NTPD(8)                 NetBSD System Manager's Manual                 NTPD(8)

NAME
     ntpd -- NTP daemon program

SYNOPSIS
     ntpd [-flags] [-flag [value]] [--option-name[[=| ]value]] [ <server1> ...
          <serverN> ]

DESCRIPTION
     The ntpd utility is an operating system daemon which sets and maintains
     the system time of day in synchronism with Internet standard time
     servers.  It is a complete implementation of the Network Time Protocol
     (NTP) version 4, as defined by RFC-5905, but also retains compatibility
     with version 3, as defined by RFC-1305, and versions 1 and 2, as defined
     by RFC-1059 and RFC-1119, respectively.

     The ntpd utility does most computations in 64-bit floating point arith-
     metic and does relatively clumsy 64-bit fixed point operations only when
     necessary to preserve the ultimate precision, about 232 picoseconds.
     While the ultimate precision is not achievable with ordinary workstations
     and networks of today, it may be required with future gigahertz CPU
     clocks and gigabit LANs.

     Ordinarily, ntpd reads the ntp.conf(5) configuration file at startup time
     in order to determine the synchronization sources and operating modes.
     It is also possible to specify a working, although limited, configuration
     entirely on the command line, obviating the need for a configuration
     file.  This may be particularly useful when the local host is to be con-
     figured as a broadcast/multicast client, with all peers being determined
     by listening to broadcasts at run time.

     If NetInfo support is built into ntpd, then ntpd will attempt to read its
     configuration from the NetInfo if the default ntp.conf(5) file cannot be
     read and no file is specified by the -c option.

     Various internal ntpd variables can be displayed and configuration
     options altered while the ntpd is running using the ntpq(8) and ntpdc(8)
     utility programs.

     When ntpd starts it looks at the value of umask(2), and if zero ntpd will
     set the umask(2) to 022.

OPTIONS
     -4, --ipv4  Force IPv4 DNS name resolution.  This option must not appear
                 in combination with any of the following options: ipv6.

                 Force DNS resolution of following host names on the command
                 line to the IPv4 namespace.

     -6, --ipv6  Force IPv6 DNS name resolution.  This option must not appear
                 in combination with any of the following options: ipv4.

                 Force DNS resolution of following host names on the command
                 line to the IPv6 namespace.

     -a, --authreq
                 Require crypto authentication.  This option must not appear
                 in combination with any of the following options: authnoreq.

                 Require cryptographic authentication for broadcast client,
                 multicast client and symmetric passive associations.  This is
                 the default.

     -A, --authnoreq
                 Do not require crypto authentication.  This option must not
                 appear in combination with any of the following options:
                 authreq.

                 Do not require cryptographic authentication for broadcast
                 client, multicast client and symmetric passive associations.
                 This is almost never a good idea.

     -b, --bcastsync
                 Allow us to sync to broadcast servers.


     -c string, --configfile=string
                 configuration file name.

                 The name and path of the configuration file, /etc/ntp.conf by
                 default.

     -d, --debug-level
                 Increase debug verbosity level.  This option may appear an
                 unlimited number of times.


     -D number, --set-debug-level=number
                 Set the debug verbosity level.  This option may appear an
                 unlimited number of times.  This option takes an integer num-
                 ber as its argument.


     -f string, --driftfile=string
                 frequency drift file name.

                 The name and path of the frequency file, /etc/ntp.drift by
                 default.  This is the same operation as the driftfile drift-
                 file configuration specification in the /etc/ntp.conf file.

     -g, --panicgate
                 Allow the first adjustment to be Big.  This option may appear
                 an unlimited number of times.

                 Normally, ntpd exits with a message to the system log if the
                 offset exceeds the panic threshold, which is 1000 s by
                 default. This option allows the time to be set to any value
                 without restriction; however, this can happen only once. If
                 the threshold is exceeded after that, ntpd will exit with a
                 message to the system log. This option can be used with the
                 -q and -x options.  See the tinker configuration file direc-
                 tive for other options.

     -i string, --jaildir=string
                 Jail directory.

                 Chroot the server to the directory jaildir This option also
                 implies that the server attempts to drop root privileges at
                 startup.  You may need to also specify a -u option.  This
                 option is only available if the OS supports adjusting the
                 clock without full root privileges.  This option is supported
                 under NetBSD (configure with --enable-clockctl) or Linux
                 (configure with --enable-linuxcaps) or Solaris (configure
                 with --enable-solarisprivs).

