate the idle period.  Default value is 1000.

      weight    The inverse of the weight of EWMA (exponentially weighted mov-
                ing average).

      thmin     The minimum threshold.

      thmax     The maximum threshold.

      invpmax   The inverse of the maximum drop probability.

      ecn       enables ECN.

      flowvalve
                enables flowvalve.

RIO Commands
ALTQ/RIO has 3 drop precedence levels defined for the Assured Forwarding of
DiffServ (RFC2597).  Since adaptive flows are likely to stay under the medium
drop precedence level under congestion, the medium drop precedence would pro-
tect adaptive flows from unadaptive flows.

The original RIO has 2 sets of RED parameters; one for in-profile packets and
the other for out-of-profile packets.  At the ingress of the network, profile
meters tag packets as IN or OUT based on contracted profiles for customers.
Inside the network, IN packets receive preferential treatment by the RIO drop-
per.  It is possible to provision the network not to drop IN packets at all by
providing enough capacity for the total volume of IN packets.  Thus, RIO can
be used to provide a service that statistically assures capacity allocated for
users.  This mechanism can be extended to support an arbitrary number of drop
precedence levels.  ALTQ supports 3 drop precedence levels.

      rio  low_min_th low_max_th low_inv_pmax medium_min_th medium_max_th
           medium_inv_pmax high_min_th high_max_th high_inv_pmax

The rio command sets the default RIO parameters.  The parameters are RED
parameters for 3 (low, medium, high) drop precedence.

      interface  if_name [bandwidth bps] [tbrsize bytes] [sched_type] [qlimit
                 count] [packetsize bytes] [weight n] [lo_thmin n] [lo_thmax
                 n] [lo_invpmax n] [med_thmin n] [med_thmax n] [med_invpmax n]
                 [hi_thmin n] [hi_thmax n] [hi_invpmax n] [ecn]

      if_name   specifies the name of a network interface (e.g., fxp0).

      bandwidth
                specifies the interface bandwidth in bits per second.

      tbrsize   specifies the bucket size of a token bucket regulator in
                bytes.

      sched_type
                must be rio for RIO.

      qlimit    The maximum queue size in number of packets.  Default value is
                60.

      packetsize
                The average packet size in number of bytes.  This parameter is
                used to calibrate the idle period.  Default value is 1000.

      weight    The inverse of the weight of EWMA (exponentially weighted mov-
                ing average).

      lo_thmin  The minimum threshold for low drop precedence.

      lo_thmax  The maximum threshold for low drop precedence.

      lo_invpmax
                The inverse of the maximum drop probability for low drop
                precedence.

      med_thmin
                The minimum threshold for medium drop precedence.

      med_thmax
                The maximum threshold for medium drop precedence.

      med_invpmax
                The inverse of the maximum drop probability for medium drop
                precedence.

      hi_thmin  The minimum threshold for high drop precedence.

      hi_thmax  The maximum threshold for high drop precedence.

      hi_invpmax
                The inverse of the maximum drop probability for high drop
                precedence.

      ecn       enables ECN.

BLUE Commands
      interface  if_name [bandwidth bps] [tbrsize bytes] [sched_type] [qlimit
                 count] [packetsize bytes] [maxpmark n] [holdtime usec] [ecn]

      if_name   specifies the name of a network interface (e.g., fxp0).

      bandwidth
                specifies the interface bandwidth in bits per second.

      tbrsize   specifies the bucket size of a token bucket regulator in
                bytes.

      sched_type
                must be blue for BLUE.

      qlimit    The maximum queue size in number of packets.  Default value is
                60.

      packetsize
                The average packet size in number of bytes.  Default value is
                1000.

      maxpmark  specifies the precision of marking probability.

      holdtime  specifies the hold time in usec.

      ecn       enables ECN.

CDNR Commands
The conditioner command specifies a diffserv traffic conditioner.  A traffic
conditioner is not a queueing discipline but a component to meter, mark or
drop incoming packets according to some rules.

