XSERVER(1)                                                          XSERVER(1)



NAME
       Xserver - X Window System display server

SYNOPSIS
       X [option ...]

DESCRIPTION
       X  is  the  generic name for the X Window System display server.  It is
       frequently a link or a copy of the appropriate server binary for  driv-
       ing the most frequently used server on a given machine.

STARTING THE SERVER
       The  X  server  is  usually  started from the X Display Manager program
       xdm(1) or a similar display manager program.  This utility is run  from
       the  system  boot  files  and takes care of keeping the server running,
       prompting for usernames and passwords, and starting up  the  user  ses-
       sions.

       Installations  that run more than one window system may need to use the
       xinit(1) utility instead of a display manager.  However, xinit is to be
       considered  a tool for building startup scripts and is not intended for
       use by end users.  Site administrators are strongly urged to use a dis-
       play manager, or build other interfaces for novice users.

       The  X  server  may  also  be started directly by the user, though this
       method is usually reserved for testing and is not recommended for  nor-
       mal  operation.   On some platforms, the user must have special permis-
       sion to start the X server, often because  access  to  certain  devices
       (e.g. /dev/mouse) is restricted.

       When  the  X server starts up, it typically takes over the display.  If
       you are running on a workstation whose console is the display, you  may
       not be able to log into the console while the server is running.

OPTIONS
       Many X servers have device-specific command line options.  See the man-
       ual pages for the individual  servers  for  more  details;  a  list  of
       server-specific manual pages is provided in the SEE ALSO section below.

       All of the X servers accept the command line options  described  below.
       Some  X  servers  may have alternative ways of providing the parameters
       described here, but the values provided via the  command  line  options
       should override values specified via other mechanisms.

       :displaynumber
               The  X server runs as the given displaynumber, which by default
               is 0.  If multiple X servers are to  run  simultaneously  on  a
               host,  each must have a unique display number.  See the DISPLAY
               NAMES section of the X(7) manual page to learn how  to  specify
               which display number clients should try to use.

       -a number
               sets  pointer  acceleration  (i.e.  the  ratio  of  how much is
               reported to how much the user actually moved the pointer).

       -ac     disables host-based access control mechanisms.  Enables  access
               by  any host, and permits any host to modify the access control
               list.  Use with extreme caution.  This option exists  primarily
               for running test suites remotely.

       -audit level
               sets  the  audit  trail level.  The default level is 1, meaning
               only connection rejections are reported.  Level 2  additionally
               reports  all  successful  connections and disconnects.  Level 4
               enables messages  from  the  SECURITY  extension,  if  present,
               including  generation and revocation of authorizations and vio-
               lations of the security policy.  Level 0 turns  off  the  audit
               trail.  Audit lines are sent as standard error output.

       -auth authorization-file
               specifies  a  file which contains a collection of authorization
               records used to authenticate access.  See also the  xdm(1)  and
               Xsecurity(7) manual pages.

       -br     sets  the  default  root  window  to solid black instead of the
               standard root weave  pattern.    This  is  the  default  unless
               -retro or -wr is specified.

       -bs     disables backing store support on all screens.

       -c      turns off key-click.

       c volume
               sets key-click volume (allowable range: 0-100).

       -cc class
               sets  the  visual  class  for the root window of color screens.
               The class numbers are as specified  in  the  X  protocol.   Not
               obeyed by all servers.

       -core   causes the server to generate a core dump on fatal errors.

       -deferglyphs whichfonts
               specifies  the  types  of  fonts  for  which  the server should
               attempt to use deferred glyph loading.  whichfonts can  be  all
               (all fonts), none (no fonts), or 16 (16 bit fonts only).

       -dpi resolution
               sets  the  resolution for all screens, in dots per inch.  To be
               used when the server cannot determine the screen  size(s)  from
               the hardware.

       dpms    enables  DPMS  (display  power management services), where sup-
               ported.  The default state is platform and  configuration  spe-
               cific.

       -dpms   disables DPMS (display power management services).  The default
               state is platform and configuration specific.