     -I iface, --interface=iface
                 Listen on an interface name or address.  This option may
                 appear an unlimited number of times.

                 Open the network address given, or all the addresses associ-
                 ated with the given interface name.  This option may appear
                 multiple times.  This option also implies not opening other
                 addresses, except wildcard and localhost.  This option is
                 deprecated. Please consider using the configuration file
                 interface command, which is more versatile.

     -k string, --keyfile=string
                 path to symmetric keys.

                 Specify the name and path of the symmetric key file.
                 /etc/ntp.keys is the default.  This is the same operation as
                 the keys keyfile configuration file directive.

     -l string, --logfile=string
                 path to the log file.

                 Specify the name and path of the log file.  The default is
                 the system log file.  This is the same operation as the log-
                 file logfile configuration file directive.

     -L, --novirtualips
                 Do not listen to virtual interfaces.

                 Do not listen to virtual interfaces, defined as those with
                 names containing a colon.  This option is deprecated.  Please
                 consider using the configuration file interface command,
                 which is more versatile.

     -M, --modifymmtimer
                 Modify Multimedia Timer (Windows only).

                 Set the Windows Multimedia Timer to highest resolution.  This
                 ensures the resolution does not change while ntpd is running,
                 avoiding timekeeping glitches associated with changes.

     -n, --nofork
                 Do not fork.  This option must not appear in combination with
                 any of the following options: wait-sync.


     -N, --nice  Run at high priority.

                 To the extent permitted by the operating system, run ntpd at
                 the highest priority.

     -p string, --pidfile=string
                 path to the PID file.

                 Specify the name and path of the file used to record ntpd's
                 process ID.  This is the same operation as the pidfile pid-
                 file configuration file directive.

     -P number, --priority=number
                 Process priority.  This option takes an integer number as its
                 argument.

                 To the extent permitted by the operating system, run ntpd at
                 the specified sched_setscheduler(SCHED_FIFO) priority.

     -q, --quit  Set the time and quit.  This option must not appear in combi-
                 nation with any of the following options: saveconfigquit,
                 wait-sync.

                 ntpd will not daemonize and will exit after the clock is
                 first synchronized.  This behavior mimics that of the ntpdate
                 program, which will soon be replaced with a shell script.
                 The -g and -x options can be used with this option.  Note:
                 The kernel time discipline is disabled with this option.

     -r string, --propagationdelay=string
                 Broadcast/propagation delay.

                 Specify the default propagation delay from the broadcast/mul-
                 ticast server to this client. This is necessary only if the
                 delay cannot be computed automatically by the protocol.

     --saveconfigquit=string
                 Save parsed configuration and quit.  This option must not
                 appear in combination with any of the following options:
                 quit, wait-sync.

                 Cause ntpd to parse its startup configuration file and save
                 an equivalent to the given filename and exit.  This option
                 was designed for automated testing.

     -s string, --statsdir=string
                 Statistics file location.

                 Specify the directory path for files created by the statis-
                 tics facility.  This is the same operation as the statsdir
                 statsdir configuration file directive.

     -t tkey, --trustedkey=tkey
                 Trusted key number.  This option may appear an unlimited num-
                 ber of times.

                 Add the specified key number to the trusted key list.

     -u string, --user=string
                 Run as userid (or userid:groupid).

                 Specify a user, and optionally a group, to switch to.  This
                 option is only available if the OS supports adjusting the
                 clock without full root privileges.  This option is supported
                 under NetBSD (configure with --enable-clockctl) or Linux
                 (configure with --enable-linuxcaps) or Solaris (configure
                 with --enable-solarisprivs).

     -U number, --updateinterval=number
                 interval in seconds between scans for new or dropped inter-
                 faces.  This option takes an integer number as its argument.

                 Give the time in seconds between two scans for new or dropped
                 interfaces.  For systems with routing socket support the
                 scans will be performed shortly after the interface change
                 has been detected by the system.  Use 0 to disable scanning.
                 60 seconds is the minimum time between scans.

     --var=nvar  make ARG an ntp variable (RW).  This option may appear an
                 unlimited number of times.


