X(7)                                                                      X(7)

       X - a portable, network-transparent window system

       The  X  Window System is a network transparent window system which runs
       on a wide range of computing and graphics machines.  It should be rela-
       tively straightforward to build the X.Org Foundation software distribu-
       tion on most ANSI C and POSIX compliant systems.  Commercial  implemen-
       tations are also available for a wide range of platforms.

       The  X.Org  Foundation  requests  that the following names be used when
       referring to this software:

                                   X Window System
                                    X Version 11
                             X Window System, Version 11

       X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group.

       X Window System servers run on computers  with  bitmap  displays.   The
       server distributes user input to and accepts output requests from vari-
       ous client programs through a variety of different interprocess  commu-
       nication  channels.   Although  the  most common case is for the client
       programs to be running on the same machine as the server,  clients  can
       be  run transparently from other machines (including machines with dif-
       ferent architectures and operating systems) as well.

       X supports overlapping hierarchical subwindows and  text  and  graphics
       operations, on both monochrome and color displays.  For a full explana-
       tion of the functions that are available, see the Xlib - C  Language  X
       Interface  manual,  the  X  Window System Protocol specification, the X
       Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface manual, and  various  toolkit

       The number of programs that use X is quite large.  Programs provided in
       the core X.Org Foundation distribution include:  a  terminal  emulator,
       xterm;  a  window manager, twm; a display manager, xdm; a console redi-
       rect program, xconsole; a mail interface, xmh; a bitmap editor, bitmap;
       resource  listing/manipulation  tools,  appres, editres; access control
       programs, xauth, xhost, and iceauth; user preference setting  programs,
       xrdb, xcmsdb, xset, xsetroot, xstdcmap, and xmodmap; clocks, xclock and
       oclock; a font displayer, xfd; utilities for listing information  about
       fonts, windows, and displays, xlsfonts, xwininfo, xlsclients, xdpyinfo,
       xlsatoms, and xprop; screen image manipulation  utilities,  xwd,  xwud,
       and  xmag; a performance measurement utility, x11perf; a font compiler,
       bdftopcf; a font server and related utilities, xfs, fsinfo,  fslsfonts,
       fstobdf;  a display server and related utilities, Xserver, rgb, mkfont-
       dir; a clipboard manager, xclipboard; keyboard description compiler and
       related  utilities,  xkbcomp, setxkbmap xkbprint, xkbbell, xkbevd, xkb-
       vleds, and xkbwatch; a utility to terminate clients, xkill; a  firewall
       security  proxy,  xfwp;  a  proxy manager to control them, proxymngr; a
       utility to find proxies, xfindproxy; web  browser  plug-ins,  libxrx.so
       and  libxrxnest.so;  an RX MIME-type helper program, xrx; and a utility
       to cause part or all of the screen to be redrawn, xrefresh.

       Many other  utilities,  window  managers,  games,  toolkits,  etc.  are
       included as user-contributed software in the X.Org Foundation distribu-
       tion, or are available on the Internet.  See  your  site  administrator
       for details.

       There  are  two main ways of getting the X server and an initial set of
       client applications started.  The particular  method  used  depends  on
       what  operating system you are running and whether or not you use other
       window systems in addition to X.

       Display Manager
               If you want to always have X running on your display, your site
               administrator  can set your machine up to use a Display Manager
               such as xdm, gdm, or kdm.  This program is typically started by
               the  system  at  boot time and takes care of keeping the server
               running and getting users logged in.  If you are running one of
               these  display  managers, you will normally see a window on the
               screen welcoming you to the system and asking  for  your  login
               information.  Simply type them in as you would at a normal ter-
               minal.  If you make a mistake, the display manager will display
               an error message and ask you to try again.  After you have suc-
               cessfully logged in, the display manager will start up  your  X
               environment.  The documentation for the display manager you use
               can provide more details.

       xinit (run manually from the shell)
               Sites that support more than one window system might choose  to
               use the xinit program for starting X manually.  If this is true
               for your machine, your site administrator  will  probably  have
               provided a program named "x11", "startx", or "xstart" that will
               do site-specific initialization  (such  as  loading  convenient
               default  resources,  running  a  window  manager,  displaying a
               clock, and starting several terminal emulators) in a nice  way.
               If  not,  you  can build such a script using the xinit program.
               This utility simply runs one user-specified  program  to  start
               the  server,  runs another to start up any desired clients, and
               then waits for either to finish.  Since either or both  of  the
               user-specified  programs may be a shell script, this gives sub-
               stantial flexibility at the expense of a nice  interface.   For
               this reason, xinit is not intended for end users.

       From  the  user's perspective, every X server has a display name of the


       This information is used by the application to determine how it  should
       connect  to  the  server  and which screen it should use by default (on
       displays with multiple monitors):

               The hostname specifies the name of the  machine  to  which  the
               display is physically connected.  If the hostname is not given,
               the most efficient way of communicating to a server on the same
               machine will be used.

               The  phrase  "display" is usually used to refer to a collection
               of monitors that share a common set of input devices (keyboard,
               mouse,  tablet, etc.).  Most workstations tend to only have one
               display.  Larger, multi-user systems, however, frequently  have
               several  displays  so  that  more  than one person can be doing
               graphics work at once.  To avoid confusion, each display  on  a
               machine  is assigned a display number (beginning at 0) when the
               X server for that display is started.  The display number  must
               always be given in a display name.