As opposed to a queueing discipline, a traffic conditioner handles incoming
packets at an input interface.  If no queueing discipline (e.g., CBQ) is used
for the interface, a null interface command should be used to specify an input
network interface.

      interface  if_name [bandwidth bps] [tbrsize bytes]

The conditioner command has the following syntax.

      conditioner  if_name cdnr_name <action>

      if_name     Interface name.  Must correspond to name in interface speci-
                  fication.

      cdnr_name   Arbitrary name for this conditioner.  Must be unique for
                  this interface.

      action      Action of the conditioner.

An action can be a recursively defined action.  The following actions are
defined.

      pass

                  pass allows the packet to go through without any modifica-
                  tion to the packet.

      drop

                  drop rejects the packet.  The packet is immediately dis-
                  carded.

      mark  value

                  mark sets the specified value to the ds field in the IP
                  header.  Then, the packet is allowed to go through.

      tbmeter  rate depth <in_action> <out_action>

                     tbmeter is a token bucket meter configured with rate and
                     depth parameters.  Rate is token rate in bits-per-second.
                     Depth is bucket depth in KB.  When an incoming packet is
                     in profile (available token is more than the packet
                     size), tbmeter takes in_action.  Otherwise, tbmeter takes
                     out_action.

      trtcm  cmtd_rate cmtd_depth peak_rate peak_depth <green_action>
             <yellow_action> <red_action> [coloraware|colorblind]

                   trtcm is a 2-rate 3 color marker for Assured Forwarding.  A
                   trtcm consists of 2 token buckets, one for a committed rate
                   and the other for a peak rate.  When an incoming packet is
                   in the committed profile, trtcm takes green_action.  When
                   the packet is out of the committed profile but in the peak
                   profile, trtcm takes yellow_action.  Otherwise, tbtcm takes
                   red_action.  A trtcm is either color-aware or color-blind.
                   A color-aware trtcm do not raise the color (ds field
                   value), that is, a yellow packet can be yellow or red but
                   can not be blue.  Default is color-blind.

      tswtcm  cmtd_rate peak_rate avg_interval <green_action> <yellow_action>
              <red_action>

                    tswtcm is a time sliding window 3 color marker for Assured
                    Forwarding.  A tswtcm differs from trtcm in that a tswtcm
                    probabilistically marks packets.  A tswtcm consists of 2
                    rates, one for a committed rate and the other for a peak
                    rate.  When an incoming packet is in the committed pro-
                    file, tswtcm takes green_action.  When the packet is out
                    of the committed profile but in the peak profile, tswtcm
                    takes yellow_action.  Otherwise, tswtcm takes red_action.
                    cmtd_rate and peak_rate are specified in bits per second.
                    avg_interval provides the size of time window for averag-
                    ing incoming rate, and is specified in milliseconds.  500
                    msec is ok for normal settings.

JoBS Commands
JoBS (Joint Buffer Management and Scheduling) is a queuing discipline that can
enforce any feasible mix of absolute and proportional guarantees on packet
losses, packet delays, and throughput, for classes of traffic, on a per-hop
basis.  No admission control is performed, thus if the set of service guaran-
tees becomes infeasible, some service guarantees may be relaxed.

      interface  if_name [bandwidth bps] [qlimit count] [separate] [tbrsize
                 bytes] [sched_type]

      if_name   specifies the name of a network interface (e.g., fxp0).

      bandwidth
                specifies the interface bandwidth in bits per second.

      qlimit    specifies the maximum queue size in number of packets.

      separate  specifies that classes have independent buffers.  The default
                is to have a shared buffer for all classes.  If this option is
                specified, qlimit applies to each independent buffer.

      tbrsize   specifies the bucket size of a token bucket regulator in
                bytes.

      sched_type
                must be jobs for JoBS.

      class  sched_type if_name class_name parent_name [priority pri]
             [default] [adc microsecs] [alc fraction] [arc bps] [rdc prop]
             [rlc prop]

      sched_type
                must be jobs for a JoBS class.