     --dvar=ndvar
                 make ARG an ntp variable (RW|DEF).  This option may appear an
                 unlimited number of times.


     -w number, --wait-sync=number
                 Seconds to wait for first clock sync.  This option must not
                 appear in combination with any of the following options:
                 nofork, quit, saveconfigquit.  This option takes an integer
                 number as its argument.

                 If greater than zero, alters ntpd's behavior when forking to
                 daemonize.  Instead of exiting with status 0 immediately
                 after the fork, the parent waits up to the specified number
                 of seconds for the child to first synchronize the clock.  The
                 exit status is zero (success) if the clock was synchronized,
                 otherwise it is ETIMEDOUT.  This provides the option for a
                 script starting ntpd to easily wait for the first set of the
                 clock before proceeding.

     -x, --slew  Slew up to 600 seconds.

                 Normally, the time is slewed if the offset is less than the
                 step threshold, which is 128 ms by default, and stepped if
                 above the threshold.  This option sets the threshold to 600
                 s, which is well within the accuracy window to set the clock
                 manually.  Note: Since the slew rate of typical Unix kernels
                 is limited to 0.5 ms/s, each second of adjustment requires an
                 amortization interval of 2000 s.  Thus, an adjustment as much
                 as 600 s will take almost 14 days to complete.  This option
                 can be used with the -g and -q options.  See the tinker con-
                 figuration file directive for other options.  Note: The ker-
                 nel time discipline is disabled with this option.

     --usepcc    Use CPU cycle counter (Windows only).

                 Attempt to substitute the CPU counter for QueryPerformance-
                 Counter.  The CPU counter and QueryPerformanceCounter are
                 compared, and if they have the same frequency, the CPU
                 counter (RDTSC on x86) is used directly, saving the overhead
                 of a system call.

     --pccfreq=string
                 Force CPU cycle counter use (Windows only).

                 Force substitution the CPU counter for QueryPerformance-
                 Counter.  The CPU counter (RDTSC on x86) is used uncondition-
                 ally with the given frequency (in Hz).

     -m, --mdns  Register with mDNS as a NTP server.

                 Registers as an NTP server with the local mDNS server which
                 allows the server to be discovered via mDNS client lookup.

     -?, --help  Display usage information and exit.

     -!, --more-help
                 Pass the extended usage information through a pager.

     --version [{v|c|n}]
                 Output version of program and exit.  The default mode is `v',
                 a simple version.  The `c' mode will print copyright informa-
                 tion and `n' will print the full copyright notice.

OPTION PRESETS
     Any option that is not marked as not presettable may be preset by loading
     values from environment variables named:
       NTPD_<option-name> or NTPD
     cvt_prog='/usr/local/gnu/share/autogen/texi2mdoc'  cvt_prog=`cd  `dirname
     "$cvt_prog"` >/dev/null && pwd
              `/`basename "$cvt_prog"` cd $tmp_dir test -x "$cvt_prog" ||  die
     "'$cvt_prog' is not executable" {
         list='synopsis description options option-presets'
         for f in $list ; do cat $f ; echo ; done
         rm -f $list name
         list='implementation-notes  environment  files  examples  exit-status
     errors
             compatibility see-also conforming-to  history  authors  copyright
     bugs
             notes'
         for f in $list ; do cat $f ; echo ; done > .end-doc
         rm -f $list
         list=`ls -1 *`' .end-doc'
         for f in $list ; do cat $f ; echo ; done
         rm   -f   $list   }   1>.doc   2>/dev/null   sed   -f  .cmds  .doc  |
     /usr/local/gnu/bin/grep -E -v '^[      ]*$' | $cvt_prog

USAGE
   How NTP Operates
     The ntpd utility operates by exchanging messages with one or more config-
     ured servers over a range of designated poll intervals.  When started,
     whether for the first or subsequent times, the program requires several
     exchanges from the majority of these servers so the signal processing and
     mitigation algorithms can accumulate and groom the data and set the
     clock.  In order to protect the network from bursts, the initial poll
     interval for each server is delayed an interval randomized over a few
     seconds.  At the default initial poll interval of 64s, several minutes
     can elapse before the clock is set.  This initial delay to set the clock
     can be safely and dramatically reduced using the iburst keyword with the
     server configuration command, as described in ntp.conf(5).