               Some displays share their input devices among two or more moni-
               tors.  These may be configured  as  a  single  logical  screen,
               which  allows  windows to move across screens, or as individual
               screens, each with their own set  of  windows.   If  configured
               such  that each monitor has its own set of windows, each screen
               is assigned a screen number (beginning at 0) when the X  server
               for  that  display  is  started.   If  the screen number is not
               given, screen 0 will be used.

       On POSIX systems, the default display name is stored  in  your  DISPLAY
       environment  variable.  This variable is set automatically by the xterm
       terminal emulator.  However, when you log into  another  machine  on  a
       network,  you may need to set DISPLAY by hand to point to your display.
       For example,

           % setenv DISPLAY myws:0
           $ DISPLAY=myws:0; export DISPLAY
       The ssh program can be used to start an X program on a remote  machine;
       it automatically sets the DISPLAY variable correctly.

       Finally,  most X programs accept a command line option of -display dis-
       playname to temporarily override the contents of DISPLAY.  This is most
       commonly used to pop windows on another person's screen or as part of a
       "remote shell" command to start an xterm pointing back to your display.
       For example,

           % xeyes -display joesws:0 -geometry 1000x1000+0+0
           % rsh big xterm -display myws:0 -ls </dev/null &

       X  servers  listen for connections on a variety of different communica-
       tions channels (network byte  streams,  shared  memory,  etc.).   Since
       there  can be more than one way of contacting a given server, The host-
       name part of the display name is used to determine the type of  channel
       (also  called  a transport layer) to be used.  X servers generally sup-
       port the following types of connections:

               The hostname part of the  display  name  should  be  the  empty
               string.   For  example:   :0, :1, and :0.1.  The most efficient
               local transport will be chosen.

               The hostname part of the display  name  should  be  the  server
               machine's  hostname or IP address.  Full Internet names, abbre-
               viated names,  IPv4  addresses,  and  IPv6  addresses  are  all
               allowed.     For    example:    x.org:0,    expo:0,    [::1]:0,
     , bigmachine:1, and hydra:0.1.

       An X server can use several types of access control.   Mechanisms  pro-
       vided in Release 7 are:
           Host Access                   Simple host-based access control.
           MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1            Shared plain-text "cookies".
           XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1           Secure DES based private-keys.
           SUN-DES-1                     Based on Sun's secure rpc system.
           Server Interpreted            Server-dependent methods of access control

       Xdm  initializes  access  control for the server and also places autho-
       rization information in a file accessible to the user.   Normally,  the
       list  of  hosts  from  which  connections are always accepted should be
       empty, so that only clients with are explicitly authorized can  connect
       to  the  display.   When you add entries to the host list (with xhost),
       the server no longer performs any  authorization  on  connections  from
       those machines.  Be careful with this.

       The  file  from which Xlib extracts authorization data can be specified
       with the environment variable XAUTHORITY,  and  defaults  to  the  file
       .Xauthority in the home directory.  Xdm uses $HOME/.Xauthority and will
       create it or merge in authorization records if it already exists when a
       user logs in.

       If  you  use  several machines and share a common home directory across
       all of the machines by means of a network file system, you never really
       have  to  worry  about authorization files, the system should work cor-
       rectly by default.  Otherwise, as the authorization files are  machine-
       independent,  you  can  simply copy the files to share them.  To manage
       authorization files, use xauth.  This program  allows  you  to  extract
       records  and  insert  them  into other files.  Using this, you can send
       authorization to remote machines when you login, if the remote  machine
       does  not  share a common home directory with your local machine.  Note
       that authorization information transmitted ``in the clear''  through  a
       network  file system or using ftp or rcp can be ``stolen'' by a network
       eavesdropper, and as such may  enable  unauthorized  access.   In  many
       environments,  this  level  of security is not a concern, but if it is,
       you need to know the exact semantics of  the  particular  authorization
       data to know if this is actually a problem.

       For  more  information  on  access control, see the Xsecurity(7) manual

       One of the advantages of using window systems instead of hardwired ter-
       minals is that applications don't have to be restricted to a particular
       size or location on the screen.  Although the layout of  windows  on  a
       display  is  controlled  by the window manager that the user is running
       (described below), most X programs accept a command  line  argument  of
       the  form  -geometry WIDTHxHEIGHT+XOFF+YOFF (where WIDTH, HEIGHT, XOFF,
       and YOFF are numbers) for specifying a preferred size and location  for
       this application's main window.

       The  WIDTH  and  HEIGHT parts of the geometry specification are usually
       measured in either pixels or characters, depending on the  application.
       The  XOFF and YOFF parts are measured in pixels and are used to specify
       the distance of the window from the left or right and  top  and  bottom
       edges  of the screen, respectively.  Both types of offsets are measured
       from the indicated edge of the screen to the corresponding edge of  the
       window.  The X offset may be specified in the following ways:

       +XOFF   The left edge of the window is to be placed XOFF pixels in from
               the left edge of the screen (i.e., the X coordinate of the win-
               dow's  origin  will  be  XOFF).  XOFF may be negative, in which
               case the window's left edge will be off the screen.