       -extensionextensionName
               disables named extension.   If an  unknown  extension  name  is
               specified, a list of accepted extension names is printed.

       +extensionextensionName
               enables  named  extension.    If  an  unknown extension name is
               specified, a list of accepted extension names is printed.

       -f volume
               sets feep (bell) volume (allowable range: 0-100).

       -fc cursorFont
               sets default cursor font.

       -fn font
               sets the default font.

       -fp fontPath
               sets the search path for fonts.  This path is a comma separated
               list  of directories which the X server searches for font data-
               bases.  See the FONTS section of  this  manual  page  for  more
               information and the default list.

       -help   prints a usage message.

       -I      causes all remaining command line arguments to be ignored.

       -maxbigreqsize size
               sets the maximum big request to size MB.

       -nocursor
               disable the display of the pointer cursor.

       -nolisten trans-type
               disables a transport type.  For example, TCP/IP connections can
               be disabled with -nolisten tcp.  This option may be issued mul-
               tiple  times to disable listening to different transport types.

       -noreset
               prevents a server reset when  the  last  client  connection  is
               closed.   This  overrides  a  previous  -terminate command line
               option.

       -p minutes
               sets screen-saver pattern cycle time in minutes.

       -pn     permits the server to continue running if it fails to establish
               all  of its well-known sockets (connection points for clients),
               but establishes at least one.  This option is set by default.

       -nopn   causes the server to exit if it fails to establish all  of  its
               well-known sockets (connection points for clients).

       -r      turns off auto-repeat.

       r       turns on auto-repeat.

       -retro  starts the stipple with the classic stipple and cursor visible.
               The default is to start with a black root window, and  to  sup-
               press display of the cursor until the first time an application
               calls XDefineCursor().  For the Xorg server, this also sets the
               default  for  the DontZap option to FALSE.  For kdrive servers,
               this implies -zap.

       -s minutes
               sets screen-saver timeout time in minutes.

       -su     disables save under support on all screens.

       -t number
               sets pointer acceleration threshold in pixels (i.e.  after  how
               many pixels pointer acceleration should take effect).

       -terminate
               causes the server to terminate at server reset, instead of con-
               tinuing to run.  This overrides  a  previous  -noreset  command
               line option.

       -to seconds
               sets default connection timeout in seconds.

       -tst    disables  all  testing extensions (e.g., XTEST, XTrap, XTestEx-
               tension1, RECORD).

       ttyxx   ignored, for servers started the ancient way (from init).

       v       sets video-off screen-saver preference.

       -v      sets video-on screen-saver preference.

       -wm     forces the default backing-store of all  windows  to  be  When-
               Mapped.   This  is  a  backdoor way of getting backing-store to
               apply to all windows.  Although all mapped  windows  will  have
               backing  store,  the  backing store attribute value reported by
               the server for a window will be the last value established by a
               client.   If it has never been set by a client, the server will
               report the default value, NotUseful.  This behavior is required
               by  the  X  protocol,  which  allows  the  server to exceed the
               client's backing store expectations but does not provide a  way
               to tell the client that it is doing so.

       -wr     sets  the  default  root  window  to solid white instead of the
               standard root weave pattern.

       -x extension
               loads the specified extension at init.  This  is  a  no-op  for
               most implementations.

       [+-]xinerama
               enables(+)  or disables(-) the XINERAMA extension.  The default
               state is platform and configuration specific.

SERVER DEPENDENT OPTIONS
       Some X servers accept the following options:

       -ld kilobytes
               sets the data space limit of the server to the specified number
               of  kilobytes.  A value of zero makes the data size as large as
               possible.  The default value of -1 leaves the data space  limit
               unchanged.

       -lf files
               sets the number-of-open-files limit of the server to the speci-
               fied number.  A value of zero makes the limit as large as  pos-
               sible.  The default value of -1 leaves the limit unchanged.