     Most operating systems and hardware of today incorporate a time-of-year
     (TOY) chip to maintain the time during periods when the power is off.
     When the machine is booted, the chip is used to initialize the operating
     system time.  After the machine has synchronized to a NTP server, the
     operating system corrects the chip from time to time.  In the default
     case, if ntpd detects that the time on the host is more than 1000s from
     the server time, ntpd assumes something must be terribly wrong and the
     only reliable action is for the operator to intervene and set the clock
     by hand.  (Reasons for this include there is no TOY chip, or its battery
     is dead, or that the TOY chip is just of poor quality.)  This causes ntpd
     to exit with a panic message to the system log.  The -g option overrides
     this check and the clock will be set to the server time regardless of the
     chip time (up to 68 years in the past or future -- this is a limitation
     of the NTPv4 protocol).  However, and to protect against broken hardware,
     such as when the CMOS battery fails or the clock counter becomes defec-
     tive, once the clock has been set an error greater than 1000s will cause
     ntpd to exit anyway.

     Under ordinary conditions, ntpd adjusts the clock in small steps so that
     the timescale is effectively continuous and without discontinuities.
     Under conditions of extreme network congestion, the roundtrip delay jit-
     ter can exceed three seconds and the synchronization distance, which is
     equal to one-half the roundtrip delay plus error budget terms, can become
     very large.  The ntpd algorithms discard sample offsets exceeding 128 ms,
     unless the interval during which no sample offset is less than 128 ms
     exceeds 900s.  The first sample after that, no matter what the offset,
     steps the clock to the indicated time.  In practice this reduces the
     false alarm rate where the clock is stepped in error to a vanishingly low
     incidence.

     As the result of this behavior, once the clock has been set it very
     rarely strays more than 128 ms even under extreme cases of network path
     congestion and jitter.  Sometimes, in particular when ntpd is first
     started without a valid drift file on a system with a large intrinsic
     drift the error might grow to exceed 128 ms, which would cause the clock
     to be set backwards if the local clock time is more than 128 s in the
     future relative to the server.  In some applications, this behavior may
     be unacceptable.  There are several solutions, however.  If the -x option
     is included on the command line, the clock will never be stepped and only
     slew corrections will be used.  But this choice comes with a cost that
     should be carefully explored before deciding to use the -x option.  The
     maximum slew rate possible is limited to 500 parts-per-million (PPM) as a
     consequence of the correctness principles on which the NTP protocol and
     algorithm design are based.  As a result, the local clock can take a long
     time to converge to an acceptable offset, about 2,000 s for each second
     the clock is outside the acceptable range.  During this interval the
     local clock will not be consistent with any other network clock and the
     system cannot be used for distributed applications that require correctly
     synchronized network time.

     In spite of the above precautions, sometimes when large frequency errors
     are present the resulting time offsets stray outside the 128-ms range and
     an eventual step or slew time correction is required.  If following such
     a correction the frequency error is so large that the first sample is
     outside the acceptable range, ntpd enters the same state as when the
     ntp.drift file is not present.  The intent of this behavior is to quickly
     correct the frequency and restore operation to the normal tracking mode.
     In the most extreme cases (the host time.ien.it comes to mind), there may
     be occasional step/slew corrections and subsequent frequency corrections.
     It helps in these cases to use the burst keyword when configuring the
     server, but ONLY when you have permission to do so from the owner of the
     target host.

     Finally, in the past many startup scripts would run ntpdate(8) to get the
     system clock close to correct before starting ntpd(8), but this was never
     more than a mediocre hack and is no longer needed.

     There is a way to start ntpd(8) that often addresses all of the problems
     mentioned above.

   Starting NTP (Best Current Practice)
     First, use the iburst option on your server entries.

     If you can also keep a good ntp.drift file then ntpd(8) will effectively
     "warm-start" and your system's clock will be stable in under 11 seconds'
     time.

     As soon as possible in the startup sequence, start ntpd(8) with at least
     the -g and perhaps the -N options.  Then, start the rest of your "normal"
     processes.  This will give ntpd(8) as much time as possible to get the
     system's clock synchronized and stable.

     Finally, if you have processes like dovecot or database servers that
     require monotonically-increasing time, run ntp-wait(1ntp-waitmdoc) as
     late as possible in the boot sequence (perhaps with the -v flag) and
     after ntp-wait(1ntp-waitmdoc) exits successfully it is as safe as it will
     ever be to start any process that require stable time.