       -XOFF   The right edge of the window is to be  placed  XOFF  pixels  in
               from  the  right  edge of the screen.  XOFF may be negative, in
               which case the window's right edge will be off the screen.

       The Y offset has similar meanings:

       +YOFF   The top edge of the window is to be YOFF pixels below  the  top
               edge of the screen (i.e., the Y coordinate of the window's ori-
               gin will be YOFF).  YOFF may be negative,  in  which  case  the
               window's top edge will be off the screen.

       -YOFF   The  bottom  edge  of the window is to be YOFF pixels above the
               bottom edge of the screen.  YOFF may be negative, in which case
               the window's bottom edge will be off the screen.

       Offsets  must  be  given  as pairs; in other words, in order to specify
       either XOFF or YOFF both must be present.  Windows can be placed in the
       four corners of the screen using the following specifications:

       +0+0    upper left hand corner.

       -0+0    upper right hand corner.

       -0-0    lower right hand corner.

       +0-0    lower left hand corner.

       In the following examples, a terminal emulator is placed in roughly the
       center of the screen and a load average monitor, mailbox, and clock are
       placed in the upper right hand corner:

           xterm -fn 6x10 -geometry 80x24+30+200 &
           xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 &
           xload -geometry 48x48-96+0 &
           xbiff -geometry 48x48-48+0 &

       The  layout  of windows on the screen is controlled by special programs
       called window managers.  Although many window managers will honor geom-
       etry specifications as given, others may choose to ignore them (requir-
       ing the user to explicitly draw the window's region on the screen  with
       the pointer, for example).

       Since  window  managers are regular (albeit complex) client programs, a
       variety of different user interfaces can be built.  The  X.Org  Founda-
       tion  distribution comes with a window manager named twm which supports
       overlapping windows,  popup  menus,  point-and-click  or  click-to-type
       input models, title bars, nice icons (and an icon manager for those who
       don't like separate icon windows).

       See the user-contributed software in the X.Org Foundation  distribution
       for other popular window managers.

       Collections  of  characters  for  displaying  text and symbols in X are
       known as fonts.  A font typically contains images that share  a  common
       appearance  and  look  nice together (for example, a single size, bold-
       ness, slant, and character set).  Similarly, collections of fonts  that
       are  based  on  a  common  type face (the variations are usually called
       roman, bold, italic, bold italic, oblique, and bold oblique) are called

       Fonts  come  in  various  sizes.  The X server supports scalable fonts,
       meaning it is possible to create a font of arbitrary size from a single
       source  for  the  font.  The server supports scaling from outline fonts
       and bitmap fonts.  Scaling from outline fonts usually produces signifi-
       cantly better results than scaling from bitmap fonts.

       An  X  server can obtain fonts from individual files stored in directo-
       ries in the file system, or from one or more font servers,  or  from  a
       mixtures  of  directories  and  font  servers.   The list of places the
       server looks when trying to find a font is controlled by its font path.
       Although  most  installations  will  choose to have the server start up
       with all of the commonly used font directories in the  font  path,  the
       font  path  can be changed at any time with the xset program.  However,
       it is important to  remember  that  the  directory  names  are  on  the
       server's machine, not on the application's.

       Bitmap  font  files  are  usually  created  by compiling a textual font
       description into binary form, using bdftopcf.  Font databases are  cre-
       ated  by  running the mkfontdir program in the directory containing the
       source or compiled versions of the fonts.  Whenever fonts are added  to
       a  directory, mkfontdir should be rerun so that the server can find the
       new fonts.  To make the server reread the font database, reset the font
       path  with  the  xset program.  For example, to add a font to a private
       directory, the following commands could be used:

           % cp newfont.pcf ~/myfonts
           % mkfontdir ~/myfonts
           % xset fp rehash

       The xfontsel and xlsfonts programs can be used to  browse  through  the
       fonts available on a server.  Font names tend to be fairly long as they
       contain all of the information needed to uniquely  identify  individual
       fonts.   However,  the  X server supports wildcarding of font names, so
       the full specification


       might be abbreviated as:


       Because the shell also has special meanings for  *  and  ?,  wildcarded
       font names should be quoted:

           % xlsfonts -fn '-*-courier-medium-r-normal--*-100-*-*-*-*-*-*'

       The  xlsfonts program can be used to list all of the fonts that match a
       given pattern.  With no arguments, it lists all available fonts.   This
       will  usually  list the same font at many different sizes.  To see just
       the base scalable font names, try using one of the following patterns:


       To convert one of the resulting names into a font at a  specific  size,
       replace  one  of  the  first two zeros with a nonzero value.  The field
       containing the first zero is for the pixel size; replace it with a spe-
       cific height in pixels to name a font at that size.  Alternatively, the
       field containing the second zero is for the point size; replace it with
       a  specific size in decipoints (there are 722.7 decipoints to the inch)
       to name a font at that size.  The last zero is an average width  field,
       measured in tenths of pixels; some servers will anamorphically scale if
       this value is specified.