      if_name   Interface name.  Must correspond to name in interface specifi-
                cation.

      class_name
                Arbitrary name for this class.  Must be unique for this inter-
                face.

      parent_name
                Parent class must be NULL for JoBS.

      priority  Priority index used for proportional differentiation.  Max
                value is 15 and Min value is 0.  Default is 0.  Priority must
                be unique for the interface.

      default   Specify the default class.  When this keyword is present, all
                packets that do not match some classification criteria are
                assigned to this class.  Must be exactly one class on each
                interface defined as the default class.

      adc       Specifies an upper bound on delays for that class (in
                microseconds).  A value of -1 will indicate the absence of
                delay bound.  By default, no delay bound is offered.

      alc       Specifies a upper bound on loss rate for that class (in frac-
                tion of 1, for instance a 1% loss rate bound will be expressed
                as 0.01).  A value of -1 will indicate the absence of loss
                rate bound.  By default, no loss rate bound is offered.

      arc       Specifies a lower bound on the throughput received by that
                class (in bits per second).  A value of -1 will indicate the
                absence of throughput bound.  By default, no throughput bound
                is offered.

      rdc       Specifies a proportional delay differentiation factor between
                that class and the class with the successive priority index.
                For instance, for priority 1, an rdc of 2 specifies that the
                delays of packets marked as class 2 will roughly be twice the
                delays of packets marked as class 1.  A value of -1 indicates
                the absence of proportional differentiation on that class.
                Note that class N if N is the maximum priority should have a
                dummy coefficient different from -1 if proportional delay dif-
                ferentiation is desired on Class N.  By default, no propor-
                tional delay differentiation is offered.

      rlc       Specifies a proportional loss differentiation factor between
                that class and the class with the successive priority index.
                For instance, for priority 1, an rlc of 2 specifies that the
                loss rate of packets marked as class 2 will roughly be twice
                the loss rate of packets marked as class 1.  A value of -1
                indicates the absence of proportional differentiation on that
                class.  Note that class N if N is the maximum priority should
                have a dummy coefficient different from -1 if proportional
                loss differentiation is desired on Class N.  By default, no
                proportional loss differentiation is offered.

EXAMPLES
   CBQ Example
     #
     # cbq configuration for vx0 (10Mbps ether)
     # give at least 40% to TCP
     # limit HTTP from network 133.138.1.0 up to 10%, use RED.
     # other traffic goes into default class
     #
     interface vx0 bandwidth 10M cbq
     #
     class cbq vx0 root_class NULL priority 0 pbandwidth 100
     class cbq vx0 def_class root_class borrow pbandwidth 95 default
     class cbq vx0 tcp_class def_class borrow pbandwidth  40
             filter vx0 tcp_class 0 0 0 0 6
     class cbq vx0 csl_class tcp_class pbandwidth  10   red
             filter vx0 csl_class 0 0 133.138.1.0 netmask 0xffffff00 80 6
             filter vx0 csl_class 133.138.1.0 netmask 0xffffff00 0 0 80 6
     #
     # sample filter6 command
     #
                     filter6 vx0 csl_class ::0 0 d000:a:0:123::/64 80 6