   Frequency Discipline
     The ntpd behavior at startup depends on whether the frequency file, usu-
     ally ntp.drift, exists.  This file contains the latest estimate of clock
     frequency error.  When the ntpd is started and the file does not exist,
     the ntpd enters a special mode designed to quickly adapt to the particu-
     lar system clock oscillator time and frequency error.  This takes approx-
     imately 15 minutes, after which the time and frequency are set to nominal
     values and the ntpd enters normal mode, where the time and frequency are
     continuously tracked relative to the server.  After one hour the fre-
     quency file is created and the current frequency offset written to it.
     When the ntpd is started and the file does exist, the ntpd frequency is
     initialized from the file and enters normal mode immediately.  After that
     the current frequency offset is written to the file at hourly intervals.

   Operating Modes
     The ntpd utility can operate in any of several modes, including symmetric
     active/passive, client/server broadcast/multicast and manycast, as
     described in the "Association Management" page (available as part of the
     HTML documentation provided in /usr/share/doc/ntp).  It normally operates
     continuously while monitoring for small changes in frequency and trimming
     the clock for the ultimate precision.  However, it can operate in a
     one-time mode where the time is set from an external server and frequency
     is set from a previously recorded frequency file.  A broadcast/multicast
     or manycast client can discover remote servers, compute server-client
     propagation delay correction factors and configure itself automatically.
     This makes it possible to deploy a fleet of workstations without specify-
     ing configuration details specific to the local environment.

     By default, ntpd runs in continuous mode where each of possibly several
     external servers is polled at intervals determined by an intricate state
     machine.  The state machine measures the incidental roundtrip delay jit-
     ter and oscillator frequency wander and determines the best poll interval
     using a heuristic algorithm.  Ordinarily, and in most operating environ-
     ments, the state machine will start with 64s intervals and eventually
     increase in steps to 1024s.  A small amount of random variation is intro-
     duced in order to avoid bunching at the servers.  In addition, should a
     server become unreachable for some time, the poll interval is increased
     in steps to 1024s in order to reduce network overhead.

     In some cases it may not be practical for ntpd to run continuously.  A
     common workaround has been to run the ntpdate(8) program from a cron(8)
     job at designated times.  However, this program does not have the crafted
     signal processing, error checking and mitigation algorithms of ntpd.  The
     -q option is intended for this purpose.  Setting this option will cause
     ntpd to exit just after setting the clock for the first time.  The proce-
     dure for initially setting the clock is the same as in continuous mode;
     most applications will probably want to specify the iburst keyword with
     the server configuration command.  With this keyword a volley of messages
     are exchanged to groom the data and the clock is set in about 10 s.  If
     nothing is heard after a couple of minutes, the daemon times out and
     exits.  After a suitable period of mourning, the ntpdate(8) program may
     be retired.

     When kernel support is available to discipline the clock frequency, which
     is the case for stock Solaris, Tru64, Linux and FreeBSD, a useful feature
     is available to discipline the clock frequency.  First, ntpd is run in
     continuous mode with selected servers in order to measure and record the
     intrinsic clock frequency offset in the frequency file.  It may take some
     hours for the frequency and offset to settle down.  Then the ntpd is
     stopped and run in one-time mode as required.  At each startup, the fre-
     quency is read from the file and initializes the kernel frequency.

   Poll Interval Control
     This version of NTP includes an intricate state machine to reduce the
     network load while maintaining a quality of synchronization consistent
     with the observed jitter and wander.  There are a number of ways to tai-
     lor the operation in order enhance accuracy by reducing the interval or
     to reduce network overhead by increasing it.  However, the user is
     advised to carefully consider the consequences of changing the poll
     adjustment range from the default minimum of 64 s to the default maximum
     of 1,024 s.  The default minimum can be changed with the tinker minpoll
     command to a value not less than 16 s.  This value is used for all con-
     figured associations, unless overridden by the minpoll option on the con-
     figuration command.  Note that most device drivers will not operate prop-
     erly if the poll interval is less than 64 s and that the broadcast server
     and manycast client associations will also use the default, unless over-
     ridden.