       One of the following forms can be used  to  name  a  font  server  that
       accepts TCP connections:


       The  hostname  specifies  the  name (or decimal numeric address) of the
       machine on which the font server is running.  The port is  the  decimal
       TCP  port  on  which the font server is listening for connections.  The
       cataloguelist specifies a list of catalogue names, with '+' as a  sepa-

       Examples: tcp/x.org:7100, tcp/

       Most  applications provide ways of tailoring (usually through resources
       or command line arguments) the colors of various elements in  the  text
       and  graphics  they  display.   A  color  can be specified either by an
       abstract color name, or by a numerical color specification.  The numer-
       ical  specification  can  identify  a  color in either device-dependent
       (RGB) or device-independent terms.  Color strings are case-insensitive.

       X supports the use of abstract color names, for example, "red", "blue".
       A value for this abstract name is obtained by  searching  one  or  more
       color  name  databases.   Xlib  first searches zero or more client-side
       databases; the number, location, and  content  of  these  databases  is
       implementation  dependent.   If  the  name  is  not found, the color is
       looked up in the X server's database.  The text form of  this  database
       is commonly stored in the file __datadir__/X11/rgb.txt.

       A  numerical  color  specification consists of a color space name and a
       set of values in the following syntax:


       An RGB Device specification is identified by the prefix "rgb:" and  has
       the following syntax:


               <red>, <green>, <blue> := h | hh | hhh | hhhh
               h := single hexadecimal digits
       Note  that  h indicates the value scaled in 4 bits, hh the value scaled
       in 8 bits, hhh the value scaled in 12 bits, and hhhh the  value  scaled
       in  16  bits,  respectively.  These values are passed directly to the X
       server, and are assumed to be gamma corrected.

       The eight primary colors can be represented as:

           black                rgb:0/0/0
           red                  rgb:ffff/0/0
           green                rgb:0/ffff/0
           blue                 rgb:0/0/ffff
           yellow               rgb:ffff/ffff/0
           magenta              rgb:ffff/0/ffff
           cyan                 rgb:0/ffff/ffff
           white                rgb:ffff/ffff/ffff

       For backward compatibility, an older syntax  for  RGB  Device  is  sup-
       ported, but its continued use is not encouraged.  The syntax is an ini-
       tial sharp sign character followed by a numeric specification,  in  one
       of the following formats:

           #RGB                      (4 bits each)
           #RRGGBB                   (8 bits each)
           #RRRGGGBBB                (12 bits each)
           #RRRRGGGGBBBB             (16 bits each)

       The  R,  G, and B represent single hexadecimal digits.  When fewer than
       16 bits each are specified, they represent the most-significant bits of
       the  value (unlike the "rgb:" syntax, in which values are scaled).  For
       example, #3a7 is the same as #3000a0007000.

       An RGB intensity specification is identified by the prefix "rgbi:"  and
       has the following syntax:


       The red, green, and blue are floating point values between 0.0 and 1.0,
       inclusive.  They represent linear intensity values, with 1.0 indicating
       full  intensity,  0.5  half intensity, and so on.  These values will be
       gamma corrected by Xlib before being sent to the X server.   The  input
       format for these values is an optional sign, a string of numbers possi-
       bly containing a decimal point, and an optional exponent field contain-
       ing an E or e followed by a possibly signed integer string.

       The  standard device-independent string specifications have the follow-
       ing syntax:

           CIEXYZ:<X>/<Y>/<Z>             (none, 1, none)
           CIEuvY:<u>/<v>/<Y>             (~.6, ~.6, 1)
           CIExyY:<x>/<y>/<Y>             (~.75, ~.85, 1)
           CIELab:<L>/<a>/<b>             (100, none, none)
           CIELuv:<L>/<u>/<v>             (100, none, none)
           TekHVC:<H>/<V>/<C>             (360, 100, 100)

       All of the values (C, H, V, X, Y, Z, a, b, u, v,  y,  x)  are  floating
       point  values.   Some  of the values are constrained to be between zero
       and some upper bound; the upper bounds are given in parentheses  above.
       The syntax for these values is an optional '+' or '-' sign, a string of
       digits possibly containing a decimal point, and  an  optional  exponent
       field  consisting  of  an 'E' or 'e' followed by an optional '+' or '-'
       followed by a string of digits.

       For more information on device independent color, see the  Xlib  refer-
       ence manual.

       The  X keyboard model is broken into two layers:  server-specific codes
       (called keycodes) which represent the physical keys,  and  server-inde-
       pendent  symbols  (called keysyms) which represent the letters or words
       that appear on the keys.  Two tables are kept in the  server  for  con-
       verting keycodes to keysyms:

       modifier list
               Some  keys (such as Shift, Control, and Caps Lock) are known as
               modifier and are used to  select  different  symbols  that  are
               attached  to  a single key (such as Shift-a generates a capital
               A, and Control-l generates a control character ^L).  The server
               keeps  a list of keycodes corresponding to the various modifier
               keys.  Whenever a key is pressed or released, the server gener-
               ates an event that contains the keycode of the indicated key as
               well as a mask that specifies which of the  modifier  keys  are
               currently  pressed.  Most servers set up this list to initially
               contain the various shift, control, and shift lock keys on  the

       keymap table
               Applications  translate  event keycodes and modifier masks into
               keysyms using a keysym table which contains one  row  for  each
               keycode and one column for various modifier states.  This table
               is initialized by the server to correspond to normal typewriter
               conventions.   The  exact  semantics of how the table is inter-
               preted to produce keysyms depends on  the  particular  program,
               libraries,  and  language  input method used, but the following
               conventions for the first four keysyms in each row  are  gener-
               ally adhered to:

       The  first  four  elements  of  the  list  are split into two groups of
       keysyms.  Group 1 contains the first and second keysyms; Group  2  con-
       tains  the  third  and fourth keysyms.  Within each group, if the first
       element is alphabetic and the the second element is the special  keysym
       NoSymbol,  then  the group is treated as equivalent to a group in which
       the first element is the lowercase letter and the second element is the
       uppercase letter.