       -ls kilobytes
               sets  the stack space limit of the server to the specified num-
               ber of kilobytes.  A value of zero  makes  the  stack  size  as
               large  as  possible.   The default value of -1 leaves the stack
               space limit unchanged.

       -render default|mono|gray|color sets the color allocation  policy  that
               will be used by the render extension.

               default selects  the  default  policy  defined  for the display
                       depth of the X server.

               mono    don't use any color cell.

               gray    use a gray map of 13  color  cells  for  the  X  render
                       extension.

               color   use  a  color  cube of at most 4*4*4 colors (that is 64
                       color cells).

       -dumbSched
               disables smart scheduling on platforms that support  the  smart
               scheduler.

       -schedInterval interval
               sets the smart scheduler's scheduling interval to interval mil-
               liseconds.

XDMCP OPTIONS
       X servers that support XDMCP have the following  options.   See  the  X
       Display Manager Control Protocol specification for more information.

       -query hostname
               enables  XDMCP  and  sends Query packets to the specified host-
               name.

       -broadcast
               enable XDMCP and broadcasts BroadcastQuery packets to the  net-
               work.   The first responding display manager will be chosen for
               the session.

       -multicast [address [hop count]]
               Enable XDMCP and multicast BroadcastQuery packets to the   net-
               work.   The  first responding display manager is chosen for the
               session.  If an address is specified, the multicast is sent  to
               that  address.   If  no  address is specified, the multicast is
               sent to the default XDMCP IPv6 multicast group.  If a hop count
               is  specified, it is used as the maximum hop count for the mul-
               ticast.  If no hop count is specified, the multicast is set  to
               a  maximum of 1 hop, to prevent the multicast from being routed
               beyond the local network.

       -indirect hostname
               enables XDMCP and send IndirectQuery packets to  the  specified
               hostname.

       -port port-number
               uses  the  specified  port-number for XDMCP packets, instead of
               the default.  This option must be specified before any  -query,
               -broadcast, -multicast, or -indirect options.

       -from local-address
               specifies the local address to connect from (useful if the con-
               necting host has  multiple  network  interfaces).   The  local-
               address  may  be  expressed  in any form acceptable to the host
               platform's gethostbyname(3) implementation.

       -once   causes the server to terminate (rather  than  reset)  when  the
               XDMCP session ends.

       -class display-class
               XDMCP  has  an  additional  display  qualifier used in resource
               lookup for display-specific options.   This  option  sets  that
               value,  by  default  it is "MIT-Unspecified" (not a very useful
               value).

       -cookie xdm-auth-bits
               When testing XDM-AUTHENTICATION-1,  a  private  key  is  shared
               between the server and the manager.  This option sets the value
               of that private data (not that it is very private, being on the
               command line!).

       -displayID display-id
               Yet  another  XDMCP specific value, this one allows the display
               manager to identify each display so  that  it  can  locate  the
               shared key.

XKEYBOARD OPTIONS
       X  servers  that  support the XKEYBOARD (a.k.a. "XKB") extension accept
       the following options.  All layout files specified on the command  line
       must be located in the XKB base directory or a subdirectory, and speci-
       fied as the relative path from the XKB base directory.  The default XKB
       base directory is /usr/X11R7/lib/X11/xkb.

       [+-]accessx [ timeout [ timeout_mask [ feedback [ options_mask ] ] ] ]
               enables(+) or disables(-) AccessX key sequences.

       -xkbdir directory
               base  directory  for keyboard layout files.  This option is not
               available for setuid X servers (i.e., when the X server's  real
               and effective uids are different).

       -ardelay milliseconds
               sets  the autorepeat delay (length of time in milliseconds that
               a key must be depressed before autorepeat starts).

       -arinterval milliseconds
               sets the autorepeat interval (length of  time  in  milliseconds
               that should elapse between autorepeat-generated keystrokes).

       -xkbmap filename
               loads keyboard description in filename on server startup.