     In some cases involving dial up or toll services, it may be useful to
     increase the minimum interval to a few tens of minutes and maximum inter-
     val to a day or so.  Under normal operation conditions, once the clock
     discipline loop has stabilized the interval will be increased in steps
     from the minimum to the maximum.  However, this assumes the intrinsic
     clock frequency error is small enough for the discipline loop correct it.
     The capture range of the loop is 500 PPM at an interval of 64s decreasing
     by a factor of two for each doubling of interval.  At a minimum of 1,024
     s, for example, the capture range is only 31 PPM.  If the intrinsic error
     is greater than this, the drift file ntp.drift will have to be specially
     tailored to reduce the residual error below this limit.  Once this is
     done, the drift file is automatically updated once per hour and is avail-
     able to initialize the frequency on subsequent daemon restarts.

   The huff-n'-puff Filter
     In scenarios where a considerable amount of data are to be downloaded or
     uploaded over telephone modems, timekeeping quality can be seriously
     degraded.  This occurs because the differential delays on the two direc-
     tions of transmission can be quite large.  In many cases the apparent
     time errors are so large as to exceed the step threshold and a step cor-
     rection can occur during and after the data transfer is in progress.

     The huff-n'-puff filter is designed to correct the apparent time offset
     in these cases.  It depends on knowledge of the propagation delay when no
     other traffic is present.  In common scenarios this occurs during other
     than work hours.  The filter maintains a shift register that remembers
     the minimum delay over the most recent interval measured usually in
     hours.  Under conditions of severe delay, the filter corrects the appar-
     ent offset using the sign of the offset and the difference between the
     apparent delay and minimum delay.  The name of the filter reflects the
     negative (huff) and positive (puff) correction, which depends on the sign
     of the offset.

     The filter is activated by the tinker command and huffpuff keyword, as
     described in ntp.conf(5).

ENVIRONMENT
     See OPTION PRESETS for configuration environment variables.

FILES
     /etc/ntp.conf   the default name of the configuration file
     /etc/ntp.drift  the default name of the drift file
     /etc/ntp.keys   the default name of the key file

EXIT STATUS
     One of the following exit values will be returned:

     0  (EXIT_SUCCESS)
                   Successful program execution.

     1  (EXIT_FAILURE)
                   The operation failed or the command syntax was not valid.

     70  (EX_SOFTWARE)
                   libopts had an internal operational error.  Please report
                   it to autogen-users@lists.sourceforge.net.  Thank you.

SEE ALSO
     ntp.conf(5), ntpdate(8), ntpdc(8), ntpq(8)

     In addition to the manual pages provided, comprehensive documentation is
     available on the world wide web at http://www.ntp.org/.  A snapshot of
     this documentation is available in HTML format in /usr/share/doc/ntp.

     David L. Mills, Network Time Protocol (Version 1), RFC1059.

     David L. Mills, Network Time Protocol (Version 2), RFC1119.

     David L. Mills, Network Time Protocol (Version 3), RFC1305.

     David L. Mills, J. Martin, Ed., J. Burbank, and W. Kasch, Network Time
     Protocol Version 4: Protocol and Algorithms Specification, RFC5905.

     David L. Mills and B. Haberman, Ed., Network Time Protocol Version 4:
     Autokey Specification, RFC5906.

     H. Gerstung, C. Elliott, and B. Haberman, Ed., Definitions of Managed
     Objects for Network Time Protocol Version 4: (NTPv4), RFC5907.

     R. Gayraud and B. Lourdelet, Network Time Protocol (NTP) Server Option
     for DHCPv6, RFC5908.

AUTHORS
     The University of Delaware

COPYRIGHT
     Copyright (C) 1970-2013 The University of Delaware all rights reserved.
     This program is released under the terms of the NTP license,
     <http://ntp.org/license>.

BUGS
     The ntpd utility has gotten rather fat.  While not huge, it has gotten
     larger than might be desirable for an elevated-priority ntpd running on a
     workstation, particularly since many of the fancy features which consume
     the space were designed more with a busy primary server, rather than a
     high stratum workstation in mind.

     Please send bug reports to: http://bugs.ntp.org, bugs@ntp.org

NOTES
     This document corresponds to version 4.2.7p404 of NTP.  Portions of this
     document came from FreeBSD.

     This manual page was AutoGen-erated from the ntpd option definitions.

SunOS 5.10                     December 24 2013                     SunOS 5.10

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