       Switching between groups is controlled by the keysym named MODE SWITCH,
       by attaching that keysym to some key and attaching that key to any  one
       of  the  modifiers  Mod1  through  Mod5.   This  modifier is called the
       ``group modifier.''  Group 1 is used when the group  modifier  is  off,
       and Group 2 is used when the group modifier is on.

       Within a group, the modifier state determines which keysym to use.  The
       first keysym is used when the Shift and Lock modifiers  are  off.   The
       second keysym is used when the Shift modifier is on, when the Lock mod-
       ifier is on and the second keysym is uppercase alphabetic, or when  the
       Lock  modifier  is on and is interpreted as ShiftLock.  Otherwise, when
       the Lock modifier is on and is interpreted as CapsLock,  the  state  of
       the  Shift  modifier  is  applied first to select a keysym; but if that
       keysym is lowercase alphabetic, then the corresponding uppercase keysym
       is used instead.

       Most  X programs attempt to use the same names for command line options
       and arguments.  All applications written with the X Toolkit  Intrinsics
       automatically accept the following options:

       -display display
               This option specifies the name of the X server to use.

       -geometry geometry
               This option specifies the initial size and location of the win-

       -bg color, -background color
               Either option specifies the color to use for the  window  back-

       -bd color, -bordercolor color
               Either option specifies the color to use for the window border.

       -bw number, -borderwidth number
               Either option specifies the width in pixels of the window  bor-

       -fg color, -foreground color
               Either  option specifies the color to use for text or graphics.

       -fn font, -font font
               Either option specifies the font to use for displaying text.

               This option indicates that  the  user  would  prefer  that  the
               application's  windows  initially not be visible as if the win-
               dows had be immediately iconified by the user.  Window managers
               may choose not to honor the application's request.

               This  option  specifies  the name under which resources for the
               application should be found.  This option is  useful  in  shell
               aliases  to  distinguish between invocations of an application,
               without resorting to creating links  to  alter  the  executable
               file name.

       -rv, -reverse
               Either  option  indicates  that  the  program  should  simulate
               reverse video if possible, often by swapping the foreground and
               background colors.  Not all programs honor this or implement it
               correctly.  It is usually only used on monochrome displays.

               This option indicates that  the  program  should  not  simulate
               reverse  video.   This  is  used to override any defaults since
               reverse video doesn't always work properly.

               This option specifies the timeout in milliseconds within  which
               two  communicating applications must respond to one another for
               a selection request.

               This option indicates that requests to the X server  should  be
               sent synchronously, instead of asynchronously.  Since Xlib nor-
               mally buffers requests to the server, errors do not necessarily
               get  reported  immediately after they occur.  This option turns
               off the buffering so that the application can be debugged.   It
               should never be used with a working program.

       -title string
               This  option  specifies  the  title to be used for this window.
               This information is sometimes used by a window manager to  pro-
               vide some sort of header identifying the window.

       -xnllanguage language[_territory][.codeset]
               This  option specifies the language, territory, and codeset for
               use in resolving resource and other filenames.

       -xrm resourcestring
               This option specifies a resource name and value to override any
               defaults.   It  is  also very useful for setting resources that
               don't have explicit command line arguments.

       To make the tailoring of applications to personal preferences easier, X
       provides  a  mechanism for storing default values for program resources
       (e.g. background color, window title, etc.) that is  used  by  programs
       that  use  toolkits  based  on  the X Toolkit Intrinsics library libXt.
       (Programs using the common Gtk+ and Qt toolkits use other configuration
       mechanisms.)   Resources are specified as strings that are read in from
       various places when an application  is  run.   Program  components  are
       named  in a hierarchical fashion, with each node in the hierarchy iden-
       tified by a class and an instance name.  At the top level is the  class
       and  instance name of the application itself.  By convention, the class
       name of the application is the same as the program name, but with   the
       first  letter capitalized (e.g. Bitmap or Emacs) although some programs
       that begin with the letter ``x'' also capitalize the second letter  for
       historical reasons.

       The precise syntax for resources is:

       ResourceLine      = Comment | IncludeFile | ResourceSpec | <empty line>
       Comment           = "!" {<any character except null or newline>}
       IncludeFile       = "#" WhiteSpace "include" WhiteSpace FileName WhiteSpace
       FileName          = <valid filename for operating system>
       ResourceSpec      = WhiteSpace ResourceName WhiteSpace ":" WhiteSpace Value
       ResourceName      = [Binding] {Component Binding} ComponentName
       Binding           = "." | "*"
       WhiteSpace        = {<space> | <horizontal tab>}
       Component         = "?" | ComponentName
       ComponentName     = NameChar {NameChar}
       NameChar          = "a"-"z" | "A"-"Z" | "0"-"9" | "_" | "-"
       Value             = {<any character except null or unescaped newline>}

       Elements  separated by vertical bar (|) are alternatives.  Curly braces
       ({...}) indicate zero or more repetitions  of  the  enclosed  elements.
       Square brackets ([...]) indicate that the enclosed element is optional.
       Quotes ("...") are used around literal characters.