NETWORK CONNECTIONS
       The  X server supports client connections via a platform-dependent sub-
       set of the following transport types: TCPIP, Unix Domain sockets,  DEC-
       net,  and several varieties of SVR4 local connections.  See the DISPLAY
       NAMES section of the X(7) manual page to learn  how  to  specify  which
       transport type clients should try to use.

GRANTING ACCESS
       The  X  server  implements a platform-dependent subset of the following
       authorization protocols: MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1, XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1,  XDM-
       AUTHORIZATION-2,  SUN-DES-1,  and MIT-KERBEROS-5.  See the Xsecurity(7)
       manual page for information on the operation of these protocols.

       Authorization data required by the above protocols  is  passed  to  the
       server  in  a  private  file  named with the -auth command line option.
       Each time the server is about to accept the first  connection  after  a
       reset  (or  when  the server is starting), it reads this file.  If this
       file contains any authorization records, the local host is not automat-
       ically allowed access to the server, and only clients which send one of
       the authorization records contained in the file in the connection setup
       information  will  be  allowed  access.   See the Xau manual page for a
       description of the binary format of this file.  See xauth(1) for  main-
       tenance of this file, and distribution of its contents to remote hosts.

       The X server also uses a host-based access control  list  for  deciding
       whether  or  not  to  accept  connections  from clients on a particular
       machine.  If no other authorization mechanism is being used, this  list
       initially  consists  of the host on which the server is running as well
       as any machines listed in the file /etc/Xn.hosts, where n is  the  dis-
       play number of the server.  Each line of the file should contain either
       an Internet hostname (e.g. expo.lcs.mit.edu) or a  DECnet  hostname  in
       double  colon  format  (e.g.  hydra::) or a complete name in the format
       family:name as described in the xhost(1) manual page.  There should  be
       no leading or trailing spaces on any lines.  For example:

               joesworkstation
               corporate.company.com
               star::
               inet:bigcpu
               local:

       Users  can  add  or  remove  hosts from this list and enable or disable
       access control using the xhost command from the  same  machine  as  the
       server.

       If  the  X  FireWall  Proxy  (xfwp) is being used without a sitepolicy,
       host-based authorization must be turned on for clients to  be  able  to
       connect to the X server via the xfwp.  If xfwp is run without a config-
       uration file and thus no sitepolicy is defined, if xfwp is using  an  X
       server  where xhost + has been run to turn off host-based authorization
       checks, when a client tries to connect to this X server via xfwp, the X
       server  will  deny  the  connection.   See xfwp(1) for more information
       about this proxy.

       The X protocol intrinsically does not have any notion of window  opera-
       tion  permissions or place any restrictions on what a client can do; if
       a program can connect to a display, it has full run of the  screen.   X
       servers that support the SECURITY extension fare better because clients
       can be designated untrusted via the authorization they use to  connect;
       see  the xauth(1) manual page for details.  Restrictions are imposed on
       untrusted clients that curtail the mischief they can do.  See the SECU-
       RITY extension specification for a complete list of these restrictions.

       Sites that have better authentication and authorization  systems  might
       wish  to  make use of the hooks in the libraries and the server to pro-
       vide additional security models.

SIGNALS
       The X server attaches special meaning to the following signals:

       SIGHUP  This signal causes the server to  close  all  existing  connec-
               tions,  free  all  resources,  and restore all defaults.  It is
               sent by the display  manager  whenever  the  main  user's  main
               application (usually an xterm or window manager) exits to force
               the server to clean up and prepare for the next user.

       SIGTERM This signal causes the server to exit cleanly.

       SIGUSR1 This signal is used quite differently from either of the above.
               When  the  server  starts, it checks to see if it has inherited
               SIGUSR1 as SIG_IGN instead of the usual SIG_DFL.  In this case,
               the  server  sends a SIGUSR1 to its parent process after it has
               set up the various connection schemes.  Xdm uses  this  feature
               to recognize when connecting to the server is possible.

FONTS
       The  X  server  can  obtain  fonts  from  directories  and/or from font
       servers.  The list of directories and font servers the  X  server  uses
       when trying to open a font is controlled by the font path.