   HFSC Example
     #
     # hfsc configuration for hierarchical sharing
     #
     interface pvc0 bandwidth 45M hfsc
     #
     # (10% of the bandwidth share goes to the default class)
     class hfsc pvc0 def_class root pshare 10 default
     #
     #          bandwidth share    guaranteed rate
     #    CMU:       45%             15Mbps
     #    PITT:      45%             15Mbps
     #
     class hfsc pvc0 cmu  root pshare 45 grate 15M
     class hfsc pvc0 pitt root pshare 45 grate 15M
     #
     # CMU      bandwidth share    guaranteed rate
     #    CS:        20%             10Mbps
     #    other:     20%              5Mbps
     #
     class hfsc pvc0 cmu_other cmu  pshare 20 grate 10M
             filter pvc0 cmu_other   0 0 128.2.0.0   netmask 0xffff0000 0 0
     class hfsc pvc0 cmu_cs    cmu  pshare 20 grate  5M
             filter pvc0 cmu_cs      0 0 128.2.242.0 netmask 0xffffff00 0 0
     #
     # PITT     bandwidth share    guaranteed rate
     #    CS:        20%             10Mbps
     #    other:     20%              5Mbps
     #
     class hfsc pvc0 pitt_other pitt  pshare 20 grate 10M
             filter pvc0 pitt_other  0 0 136.142.0.0  netmask 0xffff0000 0 0
     class hfsc pvc0 pitt_cs    pitt  pshare 20 grate  5M
             filter pvc0 pitt_cs     0 0 136.142.79.0 netmask 0xffffff00 0 0

   HFSC Example (simpler one with ulimit)
     #
     interface fxp0 bandwidth 90M hfsc
     # reserve 20% for default class
     class hfsc fxp0 def_class root pshare 20 default
     # shared class for TCP and UDP
     class hfsc fxp0 shared_class root bandwidth 72M
     # shared class for all TCP
     class hfsc fxp0 tcp_shared shared_class bandwidth 40M ulimit 60M
     # generic tcp
     class hfsc fxp0 tcp_class tcp_shared bandwidth 15M ulimit 50M
             filter fxp0 tcp_class 0 0 0 0 6
     # http
     class hfsc fxp0 http_class tcp_shared bandwidth 25M ulimit 40M
             filter fxp0 http_class 0 80 0 0 6
             filter fxp0 http_class 0 0 0 80 6
     # udp
     class hfsc fxp0 udp_class shared_class bandwidth 15M ulimit 20M
             filter fxp0 udp_class 0 0 0 0 17

   PRIQ Example
     #
     # priq configuration for fxp0 (100Mbps ether)
     #     icmp: high priority
     #     tcp:  medium priority
     #     others: low priority
     #
     interface fxp0 bandwidth 100M priq
     #
     class priq fxp0 high_class NULL priority 2
             filter fxp0 high_class 0 0 0 0 1
     class priq fxp0 med_class NULL priority 1
             filter fxp0 med_class 0 0 0 0 6
     class priq fxp0 low_class NULL priority 0 default

   WFQ Example
     interface pvc0 bandwidth 134000000 wfq

   FIFOQ Example
     interface rl0 bandwidth 10M fifoq

   Conditioner Example
     #
     interface fxp0
     #
     # a simple dropper
     # discard all packets from 192.168.0.83
     #
     conditioner fxp0 dropper <drop>
             filter fxp0 dropper 0 0 192.168.0.83 0 0

     #
     # EF conditioner
     # mark EF to all packets from 192.168.0.117
     #
     conditioner pvc1 ef_cdnr <tbmeter 6M 64K <mark 0xb8><drop>>
             filter fxp0 ef_cdnr 0 0 192.168.0.117 0 0

     #
     # AF1x conditioner
     # mark AF1x to packets from 192.168.0.178
     #       AF11 (low drop precedence):    less than 3Mbps
     #       AF12 (medium drop precedence): more than 3Mbps and less than 10Mbps
     #       AF13 (high drop precedence):   more than 10Mbps
     #
     conditioner fxp0 af1x_cdnr <trtcm 3M 32K 10M 64K <mark 0x28><mark 0x30><mark 0x38>>
             filter fxp0 af1x_cdnr 0 0 192.168.0.178 0 0

SEE ALSO
     altqd(8)

BUGS
     This man page is incomplete.  For more information read the source.

NetBSD 5.0.1                  September 10, 2008                  NetBSD 5.0.1

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©1994 Man-cgi 1.15, Panagiotis Christias <christia@softlab.ntua.gr>
©1996-2014 Modified for NetBSD by Kimmo Suominen