       IncludeFile lines are interpreted by replacing the line with  the  con-
       tents  of the specified file.  The word "include" must be in lowercase.
       The filename is interpreted relative to the directory of  the  file  in
       which  the line occurs (for example, if the filename contains no direc-
       tory or contains a relative directory specification).

       If a ResourceName contains a contiguous sequence of two or more Binding
       characters,  the sequence will be replaced with single "." character if
       the sequence contains only "." characters, otherwise the sequence  will
       be replaced with a single "*" character.

       A  resource  database  never  contains  more than one entry for a given
       ResourceName.  If a resource file contains multiple lines with the same
       ResourceName, the last line in the file is used.

       Any  whitespace  character  before  or  after  the  name  or colon in a
       ResourceSpec are ignored.  To allow a Value to begin  with  whitespace,
       the  two-character sequence ``\space'' (backslash followed by space) is
       recognized and replaced by a space  character,  and  the  two-character
       sequence  ``\tab'' (backslash followed by horizontal tab) is recognized
       and replaced by a horizontal tab character.  To allow a Value  to  con-
       tain  embedded newline characters, the two-character sequence ``\n'' is
       recognized and replaced by a newline character.  To allow a Value to be
       broken across multiple lines in a text file, the two-character sequence
       ``\newline'' (backslash followed by newline) is recognized and  removed
       from the value.  To allow a Value to contain arbitrary character codes,
       the four-character sequence ``\nnn'', where each n is a digit character
       in  the  range of ``0''-``7'', is recognized and replaced with a single
       byte that contains the octal value specified by the sequence.  Finally,
       the  two-character  sequence  ``\\''  is recognized and replaced with a
       single backslash.

       When an application looks for the value of a resource, it  specifies  a
       complete  path  in  the  hierarchy, with both class and instance names.
       However, resource values are usually given with only  partially  speci-
       fied names and classes, using pattern matching constructs.  An asterisk
       (*) is a loose binding and is used to represent any number of interven-
       ing components, including none.  A period (.) is a tight binding and is
       used to separate immediately adjacent components.  A question mark  (?)
       is  used to match any single component name or class.  A database entry
       cannot end in a loose binding; the final  component  (which  cannot  be
       "?")  must  be  specified.   The lookup algorithm searches the resource
       database for the entry that most closely matches (is most specific for)
       the  full  name  and  class being queried.  When more than one database
       entry matches the full name and class, precedence  rules  are  used  to
       select just one.

       The  full  name  and class are scanned from left to right (from highest
       level in the hierarchy to lowest), one component at a  time.   At  each
       level,  the  corresponding  component  and/or  binding of each matching
       entry is determined, and these matching  components  and  bindings  are
       compared  according  to precedence rules.  Each of the rules is applied
       at each level, before moving to the next level, until a rule selects  a
       single entry over all others.  The rules (in order of precedence) are:

       1.   An  entry that contains a matching component (whether name, class,
            or "?")  takes precedence over entries that elide the level  (that
            is, entries that match the level in a loose binding).

       2.   An  entry  with a matching name takes precedence over both entries
            with a matching class and entries that match using "?".  An  entry
            with  a  matching  class  takes precedence over entries that match
            using "?".

       3.   An entry preceded by a tight binding takes precedence over entries
            preceded by a loose binding.

       Programs  based  on  the X Toolkit Intrinsics obtain resources from the
       following sources (other programs usually support some subset of  these

       RESOURCE_MANAGER root window property
               Any global resources that should be available to clients on all
               machines should be stored in the RESOURCE_MANAGER  property  on
               the  root  window  of  the first screen using the xrdb program.
               This is frequently taken care of when  the  user  starts  up  X
               through the display manager or xinit.

       SCREEN_RESOURCES root window property
               Any  resources  specific  to  a given screen (e.g. colors) that
               should be available to clients on all machines should be stored
               in  the  SCREEN_RESOURCES  property  on the root window of that
               screen.  The xrdb program will sort resources automatically and
               place  them  in RESOURCE_MANAGER or SCREEN_RESOURCES, as appro-

       application-specific files
               Directories named by the environment variable  XUSERFILESEARCH-
               PATH  or  the  environment  variable XAPPLRESDIR (which names a
               single directory and should end with a '/' on  POSIX  systems),
               plus   directories   in   a   standard   place  (usually  under
               __datadir__/X11/, but this can be overridden  with  the  XFILE-
               SEARCHPATH  environment variable) are searched for for applica-
               tion-specific  resources.   For  example,  application  default
               resources  are  usually  kept in __datadir__/X11/app-defaults/.
               See the X Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface manual  for

               Any  user-  and  machine-specific resources may be specified by
               setting the XENVIRONMENT environment variable to the name of  a
               resource  file to be loaded by all applications.  If this vari-
               able is not defined, a file named $HOME/.Xdefaults-hostname  is
               looked  for  instead,  where  hostname  is the name of the host
               where the application is executing.