       The    default    font    path    is    /usr/X11R7/lib/X11/fonts/misc/,
       /usr/X11R7/lib/X11/fonts/TTF/,         /usr/X11R7/lib/X11/fonts/Type1/,
       /usr/X11R7/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi/, /usr/X11R7/lib/X11/fonts/100dpi/ .

       A  special kind of directory can be specified using the catalogue: pre-
       fix. Directories specified this way can contain  symlinks  pointing  to
       the real font directories. See the FONTPATH.D section for details.

       The  font  path  can be set with the -fp option or by xset(1) after the
       server has started.

FONTPATH.D
       You can specify  a  special  kind  of  font  path  in  the  form  cata-
       logue:<dir>.   The directory specified after the catalogue: prefix will
       be scanned for symlinks and each symlink destination will be added as a
       local fontfile FPE.

       The  symlink  can  be  suffixed by attributes such as 'unscaled', which
       will be passed through to the underlying fontfile FPE. The only  excep-
       tion  is  the  newly introduced 'pri' attribute, which will be used for
       ordering the font paths specified by the symlinks.

       An example configuration:

           75dpi:unscaled:pri=20 -> /usr/share/X11/fonts/75dpi
           ghostscript:pri=60 -> /usr/share/fonts/default/ghostscript
           misc:unscaled:pri=10 -> /usr/share/X11/fonts/misc
           type1:pri=40 -> /usr/share/X11/fonts/Type1
           type1:pri=50 -> /usr/share/fonts/default/Type1

       This will add /usr/share/X11/fonts/misc  as  the  first  FPE  with  the
       attribute  the  attribute unscaled etc. This is functionally equivalent
       to setting the following font path:

           /usr/share/X11/fonts/misc:unscaled,
           /usr/share/X11/fonts/75dpi:unscaled,
           /usr/share/X11/fonts/Type1,
           /usr/share/fonts/default/Type1,
           /usr/share/fonts/default/ghostscript


FILES
       /etc/Xn.hosts                 Initial access control list  for  display
                                     number n

       __datadir__/fonts/X11/misc,__datadir__/fonts/X11/75dpi,__datadir__/fonts/X11/100dpi
                                     Bitmap font directories

       __datadir__/fonts/X11/TTF,__datadir__/fonts/X11/Type1
                                     Outline font directories

       /tmp/.X11-unix/Xn             Unix domain socket for display number n

       /usr/adm/Xnmsgs               Error  log  file  for display number n if
                                     run from init(8)

       /usr/X11R7/lib/X11/xdm/xdm-errors
                                     Default error log file if the  server  is
                                     run from xdm(1)

SEE ALSO
       General information: X(7)

       Protocols:  X  Window  System  Protocol, The X Font Service Protocol, X
       Display Manager Control Protocol

       Fonts: bdftopcf(1), mkfontdir(1), mkfontscale(1), xfs(1),  xlsfonts(1),
       xfontsel(1), xfd(1), X Logical Font Description Conventions

       Security:  Xsecurity(7),  xauth(1),  Xau(1), xdm(1), xhost(1), xfwp(1),
       Security Extension Specification

       Starting the server: startx(1), xdm(1), xinit(1)

       Controlling the server once started:  xset(1),  xsetroot(1),  xhost(1),
       xinput(1), xrandr(1)

       Server-specific  man  pages:  Xorg(1),  Xdmx(1),  Xephyr(1),  Xnest(1),
       Xvfb(1), Xquartz(1), XWin(1).

       Server internal documentation: Definition of the Porting Layer for  the
       X v11 Sample Server

AUTHORS
       The  sample server was originally written by Susan Angebranndt, Raymond
       Drewry, Philip Karlton, and Todd Newman, from Digital Equipment  Corpo-
       ration,  with support from a large cast.  It has since been extensively
       rewritten by Keith Packard and Bob Scheifler, from MIT.   Dave  Wiggins
       took over post-R5 and made substantial improvements.



                                 X Version 11                       XSERVER(1)

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