       -xrm resourcestring
               Resources can also be specified from  the  command  line.   The
               resourcestring  is  a  single  resource name and value as shown
               above.  Note that if the string contains characters interpreted
               by the shell (e.g., asterisk), they must be quoted.  Any number
               of -xrm arguments may be given on the command line.

       Program resources are organized into groups  called  classes,  so  that
       collections   of   individual  resources  (each  of  which  are  called
       instances) can be set all at once.  By convention, the instance name of
       a  resource begins with a lowercase letter and class name with an upper
       case letter.  Multiple word resources are concatenated with  the  first
       letter  of the succeeding words capitalized.  Applications written with
       the X Toolkit Intrinsics will have at least the following resources:

       background (class Background)
               This resource specifies the color to use for the  window  back-

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
               This  resource specifies the width in pixels of the window bor-

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
               This resource specifies the color to use for the window border.

       Most applications using the X Toolkit Intrinsics also have the resource
       foreground (class Foreground), specifying the color to use for text and
       graphics within the window.

       By combining class and instance specifications, application preferences
       can be set quickly and easily.  Users of color displays will frequently
       want  to  set Background and Foreground classes to particular defaults.
       Specific color instances such as text cursors can  then  be  overridden
       without having to define all of the related resources.  For example,

           bitmap*Dashed:  off
           XTerm*cursorColor:  gold
           XTerm*multiScroll:  on
           XTerm*jumpScroll:  on
           XTerm*reverseWrap:  on
           XTerm*curses:  on
           XTerm*Font:  6x10
           XTerm*scrollBar: on
           XTerm*scrollbar*thickness: 5
           XTerm*multiClickTime: 500
           XTerm*charClass:  33:48,37:48,45-47:48,64:48
           XTerm*cutNewline: off
           XTerm*cutToBeginningOfLine: off
           XTerm*titeInhibit:  on
           XTerm*ttyModes:  intr ^c erase ^? kill ^u
           XLoad*Background: gold
           XLoad*Foreground: red
           XLoad*highlight: black
           XLoad*borderWidth: 0
           emacs*Geometry:  80x65-0-0
           emacs*Background:  rgb:5b/76/86
           emacs*Foreground:  white
           emacs*Cursor:  white
           emacs*BorderColor:  white
           emacs*Font:  6x10
           xmag*geometry: -0-0
           xmag*borderColor:  white

       If  these  resources  were  stored in a file called .Xresources in your
       home directory, they could be added to any existing  resources  in  the
       server with the following command:

           % xrdb -merge $HOME/.Xresources

       This  is  frequently  how user-friendly startup scripts merge user-spe-
       cific defaults into any site-wide defaults.  All sites  are  encouraged
       to  set  up convenient ways of automatically loading resources. See the
       Xlib manual section Resource Manager Functions for more information.

              This is the only mandatory environment variable. It  must  point
              to an X server. See section "Display Names" above.

              This  must point to a file that contains authorization data. The
              default  is  $HOME/.Xauthority.  See   Xsecurity(7),   xauth(1),
              xdm(1), Xau(3).

              This  must point to a file that contains authorization data. The
              default is $HOME/.ICEauthority.

              The first non-empty value among these three determines the  cur-
              rent  locale's  facet  for character handling, and in particular
              the  default  text  encoding.   See   locale(7),   setlocale(3),

              This  variable  can  be  set  to  contain additional information
              important for the  current  locale  setting.  Typically  set  to
              @im=<input-method>  to  enable  a  particular  input method. See

              This must point to a directory containing the locale.alias  file
              and Compose and XLC_LOCALE file hierarchies for all locales. The
              default value is __datadir__/X11/locale.

              This must point to a file containing X resources. The default is
              $HOME/.Xdefaults-<hostname>.  Unlike  $HOME/.Xresources,  it  is
              consulted each time an X application starts.

              This must contain a colon  separated  list  of  path  templates,
              where  libXt  will  search for resource files. The default value
              consists of


              A path template is transformed to a pathname by substituting:

                  %D => the implementation-specific default path
                  %N => name (basename) being searched for
                  %T => type (dirname) being searched for
                  %S => suffix being searched for
                  %C => value of the resource "customization"
                        (class "Customization")
                  %L => the locale name
                  %l => the locale's language (part before '_')
                  %t => the locale's territory (part after '_` but before '.')
                  %c => the locale's encoding (part after '.')

              This must contain a colon  separated  list  of  path  templates,
              where  libXt  will search for user dependent resource files. The
              default value is:


              $XAPPLRESDIR defaults to $HOME, see below.

              A path template is transformed to a pathname by substituting:

                  %D => the implementation-specific default path
                  %N => name (basename) being searched for
                  %T => type (dirname) being searched for
                  %S => suffix being searched for
                  %C => value of the resource "customization"
                        (class "Customization")
                  %L => the locale name
                  %l => the locale's language (part before '_')
                  %t => the locale's territory (part after '_` but before '.')
                  %c => the locale's encoding (part after '.')

              This must point to a base directory where the  user  stores  his
              application  dependent  resource  files.  The  default  value is
              $HOME. Only used if XUSERFILESEARCHPATH is not set.

              This must point to a file containing nonstandard keysym  defini-
              tions.  The default value is __datadir__/X11/XKeysymDB.

       XCMSDB This must point to a color name database file. The default value

              This serves as main identifier for resources  belonging  to  the
              program  being executed. It defaults to the basename of pathname
              of the program.

              Denotes the session manager to which the application should con-
              nect. See xsm(1), rstart(1).

              Setting   this  variable  to  a  non-empty  value  disables  the
              XFree86-Bigfont extension. This  extension  is  a  mechanism  to
              reduce the memory consumption of big fonts by use of shared mem-


       These variables influence the X Keyboard Extension.

       The following is a collection of sample command lines for some  of  the
       more  frequently  used  commands.  For more information on a particular
       command, please refer to that command's manual page.

           %  xrdb $HOME/.Xresources
           %  xmodmap -e "keysym BackSpace = Delete"
           %  mkfontdir /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
           %  xset fp+ /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
           %  xmodmap $HOME/.keymap.km
           %  xsetroot -solid 'rgbi:.8/.8/.8'
           %  xset b 100 400 c 50 s 1800 r on
           %  xset q
           %  twm
           %  xmag
           %  xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 -bg blue -fg white
           %  xeyes -geometry 48x48-48+0
           %  xbiff -update 20
           %  xlsfonts '*helvetica*'
           %  xwininfo -root
           %  xdpyinfo -display joesworkstation:0
           %  xhost -joesworkstation
           %  xrefresh
           %  xwd | xwud
           %  bitmap companylogo.bm 32x32
           %  xcalc -bg blue -fg magenta
           %  xterm -geometry 80x66-0-0 -name myxterm $*

       A wide variety of error messages are generated from  various  programs.
       The  default  error  handler  in Xlib (also used by many toolkits) uses
       standard resources to construct diagnostic messages when errors  occur.
       The    defaults    for   these   messages   are   usually   stored   in
       __datadir__/X11/XErrorDB.  If this file is not present, error  messages
       will be rather terse and cryptic.

       When  the  X  Toolkit  Intrinsics  encounter errors converting resource
       strings to the appropriate internal format, no error messages are  usu-
       ally  printed.  This is convenient when it is desirable to have one set
       of resources across a variety of displays (e.g. color  vs.  monochrome,
       lots  of  fonts  vs. very few, etc.), although it can pose problems for
       trying to determine why an application might be failing.  This behavior
       can be overridden by the setting the StringConversionWarnings resource.

       To force the X Toolkit Intrinsics to  always  print  string  conversion
       error  messages,  the  following  resource should be placed in the file
       that gets loaded onto the RESOURCE_MANAGER property using the xrdb pro-
       gram  (frequently called .Xresources or .Xres in the user's home direc-

           *StringConversionWarnings: on

       To have conversion messages printed for just a particular  application,
       the appropriate instance name can be placed before the asterisk:

           xterm*StringConversionWarnings: on

       XOrgFoundation(7), XStandards(7), Xsecurity(7), appres(1), bdftopcf(1),
       bitmap(1), editres(1), fsinfo(1), fslsfonts(1), fstobdf(1), iceauth(1),
       imake(1), makedepend(1), mkfontdir(1), oclock(1), proxymngr(1), rgb(1),
       resize(1), rstart(1), smproxy(1), twm(1),  x11perf(1),  x11perfcomp(1),
       xauth(1),  xclipboard(1),  xclock(1),  xcmsdb(1),  xconsole(1), xdm(1),
       xdpyinfo(1),  xfd(1),   xfindproxy(1),   xfs(1),   xfwp(1),   xhost(1),
       xinit(1),  xkbbell(1), xkbcomp(1), xkbevd(1), xkbprint(1), xkbvleds(1),
       xkbwatch(1),  xkill(1),  xlogo(1),  xlsatoms(1),  xlsclients(1),   xls-
       fonts(1),  xmag(1), xmh(1), xmodmap(1), xprop(1), xrdb(1), xrefresh(1),
       xrx(1), xset(1), xsetroot(1), xsm(1),  xstdcmap(1),  xterm(1),  xwd(1),
       xwininfo(1),   xwud(1).    Xserver(1),   Xorg(1),  Xdmx(1),  Xephyr(1),
       Xnest(1), Xquartz(1), Xvfb(1), Xvnc(1), XWin(1).  Xlib - C  Language  X
       Interface, and X Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface

       X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group.

       A  cast of thousands, literally.  Releases 6.7 and later are brought to
       you by the X.Org Foundation. The names of all  people  who  made  it  a
       reality will be found in the individual documents and source files.

       Releases  6.6  and  6.5  were done by The X.Org Group.  Release 6.4 was
       done by The X Project Team.  The Release 6.3 distribution was from  The
       X  Consortium,  Inc.  The staff members at the X Consortium responsible
       for that release were: Donna Converse (emeritus), Stephen Gildea (emer-
       itus),  Kaleb  Keithley,  Matt Landau (emeritus), Ralph Mor (emeritus),
       Janet O'Halloran, Bob Scheifler, Ralph Swick, Dave Wiggins  (emeritus),
       and Reed Augliere.

       The X Window System standard was originally developed at the Laboratory
       for Computer Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,  and
       all  rights  thereto  were  assigned  to the X Consortium on January 1,
       1994.  X Consortium, Inc. closed its doors on December 31,  1996.   All
       rights to the X Window System have been assigned to The Open Group.

                                 X Version 11                             X(7)

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